Polonius is a character in William Shakespeare's Hamlet. He is chief counsellor of the play's villain and the father of Laertes and Ophelia. Regarded as wrong in every judgment he makes over the course of the play, Polonius is described by William Hazlitt as a "sincere" father, but "a busy-body, is accordingly officious and impertinent". In Act II, Hamlet refers to Polonius as a "tedious old fool" and taunts him as a latter day "Jephtha". Polonius connives with Claudius to spy on Hamlet. Hamlet unknowingly kills Polonius, provoking Ophelia's descent into madness resulting in her suicide and the climax of the play: a duel between Laertes and Hamlet. Father of Ophelia and Laertes, counselor to King Claudius, he is described as a windbag by some and a rambler of wisdom by others, it has been suggested that he only acts like a "foolish prating knave" to keep his position and popularity safe and to keep anyone from discovering his plots for social advancement. It is important to note that throughout the play, Polonius is characterised as a typical Renaissance "new man", who pays much attention to appearances and ceremonious behaviour.
Some adaptations show him conspiring with Claudius in the murder of King Hamlet. In Act 1, Scene 3, Polonius gives advice to his son Laertes, leaving for France, in the form of a list of sententious maxims, he finishes by giving his son his blessing, is at ease with his son's departure. However, in Act 2, Scene 1, he orders his servant Reynaldo to travel to Paris and spy on Laertes and report if he is indulging in any local vice. Laertes is not the only character, he is fearful that Hamlet's relationship with his daughter will hurt his reputation with the king and instructs Ophelia to "lock herself from resort". He suspects that Ophelia's rejection of Hamlet's attention has caused the prince to lose his wits, informs Gertrude and Claudius of his suspicion, claiming that his reason for commanding Ophelia to reject Hamlet was that the prince was above her station, he and the king test his hypothesis by interrogating Ophelia. In his last attempt to spy on Hamlet, Polonius hides himself behind an arras in Gertrude's room.
Hamlet deals with his mother, causing her to cry for help. Polonius echoes the request for help and is heard by Hamlet, who mistakes the voice for Claudius' and stabs through the arras and kills him. Polonius' death at the hands of Hamlet causes Claudius to fear for his own life, Ophelia to go mad, Laertes to seek revenge, which leads to the duel in the final act; the literary origins of the character may be traced to the King's counselor found in the Belleforest and William Painter versions of the Hamlet legend. However, at least since the 19th century scholars have sought to understand the character in terms of Elizabethan court politics. Polonius was first proposed as a parody of Queen Elizabeth's leading counsellor, Lord Treasurer, Principal Secretary William Cecil, Lord Burghley in 1869. Israel Gollancz suggested that Polonius might have been a satire on Burghley; the theory was finessed with supplementary arguments, but disputed. Arden Hamlet editor Harold Jenkins, for example, criticised the idea of any direct personal satire of Burghley as "unlikely" and "uncharacteristic of Shakespeare".
Gollancz proposed that the source for the character's name and sententious platitudes was De optimo senatore, a book on statesmanship by the Polish courtier Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki, read after it was translated into English and published in 1598 under the title The Counsellor. "Polonius" is Latin for "Polish" or "a/the Polish man." The English translation of the book refers to its author as a statesman of the "polonian empyre". In the first quarto of Hamlet, Polonius is named "Corambis", it has been suggested that this derives from "crambe" or "crambo", derived from a Latin phrase meaning "reheated cabbage", implying "a boring old man" who spouts trite rehashed ideas. Whether this was the original name of the character or not is debated. Various suggestions have been made to explain this. G. R. Hibbard argues that the name was Polonius, but was changed because Q1 derives from a version of the play to be performed in Oxford and Cambridge, the original name was too close to that of Robert Polenius, founder of Oxford University.
Since Polonius is a parody of a pompous pseudo-intellectual, the name might have been interpreted as a deliberate insult. The title page of Q1 states that the play was performed in London and Cambridge. In most productions of the 20th century, up to about 1980, Polonius was played as a somewhat senile, garrulous man of about seventy-five or so, eliciting a few laughs from the audience by the depiction. More recent productions have tended to play him as a younger man, to emphasise his shiftiness rather than pompous senility, harking back to the traditional manner in which Polonius was played before the 20th century; until the 1900s there was a tradition that the actor who plays Polonius plays the quick-witted gravedigger in Act V. This bit suggests that the actor who played Polonius was an actor used to playing clowns much like the Fool in King Lear: not a doddering old fool, but an alive and intelligent master of illusion and misdirection. Polonius is a controlling and menacing character. One key to the portrayal is a producer's decision to keep or remove the brief scene with his servant, which comes after his scene of genial, fatherly advice to Laertes.
He instructs Reynaldo to spy on his son, suggest that he has been gambling and consorting with prostitutes, to find out what he has been up to. The inclusi
The Zettabyte Era is a period of human and computer science history that started in one of two ways: the global IP traffic first exceeded that of one zettabyte, which happened in 2016. A zettabyte is a multiple of the unit byte that measures digital storage, it is equivalent to 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes. According to Cisco Systems, an American multinational technology conglomerate, the global IP traffic achieved an estimated 1.2 zettabytes in 2016. Global IP traffic refers to all digital data that passes over an IP network which includes, but is not limited to, the public Internet; the largest contributing factor to the growth of IP traffic comes from video traffic. The Zettabyte Era can be understood as an age of growth of all forms of digital data that exist in the world which includes the public Internet, but all other forms of digital data such as stored data from security cameras or voice data from cell-phone calls. Taking into account this second definition of the Zettabyte Era, it was estimated that in 2012 upwards of 1 zettabyte of data existed in the world and that by 2020 there would be more than 40 zettabytes of data in the world at large.
The Zettabyte Era translates to difficulties for data centers to keep up with the explosion of data consumption and replication. In 2015, 2% of total global power was taken up by the Internet and all its components, so energy efficiency with regards to data centers has become a central problem in the Zettabyte Era. A zettabyte is a digital unit of measurement. One zettabyte is equal to one sextillion bytes or 1021 bytes or, one zettabyte is equal to a trillion gigabytes. To put this into perspective, consider that "if each terabyte in a zettabyte were a kilometre, it would be equivalent to 1,300 round trips to the moon and back". Or, as former Google CEO Eric Schmidt puts it, from the beginning of humanity to the year 2003, an estimated 5 exabytes of information was created, which corresponds to the 0.5% of a zettabyte only. In 2013 that amount of information took only two days to create and that pace is continuously growing; the concept of the Zettabyte Era can be separated into two distinct categories: In terms of IP traffic: This first definition refers to the total amount of data to traverse global IP networks such as the public Internet.
In Canada for example, there has been an average growth of 50.4% of data downloaded by residential Internet subscribers from 2011 to 2016. According to this definition, the Zettabyte Era began in 2016 when global IP traffic surpassed one zettabyte, estimated to have reached 1.2 zettabytes. In terms of all forms of digital data: In this second definition, the Zettabyte Era refers to the total amount of all the digital data that exists in any form, from digital films to transponders that record highway usage to SMS text messages. According to this definition, the Zettabyte Era began in 2012, when the amount of digital data in the world surpassed that of one zettabyte. In 2016, Cisco Systems stated that the Zettabyte Era was now reality when global IP traffic reached an estimated 1.2 zettabytes. Cisco provided future predictions of global IP traffic in their report The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis; this report uses current and past global IP traffic statistics to forecast future trends. The report predicts trends between 2016 and 2021.
Here are some of the predictions for 2021 found in the report: Global IP traffic will triple and is estimated to reach 3.3 ZB on a yearly basis In 2016 video traffic accounted for 73% of total traffic. In 2021 this will increase to 82% The number of devices connected to IP networks will be more than three times the global population The amount of time it would take for one person to watch the entirety of video that will traverse global IP networks in one month is 5 million years PC traffic will be exceeded by smartphone traffic. PC traffic will account for 25% of total IP traffic while smartphone traffic will be 33% There will be a twofold increase in broadband speeds There are many factors that brought about the rise of the Zettabyte Era. Increases in video streaming, mobile phone usage, broadband speeds and data center storage are all contributing factors that led to the rise of data consumption and replication. There is a large, ever-growing consumption of multimedia, including video streaming, on the Internet that has contributed to the rise of the Zettabyte Era.
In 2011 it was estimated that 25-40% of IP traffic was taken up by video streaming services. Since video IP traffic has nearly doubled to an estimated 73% of total IP traffic. Furthermore, Cisco has predicted that this trend will continue into the future, estimating that by 2021, 82% of total IP traffic will come from video traffic; the amount of data used by video streaming services depends on the quality of the video. Thus, Android Central breaks down. According to their findings, per hour video between 240p and 320p resolution uses 0.3GB. Standard video, clocked in at a resolution of 480p, uses 0.7GB per hour. High-definition video which varies between 720p and 2k resolution uses about 0.9GB, 1.5GB and 3GB per hour. 4K video, known as ultra-high-definition video, uses about 7.2GB per hour. Netflix and YouTube are at the top of the list in terms of the most globally streamed video services online. In 2016, Netflix represented 32.72% of all video streaming IP traff
Ayoola Ogundeyi Jr. better known as Ayo Jay, is an English-born Nigerian singer and songwriter. He has a record deal with One Nation and RCA, is known as Boy Wonder. Ayo Jay discovered his abilities for songwriting at a young age. After graduating from International School, Lagos in Nigeria in 2006, Ayo Jay relocated to the United States to pursue a college degree in finance and investment from Baruch College. In 2013, Ayo Jay signed a recording deal with One Nation Records and released "Your Number" on 21 June 2013; the music video for "Your Number" was shot in Atlanta. Its remix features rap vocals from Fetty Wap and was released on 16 July 2015. "Your Number" was re-released by RCA Records on 11 November 2015, after Ayo Jay signed a record deal with the label. List of Nigerian musicians Ayo Jay's profile at One Nation Records
The 1911–12 season was the 24th season of The Football League. Blackburn Rovers won the First Division title for the first time. Bury and Preston North End were relegated to the Second Division, their places in the First Division were taken by Derby County and Chelsea; the tables below are reproduced here in the exact form. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation website and in Rothmans Book of Football League Records 1888–89 to 1978–79, with home and away statistics separated. Beginning with the season 1894–95, clubs finishing level on points were separated according to goal average, or more properly put, goal ratio. In case one or more teams had the same goal difference, this system favoured those teams who had scored fewer goals; the goal average system was scrapped beginning with the 1976–77 season. Since the goal average was used for this purpose for such a long time, it is presented in the tables below for the seasons prior to 1894–95, since the goal difference is a more informative piece of information for a modern reader than the goal average, the goal difference is added in this presentation after the goal average.
From the 1894–95 season and until the 1920–21 season the re-election process was required of the clubs which finished in the bottom three of the league. 1911-12 in English football 1911 in association football 1912 in association football Ian Laschke: Rothmans Book of Football League Records 1888–89 to 1978–79. Macdonald and Jane’s, London & Sydney, 1980
Suteria ide is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial gastropod mollusc in the family Charopidae. This species is endemic to New Zealand; the shell of this species reaches 4.5 mm high. The shells are covered in short bristles, which reduce the amount of excess soil and water adhering to the shell. Suteria ide lives under logs and dead leaves; these snails can be found in the upper half of the South Island of New Zealand. Brockie, Bob. "Native plants and animals – overview - Forest animals". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Marshall, B.. "Suteria ide. In: MolluscaBase". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2016-04-15. Powell, A. W. B.. New Zealand mollusca: marine and freshwater shells. Auckland: Collins. P. 312. ISBN 0002169061. Solem, A.. J.. "Sympatric species diversity of New Zealand land snails". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 8: 465. Doi:10.1080/03014223.1981.10427971. ISSN 0301-4223. OCLC 60524666. "NZOR Name Details - Suteria ide". New Zealand Organisms Register. Image of Suteria ide
The 1972–73 DDR-Oberliga was the 24th season of the DDR-Oberliga, the first tier of league football in East Germany. The league was contested by fourteen teams. Dynamo Dresden won the club's third of eight East German championships. Hans-Jürgen Kreische of Dynamo Dresden was the league's top scorer with 26 goals, the third of a record four top scorer finishes for Kreische, with him winning the seasons East German Footballer of the year award. On the strength of the 1972–73 title Dresden qualified for the 1973–74 European Cup where the club was knocked out by Bundesliga champions FC Bayern Munich in the second round, it was the first time the East and West German champions were drawn against each other in an UEFA competition and resulted in a close contest, Bayern winning 7–6 on aggregate. Third-placed club 1. FC Magdeburg qualified for the 1973–74 European Cup Winners' Cup as the seasons FDGB-Pokal winners and won the competition after a 2–0 final victory over AC Milan, the greatest success of any East German club in Europe.
Second-placed FC Carl Zeiss Jena qualified for the 1973–74 UEFA Cup where it was knocked out in the second round by Ruch Chorzów while fourth-placed 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig lost to Tottenham Hotspur in the semi-finals, having overcome Fortuna Düsseldorf in the third round in another German East-West encounter; the 1972–73 season saw two newly promoted clubs BSG Chemie Leipzig and FC Rot-Weiss Erfurt. "Das war unser Fußball im Osten". Fußball-Woche. Berlin: Axel-Springer-Verlag. 1991. Das Deutsche Fussball Archiv Historic German league tables