The Polish–Soviet War was fought by the Second Polish Republic, the Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union over a region comparable to today's westernmost Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus. Russia sought to cross Poland in order to stimulate a Europe-wide communist revolution. Poland's Chief of State, Józef Piłsudski, felt the time was right to expand Polish borders as far east as feasible, to be followed by a Polish-led Intermarium federation of Central and Eastern European states, as a bulwark against the re-emergence of German and Russian imperialism. Vladimir Lenin saw Poland as the bridge the Red Army had to cross to assist other Communist movements and bring about more European revolutions. By 1919, Polish forces had taken control of much of Western Ukraine, emerging victorious from the Polish–Ukrainian War; the West Ukrainian People's Republic, led by Yevhen Petrushevych, had tried to create a Ukrainian state on territories to which both Poles and Ukrainians laid claim.
In the Russian part of Ukraine Symon Petliura tried to defend and strengthen the Ukrainian People's Republic but as the Bolsheviks began to win the Russian Civil War, they started to advance westward towards the disputed Ukrainian territories, causing Petliura's forces to retreat to Podolia. By the end of 1919, a clear front had formed. Border skirmishes escalated following Piłsudski's Kiev Offensive in April 1920; the Polish offensive was met by a successful Red Army counter-attack. The Soviet operation pushed the Polish forces back westward all the way to the Polish capital, while the Directorate of Ukraine fled to Western Europe. Western fears of Soviet troops arriving at the German frontiers increased the interest of Western powers in the war. In mid-summer, the fall of Warsaw seemed certain but in mid-August, the tide had turned again, as the Polish forces achieved an unexpected and decisive victory at the Battle of Warsaw. In the wake of the Polish advance eastward, the Soviets sued for peace and the war ended with a cease-fire on 18 October 1920.
The Peace of Riga was signed on 18 March 1921, dividing the disputed territories between Poland and Soviet Russia. The war determined the Soviet–Polish border for the Interbellum. Poland gained a territory of around 200 kilometers east of its former border, the Curzon Line, defined by an international commission after World War I. Much of the territory allocated to Poland in the Treaty of Riga became part of the Soviet Union after World War II, when the common border was re-defined by the Allied Powers in close accordance with the Curzon Line; the war is known by several names. "Polish–Soviet War" is the most common but other names include "Russo–Polish War of 1919–1921" and "Polish–Bolshevik War". This second term is most common in Polish sources. In some Polish sources it is referred as the "War of 1920". There is disagreement over the dates of the war; the Encyclopædia Britannica begins its article with the date range 1919–1920 but states, "Although there had been hostilities between the two countries during 1919, the conflict began when the Polish head of state Józef Pilsudski formed an alliance with the Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petlyura and their combined forces began to overrun Ukraine, occupying Kiev on 7 May."
The Polish encyclopaedia Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, as well as Western historians such as Norman Davies, consider 1919 the starting year of the war. The ending date is given as either 1920 or 1921. While the events of 1919 can be described as a border conflict, only in early 1920 did both sides engage in all-out war, the conflicts that took place in 1920 were an inevitable escalation of fighting that began in earnest a year earlier. In the end, the events of 1920 were a logical, though unforeseen, consequence of the 1919 prelude; the war's main territories of contention lie in present-day Belarus. After a period of internecine wars and the Mongolian invasion of 1240, these lands became objects of expansion for the Kingdom of Poland and for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the first half of the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Kiev and land between the Dnieper and Daugava rivers became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1352 Poland and Lithuania divided the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between themselves.
In 1569, in accordance with the terms of the Union of Lublin between Poland and Lithuania, some of the Ukrainian lands passed to the Polish Crown. Between 1772 and 1795, much of the Eastern Slavic territories became part of the Russian Empire in the course of the Partitions of Poland. After the Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815, much of the territory of the Duchy of Warsaw transferred into Russian control. After young Poles refused to be conscripted into the Imperial Russian Army during the uprising in Poland in 1863, Tsar Alexander II stripped Poland of its separate constitution, forced Russian to be the only language spoken, took away vast tracts of land from Poles, incorporated Poland directly into Russia by dividing it into ten provinces, each with an appointed Russian military governor and all under complete control of the Russian Governor-General at Warsaw; as World War I ended, the map of Central and Eastern Europe changed drastically. Germany's defeat rendered B
Mishka Henner is a Belgian artist living and working in Manchester, England. His work has featured in several surveys of contemporary artists working with photography in the internet age, he has been described by some as a modern-day Duchamp for his appropriation of image-rich technologies including Google Earth, Google Street View, YouTube, for his adoption of print-on-demand as a means to bypass traditional publishing models. Henner studied Sociology at Goldsmiths College. On leaving Goldsmiths, he remained in London for a number of years and in 2003 visited "Cruel and Tender" at Tate Modern, a survey of documentary photography, which he described as life-changing. Between 2004 and 2010, he worked with long-time collaborator Liz Lock, a photographer from Toronto, Canada, on documentary projects in and around London and the North West of England and on portrait and feature commissions for a number of British broadsheets including The Independent and Financial Times. In 2008, Lock and Henner joined Panos Pictures becoming Profile photographers for the agency in 2010.
They left the agency in the summer of 2012. Between 2010 and 2015, Henner's work was characterized by an engagement with the nature of photography in the post-Internet age. Many of his works resulted in print-on-demand books and installations that featured in large-scale museum surveys in France and the US. In the jury report of the Kleine Hans award of 2012, Hans Aarsman, Hans Eijkelboom, Hans van de Meer, Hans Wolf and Hans Samson described Henner's work in the following manner: A new approach to photography is seeing the light - photographers without cameras; the need to press the shutter is replaced by a direct interest in images - not in making images. These photographers make books with photographs they find and sometimes they mix them with photographs they take. In this rising flock Mishka Henner is the trailblazer. Writing in a New York Times feature on the artist in 2015, the author and critic Philip Gefter wrote, "He is one of a growing number of artists making savvy use of the surveillance capabilities of satellite imaging and Google Street View in work that reflects the way the Internet age has altered our visual experience."
In the same article, the Museum of Modern Art's Chief Curator of Photography Quentin Bajac is quoted as saying, "His work is at the crossroads of many different genres or practices part of a strategy of neo-appropriation that you find in contemporary photography today with the Internet.” In February 2010, Henner released Photography Is, presenting “more than 3,000 phrases that define one of the most democratic and ubiquitous of all art forms. Mirroring the ambiguous and untrustworthy nature of photographs themselves, each phrase in this book has been torn from the context in which it appeared; the result is contradictory and chaotic and insightful. In short, it is photography, without photographs.”. Reviewing the work in Fotokritik in March 2010, the German artist Joachim Schmid wrote, “The sheer volume and diversity of quotes are a great reflection of photography itself: sometimes intelligent, sometimes stupid, sometimes simple, sometimes complicated, funny, romantic – as diverse and contradictory as the people who utter them.".
In 2015, an installation of Photography Is featured in the Qu'est-ce que la photographie exhibition curated by Clement Chéroux and Karolina Ziebinska-Lewandowska at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. In the accompanying catalogue published by the Centre Georges Pompidou and Éditions Xavier Barral, the curators wrote that Henner's work inspired the exhibition: "C'est probablement Mishka Henner qui a mieux mis en évidence le caractère pléthorique des réponses suscitées par la question <<Qu'est-ce que la photographie?>> En 2010, cet artiste, né en 1976, et qui, depuis près d'une décennie, explore les potentialites créatives de l'Internet, entrait le segment de phrase <<Photography is>> dans un moteur de rechereche afin de recueillir ses multiples occurances sur la toile. Le résultat est un livre d'artiste de 192 pages réunissant plus de trois mille réponses a la question ontologique - sur les trois millions et quelque générées par l'interface Le présent projet s'inspire, a sa manière, du livre de Henner.""The surplus of responses elicited by the question "What is photography?" is best expressed by Mishka Henner.
In 2010, the artist born in 1976 who has spent close to a decade exploring the creative potential of the internet, entered the phrase "Photography is" into a search engine and collected all responses. The result is an artist's book of 192 pages containing more than 3,000 phrases responding to the ontological question In a way, the present project is inspired by Henner's book."In February 2016, the International Center of Photography in New York announced a site-specific installation of Henner's Photography Is. Spanning nearly 70 feet, text from the book was placed across the construction shed during the building of the ICP's new museum space on the Bowery until its opening in June 2015. Passers-by were invited to participate in an interactive experience via a live Twitter feed, contributing their own definitions and opinions on what photography is; the museum described Photography Is as "a poetic and thought-provoking meditation on how the subject is discussed throughout our culture." In 2010, Henner published Fifty-One US Military Outposts and described it in the following manner: "Overt and covert military outposts used by the United States in fifty-one different countries across the world.
Sites located and gathered from information available in the public domain, official US military and veterans' websites
"Ève lève-toi" is a pop single recorded by French Julie Pietri from her third album Le Premier Jour, was released in August 1986. It can be considered as her signature song, it achieved success in France where it topped the SNEP Singles Chart and became a popular song throughout the years. This female anthem was written by Jean-Michel Bériat; the music is composed by Vincent-Marie Bouvot. The originality of this song resides in the melody, at times Arabist; the videoclip was filmed in Tunisia. In 1986, an English version was released under the name "Listen to Your Heart". Three other versions were recorded thereafter: one more acoustic version on album Féminin singulière in 1995, another version with dance sonorities for European compilation Euro Pride 2000 and, more a jazzy version as a bonus track on the album Autour de minuit in 2007. About the song, Elia Habib, a specialist of French chart, explains: "The atmosphere built by the song is that of an Eastern Eden, scene of the Origins; the melody and the orchestration refer to the undulating play of a bewitching flute.
The scenery is set, the text completes it, with short verses without verb: desire, original sin, vague recollections... The chorus appeals to the celebration of the life while the second verse the contemporary woman and underlines its multiplicity." In France, the single started at #48 on 9 September 1986 climbed every week and reached number one in its 13th week. It remained on the chart for 27 weeks, 16 of them spent in the top ten, it was certified Gold disc by the SNEP. According to Infodisc Website, the song is the 193rd best-selling single of all time in France, with about 790,000 copies sold. In 2002, the song was covered by French contestants of Star Academy 2 Emma Daumas and Anne-Laure Sibon for the album Star Academy fait sa boum. French singer Leslie covered the song for her 2007 album 80 souvenirs; these are the formats of track listings of the releases of "Ève lève-toi"