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Polish resistance movement in World War II

The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance movement in all of occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation. The Polish resistance is most notable for disrupting German supply lines to the Eastern Front, providing military intelligence to the British, for saving more Jewish lives in the Holocaust than any other Western Allied organization or government, it was a part of the Polish Underground State. The largest of all Polish resistance organizations was the Armia Krajowa, loyal to the Polish government in exile in London; the AK was formed in 1942 from the Union for Armed Combat and would incorporate most other Polish armed resistance groups. It was the military arm of the Polish Underground State and loyal to the Polish government in Exile. Most of the other Polish underground armed organizations were created by a political party or faction, included: The Bataliony Chłopskie. Created by the leftist People's Party around 1940–1941, it would merge with AK around 1942–1943.

The Gwardia Ludowa WRN of Polish Socialist Party The Konfederacja Narodu. Created in 1940 by far-right Obóz Narodowo Radykalny-Falanga, it would merge with ZWZ around 1941 and join AK around fall 1943. The Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa, established by the National Party in 1939 integrated with AK around 1942. Narodowe Siły Zbrojne; the Obóz Polski Walczącej, established by the Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego around 1942, subordinated to AK. in 1943. The largest groups that refused to join the AK were the National Armed Forces and the pro-Soviet and communist People's Army, backed by the Soviet Union and established by the Polish Workers' Party. "Within the framework of the entire enemy intelligence operations directed against Germany, the intelligence service of the Polish resistance movement assumed major significance. The scope and importance of the operations of the Polish resistance movement, ramified down to the smallest splinter group and brilliantly organized, have been in disclosed in connection with carrying out of major police security operations."

Heinrich Himmler, 31 December 1942 In February 1942, when AK was formed, it numbered about 100,000 members. In the beginning of 1943, it had reached a strength of about 200,000. In the summer of 1944 when Operation Tempest began, AK reached its highest membership numbers, though the estimates vary from 300,000 to 500,000; the strength of the second largest resistance organization, Bataliony Chłopskie, can be estimated for summer 1944 at about 160,000 men. The third largest group include NSZ with 70,000 men around 1943-1944. At its height in 1944, the communist Armia Ludowa, which never merged with AK, numbered about 30,000 people. One estimate for the summer 1944 strength of AK and its allies, including NSZ, gives its strength at 650,000. Overall, the Polish resistance have been described as the largest or one of the largest resistance organizations in World War II Europe. On 9 November 1939, two soldiers of the Polish army—Witold Pilecki and Major Jan Włodarkiewicz—founded the Secret Polish Army, one of the first underground organizations in Poland after defeat.

Pilecki became its organizational commander as TAP expanded to cover not only Warsaw but Siedlce, Radom and other major cities of central Poland. By 1940, TAP had 8,000 men, some 20 machine guns and several anti-tank rifles; the organization was incorporated into the Union for Armed Struggle renamed and better known as the Home Army. In March 1940, a partisan unit of the first guerrilla commanders in the Second World War in Europe under Major Henryk Dobrzański "Hubal" destroyed a battalion of German infantry in a skirmish near the village of Huciska. A few days in an ambush near the village of Szałasy it inflicted heavy casualties upon another German unit. To counter this threat the German authorities formed a special 1,000 men strong counter-insurgency unit of combined SS–Wehrmacht forces, including a Panzer group. Although the unit of Major Dobrzański never exceeded 300 men, the Germans fielded at least 8,000 men in the area to secure it. In 1940, Witold Pilecki, an intelligence officer for the Polish resistance, presented to his superiors a plan to enter Germany's Auschwitz concentration camp, gather intelligence on the camp from the inside, organize inmate resistance.

The Home Army approved this plan, provided him a false identity card, on 19 September 1940, he deliberately went out during a street roundup in Warsaw and was caught by the Germans along with other civilians and sent to Auschwitz. In the camp he organized the underground organization -Związek Organizacji Wojskowej - ZOW. From October 1940, ZOW sent its first report about the camp and the genocide in November 1940 to Home Army Headquarters in Warsaw through the resistance network organized in Auschwitz. During the night of 21–22 January 1940, in the Soviet-occupied Podolian

Small Victories

"Small Victories" is the first episode from season four of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. Penned by Robert C. Cooper and directed by Martin Wood, the episode first aired on the American subscription channel Showtime on June 30, 2000. "Small Victories" resumes the story of the season 3 finale, "Nemesis", in which the SG-1 team encountered the Replicators for the first time. As the Replicators threaten Earth and the Asgard home galaxy, the team must split to master their job. "Small Victories" was another visual effects milestone for the series. The Replicators and the Asgard character Thor were computer-animated for parts of the episode; some scenes were filmed outside of a Russian Foxtrot class submarine. "Small Victories" was nominated for Best Special Effects in 2001 for an Emmy, a Gemini Award and a Leo Award. Confident that the destruction of Thor's starship has ended the Replicator threat to Earth, the SG-1 team returns home through the second Stargate, put up at Stargate Command.

Shortly after they learn that a Russian Foxtrot class submarine has been hijacked by creatures whose descriptions match the Replicators, Thor arrives at Stargate Command and asks SG-1 for help against the Replicators in the Asgard galaxy. As Colonel O'Neill, Daniel Jackson and Teal'c go to deal with the hijacked submarine, Major Carter goes with Thor. O'Neill and Teal'c try to obtain intelligence on the little self-replicating robotic invaders in the submarine, but they are forced to fall back. With Daniel's new theory that the Replicators are made up of the same materials they consume, the Replicators may be eliminated through sinking the iron submarine as long as the surviving Replicator from Thor's advanced ship is destroyed beforehand. Meanwhile, Carter witnesses a short battle against the Replicators in the Asgard galaxy during which five Asgard ships are lost. Carter notices the Replicators' attraction to new technology and proposes to use the O'Neill, an incomplete Asgard ship designed to fight the Replicators, as a lure to draw the Replicators into hyperspace and destroy them in the O'Neill's self-destruct.

Thor accepts the plan, the Replicators take the bait and are destroyed. Back on Earth, O'Neill and Teal'c penetrate the submarine and find and destroy the original Replicator; when the other Replicators take full control of the submarine, O'Neill orders the forces outside to destroy the submarine and prepares for the end, but Thor beams the team onto his ship before the explosion occurs. With the imminent Replicator threat over, Thor promises that when the Asgard defeat the Replicators, he will come to assist Earth in the war against the Goa'uld. Visual effects supervisor James Tichenor approached producer Robert C. Cooper after the completion of the season 3 finale, "Nemesis", stated his confidence in his team's ability to create effects for a water-based episode. By that time, Cooper had written the outline of "Small Victories" as the season 4 opener. "Small Victories" resumes the cliffhanger ending of "Nemesis" and alludes to events of that episode several times. The episode begins aboard a Russian submarine where one Russian says in his mother tongue that the noise in the torpedo tube might be caused by "one of the bugs from the other episode", an in-joke that the producers intentionally left without subtitles.

Daniel Jackson's appendicitis attack from "Nemesis" is picked up, based on Michael Shanks' real-life appendicitis attack during the filming of the penultimate season 3 episode. "Small Victories" continues building the relationship of O'Neill and Carter in mirroring a similar scene from "Nemesis". However, Christopher Judge, who in previous seasons sported a bald-shaven head as the alien Teal'c, returned to the set with a small blond chin beard after the hiatus, as the producers had not allowed his character to have scalp hair. Judge shaved off the beard several episodes after acknowledging its look as silly; the official Showtime website caused some confusion by listing Jay Acovone as a guest-star in this episode, which turned out to be untrue. "Small Victories" was filmed over the course of seven days like most SG-1 episodes. After the first three seasons of Stargate SG-1 had been filmed on 16 mm film, "Nemesis" was filmed on 35 mm film as a test run, season 4 switched to the new gauge for all filming purposes.

Martin Wood directed "Small Victories" and made a short cameo appearance with Sergeant Siler in an SGC corridor. Andy Mikita served as the second unit director and filmed the coverage of the practical Thor puppet after Amanda Tapping's coverage had been shot. Michael Shanks, who provided the voice of Thor in post-production ADR, read some of Thor's lines for Tapping on-set; the top lip of the Thor puppet, visibly broken during the filming, proved a challenge. One anecdotal blooper moment that Amanda Tapping tells at conventions and which producer Joseph Mallozzi named one of his favorites in the first five years of Stargate SG-1, is that of the puppeteers raising Thor's hand to touch Tapping's behind during filming. Tapping instinctively slapped the expensive prop she kneeled down and apologized to the puppet in all seriousness before realizing the silliness of her reaction."Small Victories" is split into two parallel storylines, several space shots of the B story onboard Thor's spaceship were cut at the script stage to allot more money to the A story submarine scenes.

"Small Victories" was written to set on a fishing trawler until the producers got access

William Deedes senior

William Deedes was an English cricketer who played first-class cricket from 1817 to 1826, a Conservative Party politician. Deedes made his debut first-class appearance in 1817 for the Old Wykehamists. Playing no further first-class cricket until 1821, he played for various Marylebone Cricket Club sides over the next four years. Deedes made his county cricket debut playing for Hampshire against Sussex and was dismissed by Jem Broadbridge in each innings. Now 29 years of age, he was to play just two further first-class matches within the following calendar year, his final first-class appearance coming as a tailender in a combined Hampshire and Surrey team against Sussex in 1826, he took two catches in the match. Deedes' brother and son William played first-class cricket. Deedes was elected to House of Commons as a Member of Parliament for East Kent at an unopposed by-election March 1845, he was re-elected unopposed in 1847 in a contested election in 1852 general election, but was defeated at the general election in April 1857.

However, Sir Edward Dering, a Liberal who won one of East Kent's two seats in 1852, resigned from the House of Commons on 1 December 1857, Deedes was elected unopposed at the resulting by-election. He was returned unopposed in 1859, held the seat until his death in 1862 aged 66. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "K" Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Deedes