Western Sahara the Spanish colony of Spanish Sahara, is a disputed territory claimed by both the Kingdom of Morocco and the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro, an independence movement based in Algeria. It is listed by the United Nations as a non-decolonized territory and is thus included in the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Since the Madrid Accords of 1975, a part of Western Sahara has been administered by Morocco as the Southern Provinces. Another section, the Liberated Territories, is administered by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Mauritania administers the western half of the Ras Nouadhibou Peninsula. A UN-monitored cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991. While no other country has recognized Morocco's unilateral annexation of Western Sahara, a number of countries have expressed their support for a future recognition of Moroccan sovereignty over the territory as an autonomous part of the Kingdom.
There is, for instance, a de facto recognition of the Moroccan claim on the part of some countries such as the case of the United Kingdom. Although the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office treats the status of Western Sahara as'undetermined', its lack of reference to its current effective partition, considering the existence of the Polisario-held areas, indicates an acceptance of Morocco as the administering power in the entire territory. Overall, the annexation has not garnered as much attention in the international community as many other disputed annexations. In order to resolve the sovereignty issue, the UN has attempted to hold a referendum through the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara, is holding direct talks between the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front; the UN recognizes neither SADR sovereignty over Western Sahara. The official position of the Kingdom of Morocco since 1963 is that all of Western Sahara is an integral part of the kingdom; the Moroccan government refers to Western Sahara only as "Moroccan Sahara", the "Saharan provinces", or the "Southern Provinces".
According to the Moroccan government, in 1958 the Moroccan Army of Liberation fought Spanish colonizers and liberated what was Spanish Sahara. The fathers of many of the Polisario leaders were among the veterans of the Moroccan Southern Army, for example the father of Polisario leader Mohammed Abdelaziz. Morocco is supported in this view by a number of former Polisario leaders; the Polisario Front is considered by Morocco to be a Moroccan separatist movement, referring to the Moroccan origins of most of its founding members, its self-proclaimed SADR to be a puppet state used by Algeria to fight a proxy war against Morocco. The Polisario Front backed by Algeria, is described by itself and its supporters as a national liberation movement that opposes Moroccan control of Western Sahara, whilst it is considered by Morocco and supporters of Morocco's claims over the Western Sahara to be a separatist organisation, it began as a movement of students who felt torn between the divergent Spanish and Moroccan influences on the country.
The original goal of the Polisario, to end Spanish colonialism in the region, was achieved, but their neighbors and Mauritania, seized sovereignty of the region, which the Polisario felt was entitled to self-determination and interdependence. The Polisario engaged in guerrilla warfare with the Mauritanian forces, it evacuated the Sahrawi population to the Tindouf refugee camps due to Royal Moroccan Air Force bombing of the refugee camps on Sahrawi land with napalm and white phosphorus. The Polisario Front has called for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara to be decided through a referendum. Although the SADR is not recognised as a state by the UN, the Polisario is considered a direct participant in the conflict and as the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, recognized by the United Nations since 1979; the Polisario Front argues that Morocco's position is due to economical interests and political reasons. The Polisario Front proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in Bir Lehlou, on 27 February 1976.
Claims on Western Sahara had proliferated since the 1960s, fuelled by Mauritanian President Moktar Ould Daddah. Before Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords and after the withdrawal of the last Spanish forces, in late 1975, the Mauritanian Army invaded the southern part of Western Sahara, while the Moroccan Army did the same in the north. In April 1976, Mauritania and Morocco partitioned the country into three parts, Mauritania getting the southern one, named Tiris al-Gharbiyya. Mauritania waged four years of war against Polisario guerrillas, conducting raids on Nouakchott, attacks on the Zouerate mine train and a coup d'état that deposed Ould Daddah. Mauritania withdrew in the summer of 1979, after signing the Algiers Agreement with the Polisario Front, recognizing the right of self-determination for the Sahrawi people, renouncing any claims on Western Sahara; the Moroccan Army took control of the former Mauritanian territory. Mauritania recognized the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic on 27 February 1984.
Algeria has supported the independence of the whole of Western Sahara since 1975, when Spanish forces and settlers withdrew from the area. It is one of the few countries to do so in the Arab League, it has provided aid to the'Polisario Front'. Algeria's role became in
An open prison is any jail in which the prisoners are trusted to serve their sentences with minimal supervision and perimeter security and are not locked up in their prison cells. Prisoners may be permitted to take up employment while serving their sentence. In the UK, open prisons are part of a rehabilitation plan for prisoners moved from closed prisons, they may be designated "training prisons" and are only for prisoners considered a low risk to the public. The idea of an open prison is criticised by members of the public and politicians. Prisoners in open jails do not have complete freedom and are only allowed to leave the premises for specific purposes, such as going to an outside job. In Ireland, there has been controversy about the level of escape from open prisons, attributed to the use of the prison by the Irish Prison Service to transfer prisoners unsuitable for open conditions but to reduce overcrowding in the closed prisons; the idea of open prisons is to rehabilitate prisoners rather than to punish them.
United KingdomHM Prison Prescoed, South Wales HM Prison Ford, West Sussex, England HM Prison Blantyre House, Kent, England HM Prison Askham Grange, England HM Prison Leyhill, South Gloucestershire, England HM Prison Castle Huntly, Longforgan and Kinross, ScotlandIrelandLoughan House, County Cavan, Ireland Shelton Abbey Prison, County Wicklow, IrelandIndiaYerwada Open Jail, in Yerwada, Maharashtra Tihar Open Jail, in Delhi In Germany the "Offener Vollzug" is part of the rehabilitation process for about 16% of prisoners. Prison security categories in the United Kingdom House arrest
Giuseppe Piazzi was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order and astronomer. He established an observatory at Palermo, now the Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo – Giuseppe S. Vaiana, his most famous discovery was the first dwarf planet, Ceres. No documented account of Piazzi's scientific education is available in any of the biographies of the astronomer in the oldest ones. Piazzi did some studies in Turin, quite attending Giovan Battista Beccaria's lessons. In the years 1768–1770 he was resident at the Theatines' Home in S. Andrea della Valle, while studying Mathematics under François Jacquier. In July 1770, he took the chair of Mathematics at the University of Malta. In December 1773, he moved to Ravenna as "prefetto degli studenti" and lecturer in Philosophy and Mathematics at the Collegio dei Nobili, where he stayed until the beginning of 1779. After a short period spent in Cremona and in Rome, in March 1781 Piazzi moved to Palermo as lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Palermo.
He kept this position until 19 January 1787. At the same time, he was granted permission to spend two years in Paris and London, to undergo some practical training in astronomy and to get some instruments to be specially built for the Palermo Observatory, whose foundation he was in charge of. In the period spent abroad, from 13 March 1787 until the end of 1789, Piazzi became acquainted with the major French and English astronomers of his time and was able to have the famous altazimuthal circle made by Jesse Ramsden, one of the most skilled instrument-makers of the 18th century; the circle was the most important instrument of the Palermo Observatory, whose official foundation took place on 1 July 1790. In 1817, King Ferdinand put Piazzi in charge of the completion of the Capodimonte Observatory, naming him General Director of the Naples and Sicily Observatories, he supervised the compilation of the Palermo Catalogue of stars, containing 7,646 star entries with unprecedented precision, including the star names "Garnet Star" from Herschel, the original Rotanev and Sualocin.
The work to observe the sky methodically. The catalogue wasn't finished for first edition publication until 1803, with a second edition in 1814. Spurred by the success discovering Ceres, in the line of his catalogue program, Piazzi studied the proper motions of stars to find parallax measurement candidates. One of them, 61 Cygni, was specially appointed as a good candidate for measuring a parallax, performed by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel; the star system 61 Cygni is sometimes still called variously Bessel's Star. Piazzi discovered Ceres. On 1 January 1801 Piazzi discovered a "stellar object". At first he thought it was a fixed star, but once he noticed that it moved, he became convinced it was a planet, or as he called it, "a new star". In his journal, he wrote: The light was a little faint, of the colour of Jupiter, but similar to many others which are reckoned of the eighth magnitude; therefore I had no doubt of its being any other than a fixed star. In the evening of the second I repeated my observations, having found that it did not correspond either in time or in distance from the zenith with the former observation, I began to entertain some doubts of its accuracy.
I conceived afterwards a great suspicion. The evening of the third, my suspicion was converted into certainty, being assured it was not a fixed star. Before I made it known, I waited till the evening of the fourth, when I had the satisfaction to see it had moved at the same rate as on the preceding days. In spite of his assumption that it was a planet, he took the conservative route and announced it as a comet. In a letter to astronomer Barnaba Oriani of Milan he made his suspicions known in writing: I have announced this star as a comet, but since it is not accompanied by any nebulosity and, since its movement is so slow and rather uniform, it has occurred to me several times that it might be something better than a comet, but I have been careful not to advance this supposition to the public. He was not able to observe it long enough. Unable to compute its orbit with existing methods, the mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss developed a new method of orbit calculation that allowed astronomers to locate it again.
After its orbit was better determined, it was clear that Piazzi's assumption was correct and this object was not a comet but more like a small planet. Coincidentally, it was almost where the Titius-Bode law predicted a planet would be. Piazzi named it "Ceres Ferdinandea," after the Roman and Sicilian goddess of grain and King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily; the Ferdinandea part was dropped for political reasons. Ceres turned out to be the first, largest, of the asteroids existing within the asteroid belt. Ceres is today called a dwarf planet. Born in Italy and named in his honour was the astronomer Charles Piazzi Smyth, son of the astronomer William Henry Smyth. In 1871, a memorial statue of Piazzi sculpted by Costantino Corti was dedicated in the main plaza of his birthplace, Ponte. In 1923, the 1000th asteroid to be numbered was named 1000 Piazzia in his honour; the lunar crater Piazzi was named after him in 1935. More a large albedo feature a crater, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope on Ceres, has been informally named Piazzi.