Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, where federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag and the Bundesrat. The multilateral system has, since 1949, been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature, while it is common for leading members of the executive to be members of the legislature as well. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz, which remained in effect with minor amendments after German reunification in 1990; the constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human and civil rights and divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative and judicial branches. West Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1958, which became the EU in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area, has been a member of the eurozone since 1999.
It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20 and the OECD. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Germany a "full democracy" in 2019. After 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany had Christian Democratic chancellors for 20 years until a coalition between the Social Democrats and the Liberals took over. From 1982, Christian Democratic leader Helmut Kohl was chancellor in a coalition with the Liberals for 16 years. In this period fell the reunification of Germany, in 1990: the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic. In the former GDR's territory, five Länder were reestablished; the two parts of Berlin united as one "Land". The political system of the Federal Republic remained less unchanged. Specific provisions for the former GDR territory were enabled via the unification treaty between the Federal Republic and the GDR prior to the unification day of 3 October 1990. However, Germany saw in the following two distinct party systems: the Green party and the Liberals remained West German parties, while in the East the former socialist state party, now called PDS, flourished along with the Christian Democrats and Social Democrats.
After 16 years of the Christian–Liberal coalition, led by Helmut Kohl, the Social Democratic Party of Germany together with the Greens won the Bundestag elections of 1998. SPD vice chairman Gerhard Schröder positioned himself as a centrist candidate, in contradiction to the leftist SPD chairman Oskar Lafontaine; the Kohl government was hurt at the polls by slower economic growth in the East in the previous two years, high unemployment. The final margin of victory was sufficiently high to permit a "red-green" coalition of the SPD with Alliance 90/The Greens, bringing the Greens into a national government for the first time. Initial problems of the new government, marked by policy disputes between the moderate and traditional left wings of the SPD, resulted in some voter disaffection. Lafontaine left the government in early 1999; the CDU won in some important state elections but was hit in 2000 by a party donation scandal from the Kohl years. As a result of this Christian Democratic Union crisis, Angela Merkel became chair.
The next election for the Bundestag was on 22 September 2002. Gerhard Schröder led the coalition of SPD and Greens to an eleven-seat victory over the Christian Democrat challengers headed by Edmund Stoiber. Three factors are cited that enabled Schröder to win the elections despite poor approval ratings a few months before and a weaker economy: good handling of the 100-year flood, firm opposition to the US 2003 invasion of Iraq, Stoiber's unpopularity in the east, which cost the CDU crucial seats there. In its second term, the red–green coalition lost several important state elections, for example in Lower Saxony where Schröder was the prime minister from 1990 to 1998. On 20 April 2003, chancellor Schröder announced massive labor market reforms, called Agenda 2010, that cut unemployment benefits. Although these reforms sparked massive protests, they are now credited with being in part responsible for the strong economic performance of Germany during the euro-crisis and the decrease in unemployment in Germany in the years 2006-2007.
On 22 May 2005 the SPD received a devastating defeat in its former heartland, North Rhine-Westphalia. Half an hour after the election results, the SPD chairman Franz Müntefering announced that the chancellor would clear the way for new federal elections; this took the republic by surprise because the SPD was below 20% in polls at the time. The CDU announced Angela Merkel as Christian Democrat candidate for chancellor, aspiring to be the first female chancellor in German history. New for the 2005 election was the alliance between the newly formed Electoral Alternative for Labor and Social Justice and the PDS, planning to fuse into a common party. With the former SPD chairman, Oskar Lafontaine for the WASG and Gregor Gysi for the PDS as prominent figures, this alliance soon found interest in the media and in the population. Polls in July saw them as high as 12%. Whereas in May and June 2005 victory of the Christian Democrats seemed likely, with some polls giving them an absolute majority, this picture changed shortly before the election on 18 September 2005.
The election results of 18 September were surprising because they differed from the polls of the previous weeks. The Christian Democrats lost votes compared to 2002, narrowly reaching the first place with only 35.2%, failed to get a majority for a "black–yellow" government of CDU/CSU and liberal F
"What I Like About You" is a song by American rock band the Romantics. Written by Romantics members Wally Palmar, Mike Skill and Jimmy Marinos in 1979, the song is included on the band's self-titled debut album, was released as a single in late 1979. Marinos, the band's drummer, is the lead vocalist on the song; the band filmed a music video for the song that appeared on MTV during the early 1980s. "What I Like About You" was written by Palmar and Skill around a guitar part by Skill. The song's "Hey, uh-huh-huh" refrain was influenced by the Yardbirds' "Over Under Sideways Down" and Chuck Berry's "Back in the U. S. A.". The song's riff is similar to Neil Diamond's "Cherry, Cherry", the Standells 1966 hit "Dirty Water", Joe Jackson's 1979 single "I'm the Man"; the Romantics recorded the song and the accompanying album at Coconuts Recording Studio in Miami Beach, Florida. When first released, "What I Like About You" was a popular song on the Romantics' concert playlist. In terms of record sales and radio airplay, the song was only a moderate success at the time of its release, reaching only number 49 on the Billboard Hot 100.
The song was most successful in Australia, where it reached number two on the Australian Singles Chart for two weeks and became the 13th most successful single for 1980. It was only towards the end of the 1980s, after the song had been licensed for use in television commercials for Budweiser beer, that "What I Like About You" grew to become one of the most popular rock anthems of all time. In November 2007, The Romantics filed a federal lawsuit against Activision, the publisher of Guitar Hero Encore: Rocks the 80s, claiming that the video game manufacturer had infringed on the band's rights by featuring a soundalike recording of "What I Like About You" in the game; the Romantics lost their case in December 2007, with the judge stating that Activision had taken all the necessary steps in developing its product. Michael Morales released a version of "What I Like About You" in 1989, as the follow-up to his hit "Who Do You Give Your Love To", his version reached number 28 on the Billboard Hot 100, eclipsing the position of the original version.
The Australian rock band Tlot Tlot covered. Punk rock band the Suicide Machines covered the song for the 1999 compilation album Before You Were Punk 2. Alternative rock band Lillix recorded a version of the song, featured on the soundtrack of the Disney teen comedy film Freaky Friday, it was used in the film 13 Going on 30. Lillix's recording of the song was used as the theme song for The WB's television series What I Like About You, starring Jennie Garth and Amanda Bynes and on the Japanese CD Roxy's Jam. In 2004, Nacker covered this song for the film What the Bleep Do We Know!?. It was covered by Michael Gough and Renee Sands in the short Far Far Away Idol and in the CD Shrek 2: Party CD. "What I Like About You" was covered by American rock band Poison as the lead single from their cover album Poison'd!. The band did a music video for the single as well; the song was covered by Australian rock band 5 Seconds of Summer for their 2014 She Looks So Perfect EP, reaching number 137 on the UK Singles Chart.
The studio mix of the song is included on the group's 2014 live album, LiveSOS, was serviced to American mainstream radio on December 2, 2014 as its lead single. It received strong airplay for the week ending December 28, 2014 and debuted on the Billboard Pop Songs chart, where it has since peaked at number 30; the band performed the song live at the 2014 American Music Awards on November 23, 2014 ahead of its release. A lyric video for the live version was uploaded to 5 Seconds of Summer's Vevo account November 23, 2014, the same day as their AMA performance; the official music video was directed by Tom van Schelven and premiered on December 5, 2014. It uses the live audio rather than the studio mix and features concert footage from the group's performance at The Forum near Los Angeles, as well behind-the-scenes clips and shots of the audience
The following highways are numbered 87: Asian Highway 87 E87 European route E87 Stuart Highway Kidman Way Surat Developmental Road Greek National Road 87 National Highway 87 State Highway 87 Road 87 Highway 87 National Route 87 New Zealand State Highway 87 Interstate 87 Interstate 87 U. S. Route 87 Alabama State Route 87 Arizona State Route 87 Arkansas Highway 87 California State Route 87 Connecticut Route 87 Florida State Road 87 County Road 87A Georgia State Route 87 Idaho State Highway 87 Illinois Route 87 K-87 Kentucky Route 87 Louisiana Highway 87 Maryland Route 87 M-87 Minnesota State Highway 87 Missouri Route 87 Montana Highway 87 Nebraska Highway 87 New Hampshire Route 87 New Jersey Route 87 County Route 87 New York State Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 County Route 87 North Carolina Highway 87 Ohio State Route 87 Oklahoma State Highway 87 Pennsylvania Route 87 South Dakota Highway 87 Tennessee State Route 87 Texas State Highway 87 Texas State Highway Spur 87 Farm to Market Road 87 Ranch to Market Road 87 Utah State Route 87 Virginia State Route 87 West Virginia Route 87 Wisconsin Highway 87 Wyoming Highway 87 A87
Sumo Fighter: Tōkaidō Basho is a 2D sumo-based action game, developed by KID and published by I'Max, released in 1991. In North America, the game was released by DTMC; the main character named. "Tōkaidō" is an eastern sea road, connecting Edo in Japan. The player can grow a sumo wrestler. Heiseiyama can perform four special techniques: harite, shiko and nage. Harite is slapping the opponent's face with an open hand, Shiko creates quake and all the enemies will be damaged, Buchikamashi is charge and it is more powerful than Harite, however it isn't effective against all bosses. Nage is throwing. If the enemy is stopped by his Harite, he can throw. Before starting the game, the player can choose the difficulty mode: hard. There are five areas, each area has a boss. In each area, the player has access once to a bonus stage. There are three kinds of bonus stages: Kamizumo and Udezumo. Yubizumo is Thumbs Wrestling, Udezumo is like Arm Wrestling, Kamizumo is Paper Sumo; when the player clears a stage, a password will be displayed.
After beating the game on hard mode, the player can play on a Super mode. In order to get all the ending text and credits, the game has to be finished in all the three difficulty levels; each playthrough gets harder and the higher difficulties pit the player against new enemies as well as giving bosses extra special moves. The following is a message from the game producer for the players: "Even if you are good at this game, you can't grow as a sumo wrestler." List of sumo video games Glossary of sumo terms Tōkaidō Tōkaidō Sumo Fighter at MobyGames Game review at GameFAQs Game review at Gaming Sanctuary Nobuyuki Shioda ~ 塩田信之 （しおだ のぶゆき） at GameMusicComposerMEMO
Susan Delacourt is an award-winning Canadian political journalist. Delacourt is a senior writer at the Toronto Star, she was the senior political writer at the National Post, a columnist and feature writer at the Ottawa Citizen and, for sixteen years, a parliamentary correspondent and editorial board member of The Globe and Mail. She is a graduate the University of Western Ontario, she is a Masters student in the School of Political Studies at Carleton University, studying "consumerism and material culture, their intersection with citizenship/democracy/politics". Delacourt spent her adolescence in Milton, Ontario, she first developed her skills as a journalist while at the University of Western Ontario, where she was an editor of the UWO Gazette, the student newspaper. In 2011, Delacourt was selected by her peers as the recipient of the Charles Lynch Award, for lifetime achievement in political writing. In 2012, Delacourt was named by Canadian political newspaper Hill Times as one of "The Top 100 Most Influential People in Government and Politics".
Delacourt is the author of four books on Canadian politics: United We Fall: The Crisis of Democracy in Canada, an account of the failure of the Charlottetown Accord, Shaughnessy: The Passionate Politics of Shaughnessy Cohen, concerning the late Member of Parliament, Juggernaut: Paul Martin's Campaign for Chretien's Crown, Shopping for Votes: How Politicians Choose Us and We Choose Them. Shopping for Votes was a shortlisted nominee for the 2014 Hilary Weston Writers' Trust Prize for Nonfiction
Randall T. Eng is an American judge, the presiding justice of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, Second Department. Eng became the first Asian-American to serve as a presiding justice in New York State's history. Born in Canton, China but raised in New York City, Eng attended public school before graduating from the State University of New York at Buffalo and St. John's University School of Law. From 1970 to 2004, Eng served his country as a member of the New York Army National Guard, retiring as state judge advocate with the rank of colonel. Eng was born on December 16, 1947, in Canton, China, as one of three children to Chinese-American immigrants, he grew up with his family in New York, where he attended New York City public schools. Eng received a B. A. degree in political science from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1969 and a J. D. degree from St. John's University School of Law in 1972, he has served in the New York Army National Guard and as a colonel in the Judge Advocate General's Corps.
Eng began his legal career in public service as an assistant district attorney in Queens and continued in top leadership positions at the New York City Department of Corrections. He first took the bench in the Criminal Court of the City of New York in 1983. In 1991, he presided in Supreme Court, Queens County courts where he served as Administrative Judge of the Criminal Term of Queens County Supreme Court starting in March 2007. In January 2008 Eng was elevated to the Appellate Division. Governor Andrew M. Cuomo appointed him to lead the Second Department as presiding justice in 2012 where he oversees one of the busiest appellate courts in the country. After retiring from the bench, in January 2018, Eng joined the New York-based law firm Meyer, English & Klein, P. C. as Of Counsel to the Appellate Practice and Criminal Defense groups. Eng is married to Dr. Pauline Leong Eng, an internist at North Shore LIJ, he is the father of two daughters and Kathleen. Eng is the first Asian American to serve as presiding justice of an Appellate Division.
He is the first Asian-American justice in New York State. In 2016, Eng gave the commencement address for St. John's Law School and was awarded an honorary degree. In 2016 Eng won the Daniel K. Inouye Trailblazer Award, NAPABA's highest honor, which recognizes the outstanding achievements and leadership of lawyers who have paved the way for the advancement of other Asian Pacific American attorneys