American comic book
An American comic book is a thin periodical originating in the United States 32 pages, containing comics content. While the form originated in 1933, American comic books first gained popularity after the 1938 publication of Action Comics, which included the debut of the superhero Superman; this was followed by a superhero boom that lasted until the end of World War II. After the war, while superheroes were marginalized, the comic book industry expanded and genres such as horror, science fiction and romance became popular; the 1950s saw a gradual decline, due to a shift away from print media in the wake of television and the impact of the Comics Code Authority. The late 1950s and the 1960s saw a superhero revival and superheroes remain the dominant character archetype in the 21st century; some fans collect comic books. Some have sold for more than US $1 million. Comic shops cater to fans, selling comic books, plastic sleeves and cardboard backing to protect the comic books. An American comic book is known as a floppy comic.
It is thin and stapled, unlike traditional books. American comic books are one of the three major comic book schools globally, along with Japanese manga and the Franco-Belgian comic books; the typical size and page count of comics have varied over the decades trending toward smaller formats and fewer pages. In recent decades, standard comics have been about 6.625 inches × 10.25 inches, 32 pages long. While comics can be the work of a single creator, the labor of making them is divided between a number of specialists. There may be a separate writer and artist, or there may be separate artists for the characters and backgrounds. In superhero comic books, the art may be divided between: a writer, who creates the stories. A penciller, who lays out the artwork in pencil. An inker, who finishes the artwork in ink. A colorist, who adds color to the comics a letterer, who adds the captions and speech balloons; the process begins with the creator coming up with an idea or concept working it into a plot and story, finalizing the preliminary writing with a script.
After the art production, letters are placed on the page and an editor may have the final say before the comic is sent to the printer. The creative team, the writers and artists, may work with a comic book publisher for help with marketing and other logistics. A distributor like Diamond Comic Distributors, the largest in the U. S. helps to distribute the finished product to retailers. Another part of the process involved in successful comics is the interaction between the readers/fans and the creator. Fan art and letters to the editor were printed in the back of the book until the early 21st century when various Internet forms started to replace them. Comic specialty stores did help encourage several waves of independently-produced comics, beginning in the mid-1970s; some of the early example of these - referred to as "independent" or "alternative" comics - such as Big Apple Comix, continued somewhat in the tradition of underground comics, while others, such as Star Reach, resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artist.
The "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify, with a number of small publishers in the 1990s changing the format and distribution of their books to more resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an more limited audience than the small presses; the development of the modern American comic book happened in stages. Publishers had collected comic strips in hardcover book form as early as 1842, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, a collection of English-language newspaper inserts published in Europe as the 1837 book Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer; the G. W. Dillingham Company published the first known proto-comic-book magazine in the U. S; the Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats, in 1897. A hardcover book, it reprinted material—primarily the October 18, 1896 to January 10, 1897 sequence titled "McFadden's Row of Flats"—from cartoonist Richard F. Outcault's newspaper comic strip Hogan's Alley, starring the Yellow Kid.
The 196-page, square-bound, black-and-white publication, which includes introductory text by E. W. Townsend, measured 5×7 inches and sold for 50 cents; the neologism "comic book" appears on the back cover. Despite the publication of a series of related Hearst comics soon afterward, the first monthly proto-comic book, Embee Distributing Company's Comic Monthly, did not appear until 1922. Produced in an 8½-by-9-inch format, it reprinted black-and-white newspaper comic strips and lasted a year. In 1929, Dell Publishing published The Funnies, described by the Library of Congress as "a short-lived newspaper tabloid insert" and not to be confused with Dell's 1936 comic-book series of the same name. Historian Ron Goulart describes the 16-page, four-color periodical as "more a Sunday comic section without the rest of the newspaper than a true comic book, but it did offer all original material and was sold on newsstands". The Funnies ran for 36 issues, published Saturdays through October 16, 1930. In 1933, salesperson Maxwell Gaines, sales manager Harry I.
Wildenberg, owner George Janosik of the Waterbury, Connecticut company Eastern Color Printing—which printed, among other things, Sunday-paper comic-strip sections – produced Funnies on Parade as a way to keep their presses running. Like The Funnies, but only eight pages, this appeared as a newsprint magazine
Photo comics are a form of sequential storytelling that uses photographs rather than illustrations for the images, along with the usual comics conventions of narrative text and word balloons containing dialogue. They are sometimes referred to in English as fumetti and similar terms; the photographs posed dolls or other toys on sets. Although far less common than illustrated comics, photo comics have filled certain niches in various places and times. For example, they have been used to adapt popular film and television works into print, tell original melodramas, provide medical education. Photo comics have been popular at times in Italy and Latin America, to a lesser extent in English-speaking countries; the terminology used to describe photo comics is somewhat idiosyncratic. Fumetti is an Italian word; because of the popularity of photo comics in Italy, fumetti became a loanword in English referring to that technique. By extension, comics which use a mixture of photographic and illustrated imagery have been described as mezzo-fumetti.
Meanwhile, the Spanish term fotonovela – referring to popular photo-comics melodramas in Latin America – was adapted in English as fotonovel or photonovel, came to be associated with film and television adaptations, which were marketed using those terms. Variations such as "photo funnies" and "photostories" have been used. In Italian, a photo comic is referred to as a fotoromanzo. In Spanish-speaking countries, the term fotonovela refers to several genres of photo comics, including original melodramas. Photo comics expanded into the 1950s; the lurid Italian crime photo comic Killing ran from 1966 through 1969, was reprinted in other countries. The technique spread to Latin America, first adapting popular films for original stories. By the 1960s, there were about two dozen fotonovela movie adaptations circulating in Latin America and nearly three times as many original works, they remained popular in Mexico into the late 1980s, when 70 million copies of fotonovelas were printed each month. Photo comics first became successful in the United States and Canada with Harvey Kurtzman's Help! magazine, which ran humorous photo stories from 1960 to 1965.
Similar "Foto Funnies" – featuring female nudity – were a regular feature of National Lampoon magazine beginning in the early 1970s. During the 1970s lines of American paperback books were marketed as "Fotonovels" and "Photostories", adapting popular films and television shows. Although home video supplanted this market in the 1980s, a small number of photo comic adaptations continued to be produced as promotional tie-ins to the original work. Photo comics were common in British magazines such as Jackie in the 1980s, a few are still published. There are a number of photo newspaper strips in the UK and the form was popular in girls comics in the 1980s. Boys comics of the early 1980s such as Load Runner and the relaunched Eagle experimented with photo comics but without much success. Online series such as Night Zero, A Softer World, Alien Loves Predator are more recent examples of photo comics. In 2007, the Web Cartoonist's Choice Awards gave the first award for "Outstanding Photographic Comic".
In 2010 and 2011 the bilingual photo comic Union of Heroes was nominated for the "Web-Sonderman"-Awards for the best German webcomic. In the 2010s, cartoonist John Byrne – inspired by 1970s photo-comics adaptations of Star Trek episodes – produced a series of "photonovel adventures" which combined stills from the series with original digitally-rendered background illustrations and new dialog, to produce new stories featuring the characters. Software applications such as Comic Life, Comic Strip It, Strip Designer, which allow users to add word balloons and sound effects to their personal photos and incorporate them into storytelling layouts, have revived some interest in the medium. In the United States, one of the common uses of photo comics has been TV and film adaptations abridged for length. Still frames from the film or video are reproduced in simple grids but sometimes with creative layouts and cropping, overlaid with balloons with abbreviated dialogue from the screenplays, they are a cost-effective way to adapt films and TV series into comics without the expense of commissioning illustrations, were a way for consumers to revisit motion-picture stories before the widespread availability of affordable home recording and video playback equipment such as VCRs.
The widespread familiarity of fotonovelas in Spanish-language culture makes photo comics an effective vehicle for health promotion and health education. Since the small pamphlets can be traded among individuals, they possess an element of portability that traditional materials lack. Both health and non-health entities have utilized the fotonovela as informational pamphlets; the fotonovelas produced by these organizations present information in a variety of illustrated forms but contain a summation of key points at the end. Health educators have utilized the fotonovela because the medium overcomes issues of health literacy, the degree to which individuals can obtain and understand basic health information to make appropriate health decisions, in their target audience. Most providers believe that health education materials designed for patients w
Dutch comics are comics made in the Netherlands. In Dutch the most common designation for the whole art form is "strip", whereas the word "comic" is used for the soft cover American style comic book format and its derivatives containing translated US superhero material; this use of the in colloquial Dutch adopted English word for that format can cause confusion in English language texts. Since the Netherlands share the same language with Flanders, many Belgian comics and Franco-Belgian comics have been published there, the latter in translation, but while French language publications are habitually translated into Dutch/Flemish, the opposite is not true: Dutch/Flemish publications are less translated into French due to the different cultures in Flanders/Netherlands and France/French Belgium. And though available, Flemish comic books are not doing that well in the Netherlands and vice versa, save for some notable exceptions the Willy Vandersteen creation Suske en Wiske, as popular in the Netherlands as it is in native Flanders.
Concurrently, the cultural idiosyncrasies contained within Dutch/Flemish comics means that these comics have seen far less translations into other languages – excepting French to some extent, due to the bi-lingual nature of Belgium – than their French-language counterparts have. Dutch comics, like many European comics, have their prototypical forerunners in the form of medieval manuscripts, which used sequential pictures accompanied by text, or sometimes used speech balloons for captions; the "mannekesprenten" are an early forerunner depicting the lives of Christian saints or fables. In the 19th century several Dutch political cartoonists made use of sequential pictures and humoristic situations that can be seen as the predecessors of comics. In 1858 the Swiss comic strip Monsieur Cryptogame by Rodolphe Töpffer was translated in Dutch by J. J. A. Gouverneur as Meester Prikkebeen and was a huge success in the Netherlands, it was published with written text published underneath the pictures. This type of comics would remain the dominant form in the Netherlands until the mid-1960s, because Dutch moral guardians felt that these comics at least motivated children to read written sentences instead of looking at the pictures.
While translations of comic strips remained popular no actual Dutch comics artists emerged until the late 19th century. One of the earliest artists to be considered a comic artist was Jan Linse, he wrote the text beneath the pictures. Another pioneer was Daniël Hoeksema, who drew a spin-off series inspired by Monsieur Cryptogame called De Neef van Prikkebeen However, most Dutch comics during the 1880s, 1890s, 1900s and 1910s were satirical illustrations and cartoons about Dutch politics and society or moralistic stories for the youth; the first proper Dutch comic strips were published after World War One. Many Dutch newspapers and magazines now imported translations of popular American and French comics, such as The Katzenjammer Kids, Rupert Bear and the Rinkydinks, Mickey Mouse and Billy Bimbo and Peter Porker which were all immediate successes; as a result, Dutch newspapers started hiring Dutch artists to create comic strips of their own. Among the most notable were Yoebje en Achmed and Tripje en Liezebertha by Henk Backer,Bulletje en Boonestaak by Dutch writer A. M. de Jong and artist George van Raemdonck – of Flemish descent and an ex-pat refugee from war-torn Belgium, considered to be the first Flemish comic artist though he created his comic in the Netherlands – and Snuffelgraag en Knagelijntje by Gerrit Th.
Rotman and Arie Pleysier. Of all these comics Bulletje en Boonestaak had the most success in translations, becoming the first Dutch comic to see translations into German and French. At the same time it caused outrage among moral guardians because of anti-authoritian behaviour, frequent nudity and gross-out humor, such as vomiting. Backer's Tripje and Liezebertha was popular enough to inspire a lot of merchandising; the early example of a Dutch comics magazine was Kleuterblaadje published in 1915 and had a weekly comic strip translations and plagiarism from foreign language magazines. Many children's magazines began to devote one or more of their page to comics, but the first actual full-fledged Dutch comics magazine was published in 1922: Het Dubbeltje, it only lasted two-and-a-half years, but other more successful ones followed in its wake, such as Doe Mee, Olijk en Vrolijk The 1930s saw P. Koenen's "De Lotgevallen van Pijpje Drop" ("The Adventures of Pijpje Drop", "Flipje" by Harmsen van der Beek and Gijsje Goochem by Jac Grosman.
In 1932 Frans Piët created a newspaper comic strip called Wo-Wang en Simmy, a predecessor to his more successful series Sjors en Sjimmie. Piët based his character Sjors directly on Perry from the Rinkydinks. Sjors inspired a comics magazine of his own in 1936. Another influential Dutch comics artist who made his debut in 1934 was Marten Toonder, he created a comic strip called "Thijs IJ
Belgian comics are a distinct subgroup in the comics history, played a major role in the development of European comics, alongside France with whom they share a long common history. While the comics in the two major language groups and regions of Belgium each have distinct characteristics, they are influencing one another, meeting each other in Brussels and in the bilingual publication tradition of the major editors; as one of the few arts where Belgium has had an international and enduring impact in the 20th century, comics are known to be "an integral part of Belgian culture". The first large-scale production of comics in Belgium started in the second half of the 1920s. Earlier, illustrated youth pages were still similar to the Images d'Épinal and the Flemish equivalent, the Mannekensbladen; the comics that were available came from France and were available in parts of Belgium where the French language dominated. The most popular were La Semaine de Suzette, L'Épatant and Le bon point illustré.
French authors like Marijac contributed to Belgian magazines as well. The 1920s saw the formation of many new youth magazines, some independent like the bilingual Zonneland / Petits Belges from Catholic publishers Altiora Averbode or scout magazines like Le Boy-Scout Belge, where Hergé debuted; the most famous of these was Le Petit Vingtième, the weekly youth supplement to the Catholic newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle. Founded in 1928, it employed the young artist Georges Remi as main contributor. Remi, better known as Hergé, launched in January 1929 a new series for the supplement: The Adventures of Tintin. Influenced by the work of French comics authors Alain Saint-Ogan and Pinchon and the American George McManus, Hergé soon developed his own style. Tintin soon became popular, sales of the newspaper quadrupled on Thursdays, when the supplement was included, it would become the prototype for many Belgian comics to come, in style, appearance rhythm, use of speech balloons, the method of using a first appearance in a magazine or newspaper and subsequent albums.
While Tintin was popular, it would take a decade before the next successful comics magazine would appear. In the meantime, an increasing number of youth magazines would publish some pages with comics influenced by Tintin. George Van Raemdonck, the first major Flemish comics artist, worked exclusively in the Netherlands until after World War II. Still, he influenced some of the earliest pre-war Flemish artists like Jan Waterschoot and Buth, as a newspaper artist with a daily comic strip, he paved the way for the typical publishing method of the Flemish comics when compared to the prevalent Walloon magazine publications. More situated in the classic arts than in the mainstream comics publishing was Frans Masereel, a Flemish wood engraver whose 1926 "Passionate Journey", a wordless story told in 165 woodcuts, is sometimes considered as the first graphic novel. In the second half of the 1930s, most Walloon youth magazines made room for one or more comics by local artists. Examples are Jijé in Le Croisé in 1936 and in Petits Belges in 1939, François Gianolla in Jeunesse Ouvrière, Sirius in Le Patriote Illustré.
Dupuis, a publisher based in Marcinelle near Charleroi, was having success with its two family magazines Le Moustique and Bonnes Soirées. Charles Dupuis, son of the CEO, decided to start a youth magazine centred around Spirou, it debuted on April 21, 1938. French artist Robert Velter, a former assistant of Martin Branner, was asked to create the title series, the rest of the magazine was filled with popular American comics such as Superman. 8 months in an unusual move, the magazine was published in Dutch under the name Robbedoes. This would have a profound influence on the development of the Flemish comics and assured that Belgian comics would have a large part of their development in common. In 1939, Jijé joined the magazine, he worked there until his death in 1980, was the driving force of the magazine during and directly after the war. He was responsible for its expansion and success in the next decades, was as the inspirator for the generation of comics artists in the 1940s and 1950s, known as the Marcinelle school.
Apart from Hergé, Jijé's main inspiration came from American artists such as Milton Caniff and Noel Sickles. Some Flemish magazines started producing more modern local comics as well, with works by established artists like Frans Van Immerseel in Zonneland and the expressionist painter Frits Van den Berghe in Bravo, or new names like Jan Waterschoot in Zonneland or Eugeen Hermans in Ons Volkske, a weekly newspaper supplement inspired by Le Petit Vingtième; the most important comics writer for Bravo and Zonneland was John Flanders, who would continue to provide stories for the Flemish magazines until the 1960s. During the war, many magazines had to stop publication or scale back their activities due to paper shortage and the limitations imposed by the German occupiers. Le Petit Vingtième was dissolved after the German invasion, Hergé started working for the collaborating newspaper Le Soir, where he had to change from a weekly double page of Tintin to a daily strip. Paper shortage forced him to reduce the number of pages per album from the previous 120 to 62.
To compensate for this, the editor Casterman decided to start publishing the albums in colour instead of black and white. This became the post-war standard for all albums by the W
Comics studies is an academic field that focuses on comics and sequential art. Although comics and graphic novels have been dismissed as less relevant pop culture texts, scholars in fields such as semiotics, composition studies and cultural studies are now re-considering comics and graphic novels as complex texts deserving of serious scholarly study. Not to be confused with the technical aspects of comics creation, comics studies exists only with the creation of comics theory—which approaches comics critically as an art—and the writing of comics historiography. Comics theory has significant overlap with the philosophy of comics, i.e. the study of the ontology and aesthetics of comics, the relationship between comics and other art forms, the relationship between text and image in comics. Comics studies is interrelated with comics criticism, the analysis and evaluation of comics and the comics medium. Although there has been the occasional investigation of comics as a valid art form in Gilbert Seldes' The 7 Lively Arts, Martin Sheridan's Classic Comics and Their Creators, David Kunzle's The Early Comic Strip: Narrative Strips and Picture Stories in the European Broadsheet from c. 1450 to 1825, contemporary Anglophone comics studies in North America can be said to have burst onto the academic scene with both Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art in 1985 and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics in 1993.
Continental comics studies can trace its roots back to the work of semioticians such as Roland Barthes and Umberto Eco. More analysis of comics have begun to be undertaken by cognitive scientists, the most prominent being Neil Cohn, who has used tools from linguistics to detail the theoretical structure of comics' underlying "visual language", has used psychological experimentation from cognitive neuroscience to test these theories in actual comprehension; this work has suggested similarities between the way that the brain processes language and the way it processes sequential images. Cohn's theories are not universally accepted with other scholars like Thierry Groensteen, Hannah Miodrag, Barbara Postema offering alternative understandings. Similar to the problems of defining literature and film, no consensus has been reached on a definition of the comics medium, attempted definitions and descriptions have fallen prey to numerous exceptions. Theorists such as Töpffer, R. C. Harvey, Will Eisner, David Carrier, Alain Rey, Lawrence Grove emphasize the combination of text and images, though there are prominent examples of pantomime comics throughout its history.
Other critics, such as Thierry Groensteen and Scott McCloud, have emphasized the primacy of sequences of images. Towards the close of the 20th century, different cultures' discoveries of each other's comics traditions, the rediscovery of forgotten early comics forms, the rise of new forms made defining comics a more complicated task. In the field of composition studies, an interest in comics and graphic novels is growing due to the work of comics theorists but due to composition studies' growing focus on multimodality and visual rhetoric. Composition studies theorists are looking at comics as sophisticated texts, sites of complex literacy. Gunther Kress defines multimodality as "the use of several semiotic modes in the design of a semiotic product or event, together with the particular way in which these mode are combined" or, more as "any text whose meanings are realized through more than one semiotic code". Kristie S. Fleckenstein sees the relationship between image and text as "mutually constitutive, mutually infused"—a relationship she names "imageword".
Fleckenstein sees "imageword" as offering "a double vision of writing-reading based on fusion of image and word, a double vision of literacy". Dale Jacobs sees the reading of comics as a form of "multimodal literacy or multiliteracy, rather than as a debased form of print literacy". According to Jacobs, comics can help educators to move "toward attending to multimodal literacies" that "shift our focus from print only to multiple modalities", he encourages educators to embrace a pedagogy that will give students skills to negotiate these multiple modalities. Comics historiography studies the historical process through which comics became an autonomous art medium and an integral part of culture. An area of study is premodern sequential art. Another area of study is the 20th-century emergence of the subculture of comics readers and comicphilia; the first attempts at comics historiography began in the United States in the 1940s with the work of Thomas Craven, Martin Sheridan, Coulton Waugh. It wasn't until the mid-1960s, with the publication of Jules Feiffer's The Great Comic Book Heroes, that the field began to take root.
Historiography became an accepted practice in the 1970s with the work of Maurice Horn, Jim Steranko, Ron Goulart, Bill Blackbeard, Martin Williams. The late 1990s saw a wave of books celebrating American comics' centennial. Other notable writers on these topics include Will Jacobs, Gerard Jones, Rick Marschall, R. C. Harvey. Comics studies is becoming more common at academic institutions across the world; some notable examples include: University of Florida
Manhwa is the general Korean term for comics and print cartoons. Outside Korea, the term refers to South Korean comics, although the comics industry is emerging in North Korea as well. Linguistically, 漫画, 漫画, 만화 all mean comics in Japanese and Korean respectively; the Korean term 만화, along with the Japanese term 漫画, is a cognate of the Chinese phrase manhua. Their current use is explained by the international success of the Japanese manga. Although in a traditional sense, in these languages the terms manga/manhua/manhwa had a similar meaning of comical drawing in a broad way, nowadays the term designate the manga-inspired comic strips; the author or artist of a manhwa is called a manhwaga. The relative obscurity of Korean culture in the Western world has caused the word "manhwa" to remain somewhat unknown in the English-speaking world. Instead, English translations of manhwa have achieved success by targeting the manga and anime community, to the extent that manhwa are marketed as "manga." Webtoons first came into popularity in the early 2000's due to their free access and availability on the internet.
Since their creation, webtoons have gained popularity around the globe and have been adopted outside of Korea as another form of comic publication. This is credited to their unique pay model. Daewon C. I. Haksan Culture Company Seoul Culture Corporation Shinwon Agency Corporation Sanho Kim was the first manhwa artist working in the States. During the 60s and 70s, he worked for publishers Charlton Comics, Warren Publishing, Iron Horse Publishing, Skywald Publications and Marvel Comics. According to journalist Paul Gravett, in 1987 Eastern Comics published the first original manhwas in the United States. Due to the explosion of manga's popularity in the Americas, many of the licensed titles acquired for the American market seek to emulate the popular elements of other successful series. Long-running webtoons serialized via Internet portal sites and personal homepages have become both the creative and popular basecamp among the younger generation in Korea. Manhwa is read in the same direction as English books and from left to right, because hangul is written and read horizontally, although it can be written and read vertically from right to left, top to bottom.
ADV Manga Dark Horse Manhwa DramaQueen DrMaster Publications Media Blasters Netcomics NBM ComicsLit Seven Seas Entertainment UDON's Korean Manhwa Yen Press Animation based on Korean comics is still rare. However, live-action drama series and movie adaptations of manhwa have occurred more in recent years. Full House in 2004 and Goong in 2006 are prominent examples, as both have been counted as the best dramas of their respective years. In 2004, Blade of the Phantom Master was adapted into an animated film by a joint Korean-Japanese animation team. SamBakZa produced There she is!! in 2006, about the developing relationship of a rabbit and a cat. The Great Catsby, ran as an onstage musical in 2006. In 2007, the award-winning Korean webtoon was adapted into a live-action drama; the title was planned to be adapted into a feature film in late 2007. War of Money, a dramatized manhwa that aired in 2007, garnered much attention for its soundtrack and actors. Priest, a manhwa by Hyung Min-woo, translated to English, was adapted into the 2011 American sci-fi action horror film of the same name by Screen Gems.
Released in 2011, it was produced by Michael DeLuca, directed by Scott Stewart, stars Paul Bettany as the title character. Secretly, Greatly, a film based on a manhwa webtoon, became a top-grossing film in 2013. List of manhwa Sunjung manhwa Myeongnang manhwa Manhwabang Culture of South Korea Korean Wave Korean animation Webtoon Video gaming in South Korea Son Sang-ik. 한국만화통사 1. Sigongsa. ISBN 89-7259-890-9. Hart, Christopher. Manhwa mania:. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-2976-X. Kim Jinsu. "개화기 일제의 시사만화 탄압". Chammalo. 만화. Empas/ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Manhwa". Empas/ EncyKorea. Sim Ji-hoon. "Korea Manhwa Museum". INISteel Webzine. Sugiyama, Rika. Comic artists — Asia: manga, manhua. New York: Harper Design International. ISBN 0-06-058924-8. "Korean Comics in the U. S. Part 1, Comic-Con International 2004," Jade Magazine.com, Sep. 2004 "Korean Comics in the U. S. Part 2, Manhwa Sampler," Jade Magazine.com, Sep. 2004 "Sang-Sun Park, Les Bijoux Comic Artist," Sequential Tart.com, Aug. 2004 Manhwa site for "Demon Diary" "Infinity Studios and Manhwa," Anime Tourist.com, 16 June 2004 Our Toys, Our Selves: Robot Taekwon V and South Korean Identity Cain, Geoffrey.
"Will the Internet Kill the Manhwa Star?" The Far Eastern Economic Review, November 6, 2009 Hyung-tae Kim Bucheon Manhwa Information Center Bucheon International Manhwa festival Seoul International Comics and Animation Festival Dong-a/LG International festival of comics and animation Moonk Mobile Cartoon Cartoon & Animation Society in Korea Seoul Cartoon The Korean Cartoonist Association Korean Women Cartoonist Association Amateur Comics Association Korea Amateur Comic Land Korean Society of Cartoon & Animation Studies Seoul Animation Center Puchon Cartoon Information Center The Korea Society Manhwa Exhibit
Bethlem Royal Hospital
Bethlem Royal Hospital known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London. Its famous history has inspired several horror books, films and TV series, most notably Bedlam, a 1946 film with Boris Karloff; the hospital is associated with King's College London and, in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, is a major centre for psychiatric research. It is part of the King's Health Partners academic health science centre and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health; the hospital was near Bishopsgate just outside the walls of the City of London. It moved outside of Moorfields in the 17th century to St George's Fields in Southwark in the 19th century, before moving to its current location at Monks Orchard in West Wickham in 1930; the word "bedlam", meaning confusion, is derived from the hospital's nickname. Although the hospital became a modern psychiatric facility it was representative of the worst excesses of asylums in the era of lunacy reform.
The hospital was founded in 1247 as the Priory of the New Order of our Lady of Bethlehem in the city of London during the reign of Henry III. It was established by the Bishop-elect of Bethlehem, the Italian Goffredo de Prefetti, following a donation of personal property by the London alderman and former sheriff, Simon FitzMary; the original location was in the parish of St Botolph, Bishopsgate's ward, just beyond London's wall and where the south-east corner of Liverpool Street Station now stands. Bethlem was not intended as a hospital, in the clinical sense, much less as a specialist institution for the insane, but as a centre for the collection of alms to support the Crusader Church and to link England to the Holy Land. De Prefetti's need to generate income for the Crusader Church and restore the financial fortunes of his see had been occasioned by two misfortunes: his bishopric had suffered significant losses following the destructive conquest of Bethlehem by the Khwarazmian Turks in 1244, his immediate predecessor had further impoverished his cathedral chapter through the alienation of a considerable amount of its property.
The priory, obedient to the Church of Bethlehem, would house the poor and, if they visited, provide hospitality to the bishop and brothers of Bethlehem. Thus, Bethlem became a hospital, in medieval usage, "an institution supported by charity or taxes for the care of the needy"; the subordination of the priory's religious order to the bishops of Bethlehem was further underlined in the foundational charter, which stipulated that the prior and inmates were to wear a star upon their cloaks and capes to symbolise their obedience to the church of Bethlehem. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, with its activities underwritten by episcopal and papal indulgences, the hospital's role as a centre for alms collection persisted, but its linkage to the Order of Bethlehem unravelled, putting its purpose and patronage in doubt. In 1346 the master of Bethlem, a position at that time granted to the most senior of London's Bethlemite brethren, applied to the city authorities seeking protection, it is doubtful whether the city provided substantial protection and much less that the mastership fell within their patronage but, dating from the 1346 petition, it played a role in the management of Bethlem's finances.
By this time the Bethlehemite bishops had relocated to Clamecy, under the surety of the Avignon papacy. This was significant as, throughout the reign of Edward III, the English monarchy had extended its patronage over ecclesiastical positions through the seizure of priories under the control of non-English religious houses; as a dependent house of the Order of Saint Bethlehem in Clamecy, Bethlem was vulnerable to seizure by the crown and this occurred in the 1370s when Edward III took control. The purpose of this appropriation was, in the context of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, to prevent funds raised by the hospital from enriching the French monarchy via the papal court. After this event the masters of the hospital, semi-autonomous figures in charge of its day-to-day management, were crown appointees and it became an secularised institution; the memory of its foundation became muddled. The removal of the last symbolic link to the Bethlehemites was confirmed in 1403 when it was reported that master and inmates no longer wore the star of Bethlehem.
In 1546 the Lord Mayor of London, Sir John Gresham, petitioned the crown to grant Bethlem to the city. This petition was successful and Henry VIII reluctantly ceded to the City of London "the custody and governance" of the hospital and of its "occupants and revenues"; this charter came into effect in 1547. The crown retained possession of the hospital. Following a brief interval when it was placed under the management of the governors of Christ's Hospital, from 1557 it was administered by the governors of Bridewell, a prototype house of correction at Blackfriars. Having been thus one of the few metropolitan hospitals to have survived the dissolution of the monasteries physically intact, this joint administration continued, not without interference by both the crown and city, until incorporation into the National Health Service in 1948, it is Europe's oldest extant psyc