Polokwane known by its former name, Pietersburg, is a city and the capital of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. It is South Africa's largest urban centre north of Gauteng. Polokwane was one of the host cities of the official tournament of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In the 1840s, Voortrekkers under the leadership of Andries Potgieter established Zoutpansbergdorp, a town 100 km to the northwest; this settlement had to be abandoned because of clashes with the local tribes. They founded a new town in 1886 and named it "Pietersburg" in honour of Voortrekker leader Petrus Jacobus Joubert; the British built a concentration camp at Pietersburg during the Boer War to incarcerate 4,000 Boer women and children. The town became a city on 23 April 1992; the city was host to 52nd national conference of the African National Congress, held in December 2007 and saw Jacob Zuma voted as President of the ANC. In 1904, Pietersburg had a population of 3,276. Pietersburg was a white-designated area during apartheid, so had an overwhelming white majority before 1990.

After the dismantling of apartheid, the city still retained a large white population. Neighbouring townships have black majorities; the South African census showed the population of Polokwane City as 130,028 with 43,846 households in the 2011 census. Popular suburbs in the city include Westenburg, Bendor, Moregloed, Ivydale, Flora Park, Fauna Park, Penina Park, Ivy Park, Hospital Park, Ster Park, Broadlands, Southern Gateway and Thornhill. Besides the above-mentioned suburbs in the city, three clusters of suburbs around the city exist: The Seshego cluster - on the north-west outskirts of the city Molepo/Maja/Chuene cluster - 20 km south of the city centre Mankweng/Sebayeng/Dikgale cluster - 30 km east of the city centre Polokwane features a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification. Despite its position on the Tropic of Capricorn, the climate is tempered by its position on a plateau 1230 m above sea level. Average temperatures fall to 11 °C in July; as with much of inland South Africa, Polokwane has experienced notably warmer seasons over the last decade than its long-term average.

Polokwane has a pronounced dry spell during winter. Average annual rainfall is 495 mm, with January the wettest month and July the driest. Polokwane is served by two airports. A public airport, Polokwane International Airport, is just north of the city, while the smaller Pietersburg Civil Airport is south-east of the city. Polokwane lies halfway between Gauteng and the Zimbabwean border on the N1 highway, which connects Zimbabwe with the major cities of South Africa, such as Pretoria, Johannesburg and Cape Town; the R37 provincial route connects the city with Nelspruit. Running east, the R71 connects the city with Tzaneen, Phalaborwa and the Kruger National Park. To north-east, is the R81 connecting the city with Giyani and Malamulele; the R521 connects the city with Alldays and the R567 via Seshego connects Polokwane with the N11. The R71 is well known to bikers who ride through the city annually, making it the biggest bike meeting in Africa; the Nelson Mandela road traffic island is situated on the outskirts of Polokwane when approaching from the direction of Johannesburg.

It was built prior to the 2010 FIFA World Cup as part of beautifying the city for the event. A number of private bus services run in the city and services connect Polokwane to other major centers in the country. Polokwane is connected to other major centres by rail. Agricultural produce in the area, including tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar cane, tea and avocados, is transported by freight rail; the South African Broadcasting Corporation has a branch in the city. The city hosts a branch of the country's largest independent radio station, Jacaranda RM/FM, broadcast from either Pretoria, Mbombela or Polokwane; the first commercial radio station in Limpopo, CapricornFM, broadcasts from the city. Two additional radio stations are situated in Polokwane; these include Energy FM and Munghana Lonene FM. The city has a selection of locally distributed newspapers. Two notable newspapers include The Polokwane Observer; the Sun International casino and hotel is in Polokwane. Meropa Casino and Entertainment World is a Moroccan-style, 24-hour casino with various outdoor entertainment amenities such as go-karts, a wildlife park.

The Bakone Malapa Northern Sotho Open-Air Museum — Depicts the traditional and modern-day lifestyle of the Bakone people. The museum is centered on a traditional village still occupied by members of the tribe, who sell various crafts to tourists. Background information can be obtained in the visitor center. Within the museum complex are archaeological sites with remains of iron- and copper-smelting installations, as well as rock paintings from around 1000 B. C. Eersteling Monuments — The site of the country's first gold crushing site and its first gold power plant are marked by monuments; the Irish House — Historic building which functions as a museum. One of the earliest churches established in Polokwane was the "English Church." Prior to 1894, there were occasional services for the English Church held by visiting priests in the local Court House. Work began on buildin


Birdwings are butterflies in the swallowtail family, that belong to the genera Trogonoptera and Ornithoptera. Most recent authorities recognise 36 species, this is debated, some authorities include additional genera. Birdwings are named for their exceptional size, angular wings, birdlike flight, they are found across tropical Asia and archipelagic Southeast Asia, Australasia. Included among the birdwings are some of the largest butterflies in the world: the largest, Queen Alexandra's birdwing. Another well-known species is Rajah Brooke's birdwing, a attractive species named after Sir James Brooke, the first White Rajah of 19th-century Sarawak. Due to their size and brightly coloured males, they are popular among collectors of butterflies, but all birdwings are now listed by CITES, thereby limiting international trade. Troides prattorum × Troides oblongomaculatus bouruensis — Troides mixtum Ornithoptera rothschildi × Ornithoptera priamus poseidon — Ornithoptera akakeae Ornithoptera victoriae × Ornithoptera priamus urvillianus — Ornithoptera allotei After mating, females begin to seek appropriate host plants.

The female lays her spherical eggs under the tips of the vine's leaves, one egg per leaf. The caterpillars are voracious eaters but move little. If starved due to overcrowding, the caterpillars may resort to cannibalism. Fleshy spine-like tubercles line the caterpillars' backs, their bodies are dark red to brown and velvety black; some species have tubercles of contrasting colours red, or pale "saddle" markings. Like other members of their family, birdwing caterpillars possess a retractable organ behind their heads called an osmeterium. Shaped like the forked tongue of a snake, the osmeterium excretes a fetid terpene-based compound and is deployed when the caterpillar is provoked; the caterpillars are unappealing to most predators due to their toxicity: the vines which the caterpillars feed upon contain aristolochic acid, a poisonous compound known to be carcinogenic in rats. The feeding caterpillars incorporate and concentrate the aristolochic acid into their tissues, where the poison will persist through metamorphosis and into adulthood.

Birdwing chrysalids are camouflaged to look like twig. Before pupating, the caterpillars may wander considerable distances from their host plants. In O. alexandrae, it takes about four months to get from egg to adult. Barring predation, this species can survive up to three months as an adult. Birdwings inhabit rainforests and adults are glimpsed along the forest periphery, they feed upon—and are important long-range pollinators of—nectar-bearing flowers of the forest canopy, as well as terrestrial flowers, such as lantana. They are strong seek sunlit spots in which to bask. Breeding behaviour varies little between species. Birdwings are typified by large size, showy colouration, slender, lanceolate forewings. With few exceptions, the hindwings lack tails. Sexual dimorphism is strong in Ornithoptera species only, where males are black combined with bright iridescent green, orange, or yellow while the larger and less colourful females are overall black or dark brownish with white, pale brown, or yellow markings.

Males and females of most Troides birdwings are similar and have jet black to brown dorsal forewings with the veins bordered in grey to creamy white. At least one of these darkly-coloured species possesses thermoreceptors on the anal veins of the wings and on the antennal clubs; the antennal receptors of the clubs—which possess hygroreceptors that measure atmospheric humidity—are known as sensilla basiconica. The thermoreceptors are sensitive to sudden increases in temperature; the colours of most species are pigmentary. This "grazing iridescence" is brought about through diffraction of light by the wings' steeply-set, multilayered rib-like scales; such limited-view iridescence was only known from one other species, the riodinid Ancyluris meliboeus. In A. meliboeus, the iridescence is produced by ridge-lamellar scales and features a wider range of colours. The close evolutionary relationship between Troides and Ornithoptera butterflies is well demonstrated by the fact that commercial breeders have produced numerous hybrids between the two.

The final and smallest genus is Trogonoptera with just two species. They resemble each being overall black with iridescent green markings and a red head. Females are duller than males. Birdwings are f

The Nightly News

The Nightly News is a six-issue American comic book limited series written and drawn by Jonathan Hickman and published by Image Comics. At an anti-globalisation rally in New York City, a sniper called John Guyton — who calls himself “The Hand of The Voice” — shoots a protestor, causing panic. However, his true target is soon revealed when he, along with a couple of allies, proceeds to gun down multiple reporters and camera crews who arrive to cover the story. All three, along with their fellow “brothers” and “sisters”, are members of a revolutionary cult made up of individuals whose lives were destroyed when they were targets of sensationalistic, irresponsible and/or fraudulent media coverage, all are determined to destroy the mainstream media under the guidance of The Voice, their messianic leader who communicates with them only by cassette tape; as more attacks on journalists occur, including the bombing of a bar frequented by reporters, high-ranking media moguls begin to pressure Senator Jay Rector, Chairman of the Senate FCC Oversight Committee, for increased protections for journalists.

Their true motives, are more cynical. Meanwhile, disgraced journalist James Andrews is approached by Guyton and recruited into the cult, is indoctrinated into their methods and motives until faced with his ultimate recruitment test — murdering fellow journalist Warner Rogers, the New York Times reporter who broke the story of the journalistic fraud that ruined Andrews’ life. Andrews brings him to a cult deprogrammer. In response to the attacks, Senator Rector has drafted legislation called the Freedom of Media Act, but in addition to increased protections for journalists informs the media moguls that they must accept either increased government oversight or weaker protections against liability for the stories they publish. After being freed from his brainwashing, Guyton is overcome with remorse at his actions and agrees to go with Andrews to the police and confess what he has done. Before he can, however, he is intercepted by a limo owned by the Voice, leaving Andrews to face the police by himself.

When Andrews’ links to the cult are uncovered by the police, they accuse him of being the ringleader of the cult. As Rogers is dead and there is no other evidence that Andrews was undercover, Andrews realises that the cult has set him up as a fall guy. Guyton speaks to The Voice via speakerphone. Guyton confronts Lee, who admits that his main motivation for writing the story and destroying Guyton was for power and because he could. Guyton decides to complete The Voice's plan. A series of coordinated attacks on the media occur, killing all of the media moguls and several well-known journalists. During the attacks, most of the members of the cult are killed, including Guyton. Following the attacks, the Freedom of Media Act is passed by the US Congress. James Andrews has been convicted despite his protestations of innocence. After his conviction, Senator Rector visits Andrews in prison and reveals that he is the Voice, set Andrews up because he knew all along that Andrews was a reporter. Rector experienced an epiphany after a bout of late-life depression and decided to spend his remaining years destroying the institutions he thought were corrupting America, using weak and easily-manipulated victims of the media as his tools.

Leaving Andrews in prison, Rector meets with the surviving members of the cult to plan a campaign against his next target — lawyers. 2008: Nominated for "Best Limited Series" Eisner Award. The series has been collected into a trade paperback: The Nightly News Network Hard News Foreword and preview of the collected edition Behind "The Nightly News", Comic Book Resources, February, 2007 Podcast interview with Hickman on The Nightly News and Pax Romana Jonathan Hickman: The Design of Things to Come, Publishers Weekly, September 17, 2007