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Politics of Poland

The Government of Poland takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised, within the framework of a multi-party system, by the President and the Government, which consists of the Council of Ministers led by the Prime Minister, its members are chosen from the majority party or coalition, in the lower house of parliament, although exceptions to this rule are not uncommon. The government is formally announced by the President, must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament and Senate. Members of Sejm are elected by proportional representation, with the proviso that non-ethnic-minority parties must gain at least 5% of the national vote to enter the lower house. Five parties are represented. Parliamentary elections occur at least every four years; the president, as the head of state, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament, which may be overridden by a majority of three fifths, can dissolve the parliament under certain conditions.

Presidential elections occur every five years. When a majority of voters support the same candidate, he is declared the winner, while when there is no majority, the top two candidates participate in a runoff election; the political system is defined in the Polish Constitution, which guarantees a wide range of individual freedoms. The judicial branch plays a minor role in politics, apart from the Constitutional Tribunal, which can annul laws that violate the freedoms guaranteed in the constitution; the Prime Minister proposes, the President appoints, the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, the Prime minister and Deputy Prime Ministers are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Sejm; the Council of Ministers is responsible to the Sejm. The President is elected by terms; the President has the right to veto legislation, although veto may be overridden by the assembly with a three-fifths majority vote. The President, as representative of the state in foreign affairs, shall ratify and renounce international agreements and recall the plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Poland and shall cooperate with the Prime Minister and the appropriate minister in respect of foreign policy.

As Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, the President shall appoint the Chief of the General Staff and commanders of branches of the Armed Forces. The President may, regarding particular matters, convene the Cabinet Council, although it does not possess the competence of the Council of Ministers. Official acts of the President shall require, for their validity, the signature of the Prime Minister this does not apply to: nominating and appointing the Prime Minister shortening of the term of office of the Sejm in the instances specified in the Constitution introducing legislation requesting the Sejm to appoint the President of the National Bank of Poland appointing judges proclaiming the holding of a nationwide referendum signing or refusing to sign a bill appointing the First President of the Supreme Court, President of the Constitutional Tribunal, members of the Council for Monetary Policy and dismissing members of the National Security Council exercising the power of pardon convening the Cabinet Council The Polish Parliament has two chambers.

The lower chamber has 460 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies using the d'Hondt method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems, with a 5% threshold. The Senate has 100 members elected for a four-year term under the single member, one-round first-past-the-post voting method; when sitting in joint session, members of the Sejm and Senate form the National Assembly. The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: Taking the oath of office by a new president, bringing an indictment against the President of the Republic to the Tribunal of State, declaration of a President's permanent incapacity to exercise their duties due to the state of their health. Only the first kind has occurred to date. Since 1991 elections are supervised by the National Electoral Commission, whose administrative division is called the National Electoral Office. Notes Poland's top national security goal is to further integrate with NATO and other west European defense and political institutions via a modernization and reorganization of its military.

Polish military doctrine reflects the same defense nature as its NATO partners. The combined Polish army consists in addition 234,000 reserves. In 2009 the Armed Forces transformed into a professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. Personnel levels and organization in the different branches are as follows: Land Forces: 60,000 Air Force: 26,000 Navy: 14,300 Special Forces: 1,700 The Polish military continues to restructure and to modernize its equipment; the Polish Defense Ministry General Staff and the Land Forces staff have reorganized the latter into a NATO-compatible J/

Lepanthes eltoroensis

Lepanthes eltoroensis is a species of orchid known by the common name Luquillo Mountain babyboot orchid. It is endemic to El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, growing in the Luquillo Mountains, it is named for the El Toro Trail in the mountains. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States. Lepanthes eltoroensis grows at six sites of sierra palm, palo colorado, dwarf forest areas within the Luquillo Mountains; because the orchid is an epiphyte, L. eltoroensis finds its home on the trunks of several species of trees, known to house mosses and liverworts. The orchid has only been found on 40-60 trees within the forest, all at an altitude of 2,789 ft or above. More recent studies have noted larger populations of L. eltoroensis on the Tradewinds Trail as opposed to the El Toro Trail, for which it was named due to greater numbers of Sierra palm, offering a more closed canopy. The plant is no more than 4 centimeters long with a single leaf and three-seven slender stems. Eltoroensis stands apart from its genus of Lepanthes orchids due to its comparatively long inflorescence, obovate leaves and ciliate sepals.

The solitary flowers with red/orange petals lie against the leaf and are just a few millimeters long. The lepanthes eltoroensis grows in a circular pattern, favoring the northwestern side of the bole of its phorophyte trees; the average L. eltoroensis will live depending on various factors. Researchers have not yet found the pollinator specific to L. eltoroensis, but other lepanthes species attract black winged fungus gnats. Based on restricted gene flow, small population sizes and high genetic variance between lepanthes species, researchers believe the eltoroensis and others arose through genetic drift; this plant was listed as an endangered species because it is threatened by forest management practices and hurricane activity. Plant collectors have sought this plant, have destroyed at least one population of it once found in the sierra palm forest. Diversity within the L. eltoroensis species is low, limiting the potential for adaptive development, jeopardizing the success of the populations.

Researchers have suggested the artificial cross-pollination of the L. eltoroensis and L. caritensis in order to combat the homogeneity of genetic material. Additionally, because of L. eltorensis' compatibility with multiple species for phorophytes, survival success is expected to be higher compared to other Lepanthes, relocation more accessible/promising. USDA Plants Profile"Lepanthes eltoroensis" at the Encyclopedia of Life

List of earls in the reign of Edward I of England

The following individuals were Earls or Countesses during the reign of King Edward I of England who reigned from 1272 to 1307. The period of tenure as Earl or Countess is given after the name and title of each individual, including any period of minority. Earl of Arundel Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel Earl of Cornwall Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall Earl of Devon Isabella de Forz, 8th Countess of Devon suo jure Earl of Essex Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 1st Earl of Essex Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, 2nd Earl of Essex Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd Earl of Essex Earl of Gloucester Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, Earl of Gloucester jure uxoris Earl of Hereford Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 1st Earl of Essex Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, 2nd Earl of Essex Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd Earl of Essex Earl of Hertford Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, Earl of Hertford jure uxoris Earl of Lancaster Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, 1st Earl of Leicester Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, 2nd Earl of Leicester Earl of Leicester Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, 1st Earl of Leicester Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, 2nd Earl of Leicester Earl of Lincoln Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln Earl of Norfolk Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk Earl of Oxford Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford Earl of Pembroke William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke Earl of Richmond John II, Duke of Brittany, 3rd Earl of Richmond John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond Earl of Salisbury Margaret Longespée, 4th Countess of Salisbury suo jure Earl of Surrey John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey Earl of Warwick William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick Ellis, Geoffrey.

Earldoms in Fee: A Study in Peerage Law and History. London: The Saint Catherine Press, Limited. Morris, Marc; the Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 9781783270095 Spencer, Andrew M. Nobility and Kingship in Medieval England: The Earls and Edward I, 1272-1307. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107608481

Carlos Meglia

Carlos Meglia was a comic book artist and penciller born in the city of Quilmes, Argentina. One of his best-known creations is the Cybersix series, done in partnership with Carlos Trillo. Meglia died on August 15, 2008 at the age of 50. 1974 is when Meglia debuted as an assistant to the illustrator Oswal Sanson, where he produced many illustrations for the magazines Pendulum and Skorpio. Meglia illustrated the comic book adaptations of various literary classics such as Don Quichotte, La Bible pour les Enfants, several books of Martin Fierro, the poet, he contributed to several major magazines of Argentina, including Satiricon – a humorous periodical, El Grafico – a sports magazine, Billiken – a children's magazine. He made his first short comic stories for the Publisher Record. Meglia decided to enter the Hanna-Barbera Studios, where he worked in animation for some popular cartoon series, including The Smurfs, The Flintstones, Scooby Doo, as well as the animated film The Magic Pumpkin, he teamed up with the famous Argentinian writer, Carlos Trillo, together they started Irish Coffee, a comic series about a detective with supernatural powers.

Meglia subsequently created Big Bang and The Book of Gabriel, the story of an archangel who lost his immortality and must endure a quest to gain forgiveness from the sin he committed. He did the cover art for Acme Editorial and was a teacher of illustration at the School of Fine Arts in Quilmes, where he was born. Trillo and Meglia created Cybersix. Meglia was awarded Best European Comic Character. Meglia and Trillo start the two miniseries Livevil. Cybersix becomes a live-action television series in Argentina however, its low ratings led it to only lasting seven episodes. Cybersix becomes an animated television series, it debuted in Canada and Argentina on September 6, was subsequently dubbed for French, Malaysian, South American, Thai viewers. Meglia begins overseeing the production of a film based on Livelil. After settling down in Spain, Meglia began working for the US market, he cooperated on series such as Wildcats, Dark Horse titles like Star Wars and Spyboy, as well as DC's Superman/Tarzan: Sons of the Jungle, Adventures of Superman, Monster World, as well as Marvel's Elektra.

Cybersix animated series wins "Special Mention for the Best Science Fiction Program" at the Pulcinella Awards in Italy. He created the series Canari with Belgian comic artist Didier Crisse. Carlos Meglia dies of a heart attack on August 15, 2008 at age 50. Star Wars: Underworld Superman/Tarzan: Sons of the Jungle Adventures of Superman #603-605 Action Comics #799 Superman: Infinite City Carlos Meglia's Blog Biography at Lambiek's Comiclopedia

Thru the Years

Thru the Years is a compilation album of music by John Mayall released in October 1971 by Decca Records in the U. K. and London Records in the U. S. A; the album was the second compilation to be issued by Decca/London with Mayall's blessing, although his contract with them had ceased. It features a mixture of unissued songs or non-album tracks that had only been released as singles; the album reached No. 164 on the Billboard 200. It was re-released by Deram on CD in 1990. "Crocodile Walk" – 2:14 "My Baby Is Sweeter" – 2:59 "Crawling Up a Hill" – 2:15 "Mama, Talk to Your Daughter" – 2:58 "Alabama Blues" – 2:29 "Out of Reach" – 4:42 "Greeny" – 3:54 "Curly" – 4:50 "Missing You" – 1:57 "Please Don't Tell" – 2:26 "Your Funeral and My Trial" – 3:55 "Suspicions" – 2:47 "Knockers Step Forward" – 3:12 "Hide and Seek" – 2:22 John Mayall – guitar, keyboards, vocals Roger Dean – guitar Bernie Watson – guitar Peter Green – guitar, vocals Mick Taylor – guitar John McViebass Paul Williams – bass Tony Reeves – bass Hughie Flintdrums Martin Hart – drums Aynsley Dunbar – drums Keef Hartley – drums Jon Hiseman – drums Dick Heckstall-Smithtenor saxophone, soprano saxophone Chris Mercer – tenor saxophone Henry Lowthertrumpet Other creditsGus Dudgeon – engineer Bill Price – engineer John Tracy – liner notes Derek Varnals – engineer Mike Vernon – producer

Country Music Star No. 1

Country Music Star No. 1 contains recordings of a prestardom Glen Campbell, which were made around 1960–1961. This album, just like the other Starday album Country Soul, was released after Campbell rose to international fame with hits including "Gentle on My Mind", "By the Time I Get to Phoenix" and "Wichita Lineman". Campbell sued against these releases but settled with Starday. Side 1: "Gone But Not Forgotten" – 2:38 "The Ashes Of Time" – 2:00 "Groovin Country" – 1:45 "No Need Of Lying" – 2:22 "Talking To Myself" – 2:22Side 2: "I'm A Fool For You" – 2:15 "Why Did You Do Me This Way" – 2:24 "I Need You Dear I Do" – 1:40 "The Judge And Jury" – 2:34 "One Of These Days" – 2:26 Glen Campbell – vocals, acoustic guitar Cover design – Dan Quest Art Studio