Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain. As a specific material, it most refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate. Polyesters include occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics such as polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not; the material is used extensively in clothing. Polyester fibers are sometimes spun together with natural fibers to produce a cloth with blended properties. Cotton-polyester blends can be strong, wrinkle- and tear-resistant, reduce shrinking. Synthetic fibers using polyester have high water and environmental resistance compared to plant-derived fibers, they can melt when ignited. Polyester blends have been renamed so as to suggest their similarity or superiority to natural fibers Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially used liquid crystal polymers, they are used for their mechanical properties and heat-resistance.
These traits are important in their application as an abradable seal in jet engines. Natural polyesters could have played a significant role in the origins of life. Long heterogeneous polyester chains and membraneless structures are known to form in a one-pot reaction without catalyst under simple prebiotic conditions. Depending on the chemical structure, polyester can be a thermoset. There are polyester resins cured by hardeners. Examples of thermoset polyesters include some of the Desmophen brand from Bayer; the OH group is reacted with an Isocyanate functional compound in a 2 component system producing coatings which may optionally be pigmented. Polyesters as thermoplastics may change shape after the application of heat. While combustible at high temperatures, polyesters tend to shrink away from flames and self-extinguish upon ignition. Polyester fibers have high tenacity and E-modulus as well as low water absorption and minimal shrinkage in comparison with other industrial fibers. Unsaturated polyesters are thermosetting resins.
They are used in the liquid state as casting materials, in sheet molding compounds, as fiberglass laminating resins and in non-metallic auto-body fillers. They are used as the thermoset polymer matrix in pre-pregs. Fiberglass-reinforced unsaturated polyesters find wide application in bodies of yachts and as body parts of cars. According to the composition of their main chain, polyesters can be: Increasing the aromatic parts of polyesters increases their glass transition temperature, melting temperature, thermal stability, chemical stability... Polyesters can be telechelic oligomers like the polycaprolactone diol and the polyethylene adipate diol, they are used as prepolymers. Fabrics woven or knitted from polyester thread or yarn are used extensively in apparel and home furnishings, from shirts and pants to jackets and hats, bed sheets, upholstered furniture and computer mouse mats. Industrial polyester fibers and ropes are used in car tire reinforcements, fabrics for conveyor belts, safety belts, coated fabrics and plastic reinforcements with high-energy absorption.
Polyester fiber is used as cushioning and insulating material in pillows and upholstery padding. Polyester fabrics are stain-resistant—in fact, the only class of dyes which can be used to alter the color of polyester fabric are what are known as disperse dyes. Polyesters are used to make bottles, tarpaulin, liquid crystal displays, filters, dielectric film for capacitors, film insulation for wire and insulating tapes. Polyesters are used as a finish on high-quality wood products such as guitars and vehicle/yacht interiors. Thixotropic properties of spray-applicable polyesters make them ideal for use on open-grain timbers, as they can fill wood grain, with a high-build film thickness per coat. Cured polyesters can be polished to a high-gloss, durable finish. Polyester is a synthetic polymer made of purified terephthalic acid or its dimethyl ester dimethyl terephthalate and monoethylene glycol. With 18% market share of all plastic materials produced, it ranges third after polyethylene and polypropylene.
The main raw materials are described as follows: Purified terephthalic acid CAS-No.: 100-21-0 Synonym: 1,4 benzenedicarboxylic acid, Sum formula: C6H42, mol. weight: 166.13 Dimethylterephthalate CAS-No.: 120-61-6 Synonym: 1,4 benzenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, Sum formula: C6H42, mol. weight: 194.19 Mono-ethylene glycol CAS No.: 107-21-1 Synonym: 1,2 ethanediol, Sum formula: C2H6O2, mol. weight: 62.07To make a polymer of high molecular weight a catalyst is needed. The most common catalyst is antimony trioxide: Antimony trioxide CAS-No.: 1309-64-4 mol. weight: 291.51, Sum formula: Sb2O3In 2008, about 10,000 tonnes Sb2O3 were used to produce around 49 million tonnes polyethylene terephthalate. Polyester is described as follows: Polyethylene terephthalate CAS-No.: 25038-59-9 Synonyms/abbreviations: polyester, PET, PES, Sum formula: H--n=60–120 OH, mol. unit weight: 192.17There are several reasons for the importance of polyester: The easy accessible raw materials PTA or DMT and MEG The well understood and described simple chemical process of polyester synthesis The low toxicity level of all raw materials and side products d
Eddie Crowder was an American football player and coach. He was an All-American quarterback and safety at the University of Oklahoma in the early 1950s and a successful head coach and athletic director at the University of Colorado in the 1960s and 1970s, he is quoted as saying "Life is boring for someone trying to achieve greatness." Born in Arkansas City, Crowder was raised in Muskogee, Oklahoma. He played quarterback at Muskogee Central High School and won the state championship in 1948. Crowder was a member of Oklahoma's first National Football Championship team in 1950, led Oklahoma to two Big Seven titles as quarterback in 1951 and 1952 and was selected all-conference the same years. Oklahoma was 26–4–1 during his three years as a player, he was 61 for 110 with 11 touchdowns for 1189 yards passing. He was selected in the second round of the 1953 NFL Draft by the New York Giants, but declined due to a nerve problem in his throwing arm and served in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers as quarterback of the Fort Hood team for 1953.
His jersey number was listed at 6 ft 0 in and 170 lb. Although selected by the Giants, Crowder went to Canada in 1953 and played the first half of the season with the Edmonton Eskimos, alternating starts at quarterback with Claude Arnold, he was cut by head coach Darrell Royal because of limitations on the number of American players that a team could carry past a certain date. Crowder led the Eskimos to victory in all four of his games, but Royal decided to stick with the veteran Arnold. In a game in Calgary on September 5, Crowder played the full game at quarterback without throwing a single pass. "Easy Ed" was one of many Oklahoma grads to play for the Eskimos in the 1950s. Crowder was an assistant coach under Red Blaik at Army in 1955 and for Bud Wilkinson back at Oklahoma for eight seasons, he became the head coach of the Buffaloes in January 1963 and restored the program's respectability and earned national respect while rebuilding the program. His initial contract was for five years at $15,000 per year.
In 1971, CU was third in the nation at 10 -- 2, behind only Big Eight rivals Oklahoma. This was the first time that two teams from the same conference topped the final poll, it remains as the only time that a conference had the top three. Crowder has the third best record as head coach at Colorado at 67–49–2, his teams went to five bowl games while he was head coach: the 1967 Bluebonnet, 1969 Liberty, 1970 Liberty, 1971 Astro-Bluebonnet, 1972 Gator. He assumed the athletic director duties in 1965, retired from coaching in 1973, hired his three replacements: Bill Mallory, Chuck Fairbanks, most Bill McCartney, CU's all-time winningest coach at 93–55–5. Crowder stepped down as AD in 1986. With his wife Kate, Crowder resided in Boulder after his retirement from CU, he maintained ties to both Oklahoma and Colorado football programs, assisted in the selections of Oklahoma head coach Bob Stoops and Colorado head coach Dan Hawkins. He was a voter in the Harris College Football Poll. Crowder battled Hodgkin's lymphoma in 2003, died of leukemia in 2008.
All-Conference 1951, 1952 All-American, 1952 Colorado Sports Hall of Fame, 1990 Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame, 2003 University of Colorado athletic hall of fame, 2004 FWAA Citation of Honor, 2007 Eddie Crowder at Find a Grave
Boots and the Troll is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in Norwegian Folktales. An old man burned in hell, his three sons set out to seek their fortune. The two older would have nothing to do with the youngest son, whom they said was fit for nothing but to sit and poke about in ashes; the youngest brought a kneading-trough, the only thing their parents had left behind, which his brothers had not bothered with. His brothers got places under the coachman and gardener at the royal castle, he got one in the kitchen, he did so much better than they did that they became envious and told the coachman that he had said he could get for the king seven silver ducks that belonged to a troll, which the king had long desired. The coachman told the king; when the king insisted that he do it, he demanded wheat and rye, rowed over the lake, in the kneading trough, to the troll's place, lured the ducks into the trough using the grain. His brothers told the coachman he had said he could steal the troll's bed-quilt, the coachman again told the king.
He demanded three days, when he saw the bed-quilt being hung out to air, he stole it. This time, the king made him his body-servant, his brothers told the coachman he had said he could steal the troll's golden harp that made everyone who heard it glad, the coachman again told the king. He said, he rowed over, with a nail, a birch-pin, a taper-end, let the troll see him. It seized him at once, put him in a pen to fatten him. One day he stuck out the nail instead of his finger the birch-pin, the taper-end, at which point they concluded he was fat enough; the troll went off to ask guests to come, his daughter went to slaughter the youth. He told her the knife wasn't sharp enough, sharpened it, suggested testing it on one of her braids, he sat in the corner dressed in her clothing, the troll ate his daughter and asked if he didn't want any. The youth said; the troll told him to get the harp, where it was. The youth set off in the kneading trough again; the troll shouted after him, the youth told him he had eaten his own daughter.
That made him burst, the youth took all the troll's gold and silver, with them won the princess's hand in marriage and half the kingdom. And his brothers were killed by boulders when they went up a mountain. Corvetto Esben and the Witch Jack and the Beanstalk The Gold-bearded Man The Grateful Beasts The Little Girl Sold with the Pears The Three Aunts Thirteenth