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Politics of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Politics of the Democratic Republic of Congo take place in a framework of a republic in transition from a civil war to a semi-presidential republic. On 18 and 19 December 2005, a successful nationwide referendum was carried out on a draft constitution, which set the stage for elections in 2006; the voting process, though technically difficult due to the lack of infrastructure, was facilitated and organized by the Congolese Independent Electoral Commission with support from the UN mission to the Congo. Early UN reports indicate that the voting was for the most part peaceful, but spurred violence in many parts of the war-torn east and the Kasais. In 2006, many Congolese complained that the constitution was a rather ambiguous document and were unaware of its contents; this is due in part to the high rates of illiteracy in the country. However, interim President Kabila urged Congolese to vote'Yes', saying the constitution is the country's best hope for peace in the future. 25 million Congolese turned out for the two-day balloting.

According to results released in January 2006, the constitution was approved by 84% of voters. The new constitution aims to decentralize authority, dividing the vast nation into 25 semi-autonomous provinces, drawn along ethnic and cultural lines; the country's first democratic elections in four decades were held on 30 July 2006. From the day of the arguably ill-prepared independence of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the tensions between the powerful leaders of the political elite, such as Joseph Kasa Vubu, Patrice Lumumba, Moise Tshombe, Joseph Mobutu and others, jeopardize the political stability of the new state. From Tshombe's secession of the Katanga, to the assassination of Lumumba, to the two coups d'état of Mobutu, the country has known periods of true nationwide peace, but no period of genuine democratic rule; the regime of President Mobutu Sese Seko lasted 32 years, during which all but the first seven years the country was named Zaire. His dictatorship operated as a one-party state, which saw most of the powers concentrated between President Mobutu, the head of both the party and the state through the Popular Movement of the Revolution, a series of rubber-stamping institutions.

One particularity of the Regime was the claim to be thriving for an authentic system, different from Western or Soviet influences. This lasted between the establishment of Zaire in 1971, the official beginning of the transition towards democracy, on 24 April 1990; this was true at the regular people's level as everywhere else. People were ordered by law to drop their Western Christian names. At the institutional level, many of the institutions changed denominations, but the end result was a system that borrowed from both systems: The MPR's Central Committee: Under the system of the "party-state", this committee had a higher position in the institutional make-up than the government or cabinet, it had both executive oversight authority, in practice, binding legislative authority, as it dictated the party platform. Mobutu headed the Central Committee as Founding-President; the Vice-President of the Central Committee was the country's Vice President, without the succession rights. The Executive Council: Known elsewhere as the Government or the Cabinet, this council was the executive authority in the country, made of State Commissioners.

For a long period of time, Mobutu was the sole leader of the Executive Council. He would appoint First State Commissioners with coordinating powers and little executive power; the last "First State Commissioner" was Kengo Wa Dondo. The Legislative Council: the rubber-stamp parliament, it was made up of People Commissioners, who were sometimes elected, as individual members of the MPR, always on the party platform; the Supreme Court: As the judiciary, this court was the only independent branch of government, but in effect it was subordinate to a Judicial Council over which the regime had a strong influence. Every corporation, whether financial or union, as well as every division of the administration, was set up as branches of the party. CEOs, union leaders, division directors were each sworn-in as section presidents of the party; every aspect of life was regulated to some degree by the party, the will of its founding-president, Mobutu Sese Seko. Most of the petty aspects of the regime disappeared after 1990 with the beginning of the democratic transition.

Democratization would prove to be short-lived, as Mobutu's power plays dragged it in length until 1997, when forces led by Laurent Kabila successfully toppled the regime, after a 9-month-long military campaign. The government of former president Mobutu Sese Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent Kabila in May 1997, with the support of Rwanda and Uganda, they were to turn against Kabila and backed a rebellion against him in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe, Namibia and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was signed on 10 July 1999 by the DROC, Angola, Namibia and Congolese armed rebel groups, but fighting continued. Under Laurent Kabila's regime, all executive and military powers were first vested in the President, Laurent-Désiré Kabila; the judiciary was independent, with the president having the power to appoint. The president was first head of a 26-member cabinet dominated by the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Con

List of patient-reported quality of life surveys

This page lists patient-reported quality of life surveys used in the field of medicine and other scientific trials. These surveys are patient-reported outcome measures, may be questionnaires or surveys, may be used to evaluate patient satisfaction, disease state, or psychological well-being. Alzheimer's disease; the Quality of Life of Carers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients is a measure which assesses the quality of life of people who care for Alzheimer's disease patients. It was developed in 1997 by Galen Research and has been used in studies investigating rosiglitazone and the effects of pharmacological treatment. Angina; the Seattle Angina Questionnaire measures five dimensions of coronary disease and consists of 19 items. The SAQ has been utilized in studies investigating spinal cord stimulation and ranolazine and refractory angina pectoris. Ankylosing spondylitis; the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life questionnaire was developed Galen Research and published in 2003. It has been used in the evaluation of etanercept.

Asthma. The Adult Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire was developed at McMaster University in Ontario and was published in 1992, it has since been used as a comparison tool as well as a tool in clinical trials. The Asthma Life Impact Scale measure was developed in 2010 by Galen Research, it has been translated into 16 languages. Atopic dermatitis; the Parents’ Index of Quality of Life in Atopic Dermatitis measures the impact that atopic dermatitis has on quality of life, from the parents’ perspective. It has 28 items and was developed in the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Italy, Spain and the United States, it has been utilised in several research studies investigating the treatment of paediatric atopic dermatitis with pimecrolimus. and in a research study regarding health-related quality of life measurement in children in Ibero-American countries. The Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis measures the impact that atopic dermatitis has on a given patient's quality of life, it is a 25 item questionnaire for patients over the age of 16.

The QoLIAD has been utilized in studies looking into educational intervention, topical corticosteroids and pimecrolimus. Arthroplasty; the Oxford knee score was developed at Oxford University. It was published in 1998, it has been validated for use in assessing other non-surgical treatments for issues of the knee. Chickenpox; the Family Disruption Measure for Chickenpox was developed in 1994 by Galen Research. It has been used in a study investigating rotavirus gastroenteritis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; the Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease questionnaire has 22 yes or no questions and measures a patient's quality of life. It has been translated into 14 languages and been used in an investigation of fatigue, sleep loss and mood for patients with COPD. Depression; the Quality of Life in Depression Scale assesses the impact that depression has on a patient's quality of life. It was funded by Lilly Industries. Studies utilizing the QLDS include investigations into venlafaxine and bupropion.

Diabetes. The Diabetes Health Profile was developed in 1996 by Isis Outcomes, it has been adapted into 29 languages and was selected by the United Kingdom Department of Health for their Long Term Conditions PROM Pilot Study. Epilepsy; the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory 55 was developed at the University of California and covers eleven health concepts. It has been used in clinical studies to investigate life pre and post surgery, psychiatric disorders and the subjective handicap of epilepsy. Eye disease; the National Eye Institute Visual Function is a 25-item questionnaire designed to assess eye health, intended for use in clinical studies. The survey has been utilized in clinical studies investigating macular degeneration, congenital cataracts and uveitis. Fatigue; the Unidimensional Fatigue Impact Scale was developed in 2009 by Galen Research for the measurement of multiple sclerosis related fatigue. It has been recommended for use in determining fatigue by an independent clinical research study and translated into eight languages.

General Health. The Assessment of Quality of Life scales were psychometrically developed and refined over the past 30 years and are reliable and well-validated. There are 4 instruments available; the Quality of Well-Being Scale was developed in the 1970s, a self-administered version called the QWB-SA was published in 1996. The QWB has been used in studies investigating HIV patients and musculoskeletal disease, amongst others; the EQ-5D is a generalised health-related quality of life measure, developed in 1991 by the EuroQol Group. It has been translated into over 60 languages; the EuroQoL has been extensively used in clinical trials, investigating a range of topics including overactive bladder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and denosumab for osteoporosis. The Nottingham Health Profile is a general patient-reported outcome designed to measure a patient's view of their own health status, in a number of areas, it can be completed in 5 minutes. It was developed in 1975 and current copyright belongs to Galen Research.

Clinical research studies where the NHP has been utilized include investigations into erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, glucocorticoid replacement therapy and transcutaneou

Mining industry of Algeria

Hydrocarbons are the leading sector in Algeria's mineral industry, which includes diverse but modest production of metals and industrial minerals. In 2006, helium production in Algeria accounted for about 13% of total world output. Hydrocarbons produced in Algeria accounted for about 2.9% of total world natural gas output and about 2.2% of total world crude oil output in 2006. Algeria held about 21% of total world identified resources of helium, 2.5% of total world natural gas reserves, about 1% of total world crude oil reserves. Some minerals, such as high-grade iron ore, phosphate and zinc, have been exported since the early 1970s; the state mining and prospecting corporation, the National Company for Mineral Research and Exploration, was established in 1967. As a result of the government's decentralization policy, the company was restructured in 1983 into separate production and distribution entities; the most important of these were an iron ore and phosphate company known as Ferphos, which had three production units and a port complex at Annaba, another company called Erem that specialized in conducting mineral research at Boumerdès on the Mediterranean Sea, Tamanrasset in the south.

In 2000, the government proposed allowing foreign investors to develop mineral deposits held by the national mining companies. The national geologic and mineral research office had identified many mineral deposits. However, these were in remote areas that lacked infrastructure or government funding for development. With Algeria's proximity to Europe, its major minerals customer, the country's base and precious metals are of interest to foreign investors. Guerrilla activity, remains a significant deterrent; the mineral industry is managed by the Ministère de l’Énergie et des Mines and subsidiary organizations, such as the Agence Nationale du Patrimoine Minier. Processed mineral commodities, such as cement and steel, are under the jurisdiction of the Ministère de l’Industrie et de la Restructuration. Nonfuel mineral operations were regulated by law No. 01-10 of July 3, 2001, associated decrees. Natural gas and petroleum operations were regulated by law No. 05-07 of April 28, 2005. Environmental laws applicable to the mineral industry included law No.

03-10 of July 19, 2003, associated decrees, law No. 05-12 of September 4, 2005. Revenue attributed to natural gas and petroleum production and sales activity accounted for 78% of 2006 government income. Hydrocarbon activity accounted for more than 33% of the nation's 2006 gross domestic product; the continued increase of international crude oil and natural gas prices resulted in a significant increase in the value of Algerian exports, most of which were shipped through the country's eight main seaports or exported by pipeline. In 2006, Algerian exports of goods and services were valued at $57.3 billion, of which hydrocarbons accounted for about $53.6 billion, compared with 2005, when exports of goods and services were valued at $48.8 billion, of which hydrocarbons accounted for about $45.6 billion. Other mineral commodity exports included base metals and steel, industrial minerals, precious minerals. About 28,000 people were employed in the mining sector, of which less than one-half was in the private sector.

Aggregate and stone production companies accounted for more than 60% of the mining sector workforce. Several significant changes in production were posted in 2006. Mineral commodities with notable production increases included aggregate and crushed stone, cement, feldspar, iron ore, phosphate rock, construction sand, steel. Mineral commodities with notable production decreases included ammonia, gypsum, pozzolan, silica sand and zinc. About 950 nonfuel mineral operations were active in Algeria in 2006, of which nearly 70% were aggregates, construction sand, or crushed stone operations. Private-sector companies dominated the aggregate, common clay and sand sectors. Large- and medium-sized public-sector enterprises dominated the ranks of barite, cement, natural gas and phosphate rock producers; the joint ventures of private and state-owned companies dominated the gold production sector, the helium production sector, the steel production sector. In late 2006, the government offered to sell its majority interests in Société des Mines de Baryte d’Algérie s.p.a.

Société des Diatomites d’Algérie s.p.a. and Société des Feldspaths d’Algérie s.p.a.. In 2006, ENOF closed the Chabet El Hamra zinc mine, Société des Kaolins d’Algérie s.p.a. closed the Djebel Debbagh kaolin pit. In 2006, about 300 exploration permits were in effect. Notable exploration and development and redevelopment contracts under negotiation included those with subsidiaries of the Mineral Resources Management Bureau of Henan Province, China for the Boukaïs copper prospect, the Boukhedma-Aïn Sedjra-Kef Semmah lead zinc prospects, the El Abed zinc prospect, the Guettara manganese prospect, the Issefane gold prospect. Western Mediterranean Zinc s.p.a., a joint venture of Terramin Australia Ltd. and ENOF, acquired the rights to explore the Oued Amizour zinc project. ENOR produced 38,914 metri

Murray Van Wagoner

Murray Delos Van Wagoner was an American politician. He served as the 38th Governor of Michigan from 1941 to 1943. Van Wagoner was born near Michigan in Tuscola County. In 1921, he received a civil engineering degree from the University of Michigan, he worked for a firm in the private sector, became the owner of his own company. He married Helen Jossman and they had two children together, he served as Oakland County drain commissioner from 1930 until 1933, when he became Michigan State Highway commissioner, a position he held until he was elected governor in 1940. Van Wagoner was a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1936 and 1940, both of which re-nominated Franklin D. Roosevelt for U. S. President. On November 5, 1940, he defeated the incumbent Republican Governor of Michigan, Luren Dickinson, by 131,281 votes to become Michigan's 38th governor. During his two years in office, he encouraged the construction of road projects and most famously the Mackinac Bridge, the elimination of a 27 million dollar deficit occurred, the state mental hospital was reinstated, a consolidated tax collection department was established, worker strikes involving the auto and electrical industries were dealt with, the reorganization of the Michigan civil service system was initialized, measures were secured for the war effort.

In 1942, Van Wagoner was unsuccessful for re-election against Republican Harry Kelly. Van Wagoner was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1944, which re-nominated President Roosevelt for his fourth term. In 1946, he was defeated by Republican Kim Sigler. In October 1947, General Lucius D. Clay appointed Van Wagoner to the post of military governor of Bavaria, succeeding Brigadier General Walter J. Muller.. While military governor, he warned Bavarian Minister-President Hans Ehard against replacing non-Nazi public servants with former Nazis. Van Wagoner resigned the post in November 1949, he was a delegate to the 1952 Democratic National Convention, which nominated Adlai Stevenson for President of the United States. Stevenson lost the general election to General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Van Wagoner returned to his engineering interests, he was a member of American Legion, Freemasons and the National Exchange Club. He died at the age of eighty-eight in Michigan, he is interred at White Chapel Memorial Park Cemetery of Troy.

Today the Michigan Department of Transportation building in Lansing is named after him, The Murray Van Wagoner Transportation Building. National Governors Association The Political Graveyard

Suresh Balaje

Suresh Balaje is an Indian film producer concentrating in Malayalam and Tamil films. He is the son of actor K. Balaji, he has produced many successful ventures like Billa, Vazhvey Maayam, Ulladakkam, 13 B, Yaavarum Nalam, Malamaal Weekly, Phir Milenge and Billa 2. Now he is doing films as executive producer as well as Line producer under the banner Wide Angle Creations with his business partner George Pius and the French film Dheepan which won the Palme d'Or at 68th Cannes Film Festival is a collaboration of Wide Angle Creations and French director Jacques Audiard. Http://www.dishant.com/producer/suresh-balaji.html - http://www.popcorn.oneindia.in/artist-upcoming-movies/.../suresh-balaji.html - Suresh Balaje on IMDb

Skokomish, Washington

Skokomish is a census-designated place in Mason County, United States. The population was 617 at the 2010 census; the town is the headquarters of the Skokomish Indian Tribe. Skokomish is located at 47°20′00″N 123°09′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.9 square miles, of which, 6.7 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 616 people, 186 households, 153 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 92.5 people per square mile. There were 195 housing units at an average density of 29.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.16% White, 78.90% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.27% of the population. There were 186 households out of which 49.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 21.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.7% were non-families.

12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.31 and the average family size was 3.42. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 38.1% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $24,038, the median income for a family was $26,563. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $25,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $9,548. About 26.6% of families and 29.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over