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Politics of Greece

The politics of Greece takes place in a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Greece is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Hellenic Parliament. Between the restoration of democracy in 1974 and the Greek government-debt crisis the party system was dominated by the liberal-conservative New Democracy and the social-democratic Panhellenic Socialist Movement The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature; the Constitution of Greece, which describes Greece as a "presidential parliamentary republic", includes extensive specific guarantees of civil liberties and vests the powers of the head of state in a president elected by parliament. The Greek governmental structure is similar to that found in many other Western democracies, has been described as a compromise between the French and German models; the prime minister and cabinet play the central role in the political process, while the president perform some executive and legislative functions in addition to ceremonial duties.

Voting in Greece is not enforced. The Cabinet of Greece, the main organ of the government, includes the heads of all executive ministries, appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister; the President of the Republic is elected by the Parliament for a five-year term, a maximum of two terms in office. When a presidential term expires, Parliament votes to elect the new President. In the first two votes, a ​2⁄3 majority is necessary; the third and final vote requires a ​3⁄5 majority. If the third vote is fruitless, Parliament is dissolved and elections are proclaimed by the outgoing President within the next 30 days. In the new Parliament, the election for President is repeated with a ​3⁄5 majority required for the initial vote, an absolute majority for the second one and a simple majority for the third and final one; the system is so designed as to promote consensus presidential candidates among the main political parties. The president has the power to declare war, to grant pardon and to conclude agreements of peace and participation in international organizations.

An absolute or a three-fifths majority is required in exceptional cases. The president can exercise certain emergency powers, which must be countersigned by the appropriate cabinet minister; the president may not dissolve parliament, dismiss the government, suspend certain articles of the constitution, issue a proclamation or declare a state of siege without countersigning by the prime minister or the appropriate cabinet minister. To call a referendum, he must obtain approval from parliament; the prime minister is elected by the Parliament and he or she is the leader of the party controlling the absolute majority of MPs. According to the Constitution, the prime minister safeguards the unity of the government and directs its activities, he or she is the most powerful person of the Greek political system and recommends ministers to the President for appointment or dismissal. Greek parliamentary politics hinge upon the principle of the "δεδηλωμένη", the "declared confidence" of Parliament to the Prime Minister and his/her administration.

This means that the President of the Republic is bound to appoint, as Prime Minister, a person who will be approved by a majority of the Parliament's members. With the current electoral system, it is the leader of the party gaining a plurality of the votes in the Parliamentary elections who gets appointed Prime Minister. An administration may at any time seek a "vote of confidence". Conversely a number of Members of Parliament may ask. Both are rare occurrences with predictable outcomes as voting outside the party line happens seldom. On 4 October 2009, George Papandreou, president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement party and son and grandson of Prime Ministers, was elected as the new Prime Minister of Greece, following five years of government under New Democracy leader Kostas Karamanlis, the nephew of long-time Prime Minister and President Konstantinos Karamanlis. Greece elects a legislature by universal suffrage of all citizens over the age of 18; the Greek Parliament has 300 members, elected for a four-year term by a system of reinforced proportional representation in 48 multi-seat constituencies, 8 single-seat constituencies and a single nationwide list.

288 of the 300 seats are determined by constituency voting, voters may select the candidate or candidates of their choice by marking their name on the party ballot. The remaining 12 seats are filled from nationwide party lists on a top-down basis and based on the proportion of the total vote each party received. Greece uses a complex reinforced proportional representation electoral system which discourages splinter parties and makes a parliamentary majority possible if the leading party falls short of a majority of the popular vote. Under the current electoral law, any single party must receive at least a 3% nationwide vote tally in order to elect Members of Parliament; the largest party gets a 50-seat bonus ostensibly to ensure elections return viable governing majorities. The law in its current form favors the first past the post party to achieve an absolute majority, provided it receives a 41%+ nationwide vote; this is touted to enhance governmental stability. These electo

WH1 domain

WH1 domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain. Therefore, it has an important function. WH1 domains are found on WASP proteins, which are involved in actin polymerization. Hence, WH1 is important for all cellular processes involving actin, this includes cell motility, cell trafficking, cell division and cytokinesis, cell signalling, the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape; the WASP protein family control actin polymerization by activating the Arp2/3 complex. WASP is defective in Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome whereby in most patient cases, the majority of point mutations occur within the N-terminal WH1 domain; the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 bind a protein called homer, a WH1 domain homologue. A subset of WH1 domains appear to bind a polyproline motif; the EVH1 domain is found in multi-domain proteins implicated in a diverse range of signalling, nuclear transport and cytoskeletal events. This domain of around 115 amino acids is present in species ranging from yeast to mammals.

Many EVH1-containing proteins associate with actin-based structures and play a role in cytoskeletal organisation. EVH1 domains recognise and bind the proline-rich motif FPPPP with low-affinity, further interactions form between flanking residues. WASP family proteins contain an EVH1 in their N-terminals which bind proline-rich sequences in the WASP interacting protein. Proteins of the RanBP1 family contain a WH1 domain in their N-terminal region, which seems to bind a different sequence motif present in the C-terminal part of RanGTP protein. Tertiary structure of the WH1 domain of the Mena protein revealed structure similarities with the pleckstrin homology domain; the overall fold consists of a compact parallel beta-sandwich, closed along one edge by a long alpha-helix. A conserved cluster of three surface-exposed aromatic side-chains forms the recognition site for the molecules target ligands. Human genes encoding proteins containing the WH1 domain include: ENAH, EVL HOMER1, HOMER2, HOMER3 SPRED1, SPRED2, SPRED3 VASP, WAS, WASL Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_EVH1_1 Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_EVH1_2 Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_WH1

The Girl I Knew Somewhere

"The Girl I Knew Somewhere" is a song by the American pop rock band the Monkees, written by Michael Nesmith, first released as the B-side to the "A Little Bit Me, a Little Bit You" single on Colgems Records on 8 March 1967. It was distributed in support of the group's third album Headquarters, appeared on the reissued version of the LP; the song was recorded as the Monkees achieved the independence that enabled them to produce their own material, with the actual band members being featured on both vocals and instrumental arrangements. Upon release, "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" charted at number 39 on the Billboard Hot 100, while its A-side "A Little Bit Me, a Little Bit You" propelled to number two; the Monkees had enjoyed enormous commercial success with their first two albums, The Monkees and More of the Monkees, both reaching number one on the Billboard 200. However, under the direction of their music supervisor Don Kirshner, the group was completely barred from studio work, aside from recording as vocalists and penning some original material.

Longing to achieve creative freedom, the Monkees, led by Michael Nesmith, who felt insulted by Kirshner's condescension, entered months of bitter negotiations that concluded with Kirshner's firing. With his departure, the band was given the ability to play the instrumentals themselves, making the Headquarters sessions the first of which to feature the actual members on the arrangements. Nesmith compared the Monkees' process to build upon their differing styles: " a good tennis player, a good football player, a good basketball player, a good golfer got together and played baseball.... We could give it a try. Maybe make a little garage-band music". Although it was unknown to the record-buying public upon its release, "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" was the first song recorded by the Monkees containing instruments performed by the band members, it was first recorded on 19 January 1967 with Nesmith on lead vocals. The song became accessible with its breezy melodic shifts, catchy rhythm, relatable lyrics.

Since its original distribution, the composition has been featured on nearly all the Monkees' compilation albums, with it first appearing on 40 Timeless Hits in 1980. An early demo of "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" is compiled on The Headquarters Sessions, along with a rendition with additional backing vocals, a stereo version was first released on More Greatest Hits of the Monkees. Micky Dolenz - lead vocals, drums Michael Nesmith - electric guitar, backing vocals Peter Tork - keyboards, acoustic guitar Davy Jones - tambourine Chip Douglas - bass guitar