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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction is a method used in molecular biology to make millions to billions of copies of a specific DNA sample allowing scientists to take a small sample of DNA and amplify it to a large enough amount to study in detail. PCR was invented in 1983 by Kary Mullis, it is fundamental to much of genetic testing including analysis of ancient samples of DNA and identification of infectious agents. Using PCR, copies of small amounts of DNA sequences are exponentially amplified in a series or cycles of temperature changes. PCR is now a common and indispensable technique used in medical laboratory and clinical laboratory research for a broad variety of applications including biomedical research and criminal forensics; the majority of PCR methods rely on thermal cycling. Thermal cycling exposes reactants to repeated cycles of heating and cooling to permit different temperature-dependent reactions – DNA melting and enzyme-driven DNA replication. PCR employs two main reagents -- a DNA polymerase.

In the first step of PCR, the two strands of the DNA double helix are physically separated at a high temperature in a process called Nucleic acid denaturation. In the second step, the temperature is lowered and the primers bind to the complementary sequences of DNA; the two DNA strands become templates for DNA polymerase to enzymatically assemble a new DNA strand from free nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is itself used as a template for replication, setting in motion a chain reaction in which the original DNA template is exponentially amplified. All PCR applications employ a heat-stable DNA polymerase, such as Taq polymerase, an enzyme isolated from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus. If the polymerase used was heat-susceptible, it would denature under the high temperatures of the denaturation step. Before the use of Taq polymerase, DNA polymerase had to be manually added every cycle, a tedious and costly process. Applications of the technique include DNA cloning for sequencing, gene cloning and manipulation, gene mutagenesis.

PCR amplifies a specific region of a DNA strand. Most PCR methods amplify DNA fragments of between 0.1 and 10 kilo base pairs in length, although some techniques allow for amplification of fragments up to 40 kbp. The amount of amplified product is determined by the available substrates in the reaction, which become limiting as the reaction progresses. A basic PCR set-up requires several components and reagents, including: a DNA template that contains the DNA target region to amplify a DNA polymerase; the thermal cycler heats and cools the reaction tubes to achieve the temperatures required at each step of the reaction. Many modern thermal cyclers make use of the Peltier effect, which permits both heating and cooling of the block holding the PCR tubes by reversing the electric current. Thin-walled reaction tubes permit favorable thermal conductivity to allow for rapid thermal equilibration. Most thermal cyclers have heated lids to prevent condensation at the top of the reaction tube. Older thermal cyclers lacking a heated lid require a layer of oil on top of the reaction mixture or a ball of wax inside the tube.

PCR consists of a series of 20–40 repeated temperature changes, called thermal cycles, with each cycle consisting of two or three discrete temperature steps. The cycling is preceded by a single temperature step at a high temperature, followed by one hold at the end for final product extension or brief storage; the temperatures used and the length of time they are applied in each cycle depend on a variety of parameters, including the enzyme used for DNA synthesis, the concentration of bivalent ions and dNTPs in the reaction, the melting temperature of the primers. The individual steps common to most PCR methods are as follows: Initializ

Ryō (actress)

Ryō is a Japanese model, voice actress and former singer whose birth name is Yumiko Miyada. Soseiji Harmful Insect Distance Rock'n Roll Mishin Azumi Bright Future aka Akarui Mirai Alive Casshern Walking with the Dog Canary Welcome to the Quiet Room The Witch of the West is Dead Goemon Long Vacation Taira no Kiyomori, Taikenmon'in no Horikawa Mare Bitter Sugar Code Blue 2 Konkatsu! Zeni Geba Code Blue SP Ryusei no Kizuna Code Blue Hokaben Top Sales in episodes 1-2 Mada Minu Chichi e, Haha e Iryu 2 in episode 1 Barefoot Gen Sexy Voice and Robo in episode 6 Kirakira Kenshui Suppli Top Caster in episode 5 Jikou Keisatsu in episode 9 Last Christmas Ichiban Taisetsuna Date ~ Tokyo no Sora, Shanghai no Yume Rikon Bengoshi in episode 5 Boku to Kanojo to Kanojo no Ikiru Michi Message: Kotaba ga Uragitte Iku Kaidan Hyaku Monogatari in episode 7 Nemurenu Yoru Wo Daite Hito ni Yasashiku Hero in episode 9 Love Complex Joi Naomi Aishi Suginakute Yokatta Face Koi no bakansu Chaos Legion Belladonna Indigo Blue "Hints of Love" "Hysteric Candy" "Belladonna" "Kiete yo" Official website Ryō on IMDb

Krasny Oktyabr (confectionery brand)

OJSC Krasny Oktyabr is a Russian confectionery manufacturer and a member of the United Confectioners holding company. Its parent company was 17th in the list of the largest candy companies in the world, with sales amounting to $1.196 billion. The company was founded by the German Theodor Ferdinand von Einem. Von Einem sold his stake in the enterprise to German Julius Heuss, who became its director in 1878, retaining the position until his death in 1907. In 1896, the Einem factory won a gold medal at the All-Russian Industrial and Artistic Exhibition, it was allowed to supply confectionery to the court of the tsar. At the turn of the 20th century, the Einem factory won chocolatiers' competitions across Europe, its advertising was displayed prominently in Moscow. After the October Revolution of 1917, the company was given its current name. During World War II, the factory reoriented its production towards the manufacturing of military rations, including high-caffeine chocolate. After the fall of the Soviet regime, the company continued to use the Krasny Oktyabr name for its brand recognition, but it began to decorate the boxes and labels with Tsarist-era motifs.

Krasny Oktyabr was privatised in 1993. In the 1990s, it became one of the few large business concerns in Moscow to be privatised successfully. At the same time, it had to compete with foreign companies such as Mars Inc. Produced since 1965, this is one of the most famous chocolate bars from the Krasny Oktyabr factory. Today, they are still just as popular as. Alyonka can be described as a long thin bar of chocolate weighing 100 grams; the bar is subdivided into 3x5 tiles, each of which has the name of the factory imprinted on it in Russian - «Красный Октябрь». The wrapper depicts a blue-eyed girl wearing a traditional Russian head scarf, "Alyonka", an endearing form of the name Alyona; the illustration is based on a photograph of the daughter of one of the artists working at the factory. Though many women have claimed to have been the famous child, the company denies that the image was based on a real girl; the production site of Krasny Oktyabr was located on the Moskva River embankment, a couple of kilometres from the Kremlin.

The plant was relocated to the outskirts of Moscow in 2007, the famous red brick factory was redeveloped into apartment complexes and restaurants. The development hosts art and photo galleries and designer studios, being described as Moscow’s answer to New York’s Tribeca. Among the organisations to make use of the former factory site are the Strelka Institute, the Baibakov Art Projects, the Moscow Biennale and the Lumiere Brothers Center for Photography. Official website Media related to Krasny Oktyabr confectionery at Wikimedia Commons

Steve Aylott

Steve Aylott is an English former professional footballer who played as a defensive midfielder in the Football League for Oxford United and Brentford. He was a Leyton Orient and West Ham apprentice centre-half and went to the Manor Ground on trial towards the end of 1970–71 after a visit to the Manor with the Hammers' Combination side, he failed to make the Hammers' League sideafter becoming a full-timer in August 1969, but soon made an impact for Oxford United. Aylott joined an Oxford side well-stocked with centre-backs and was converted to anchor man in midfield for the Reserves, who were embarking on their best season, he inched ahead of John Fleming to earn a League debut on 9 October 1971, against Middlesbrough, in place of Ron Atkinson and after a substitute slot, succeeded the injured, soon-to-depart, Atkinson for much of the rest of his Manor career. Sometimes he appeared as full-back, he scored his first goal on 18 December 1971, in a home match against Preston North End. The competition for midfield places intensified in 1973–1974, but Aylott enjoyed his best season in 1974–75.

His last game for Oxford was 19 April 1976, away to Southampton. The need to trim the staff after relegation at the end of 1975–1976 saw him released and he joined Brentford. Andy and Roger Howland. Oxford United – A complete Record 1893–1989. ISBN 0-907969-52-6. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Steve Aylott at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database

Cape Catfish

The Cape Catfish are a franchise of the Prospect League that plays in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The Catfish play in the Prospect League's West Division, joining the DuPage Pistol Shrimp, Hannibal Hoots, Normal CornBelters, Quincy Gems and Springfield Sliders; the team is owned by a partnership group that includes Anand "Andy" Patel, Mark Hogan, James Limbaugh. Hogan, a retired former baseball coach at Southeast Missouri State University, will serve as the team's General Manager; the Catfish name, a reference to the state fish of Missouri, was chosen by potential fans of the new team from a list of names that included the Cape Bluebirds, in reference to the Eastern bluebird, the state bird of Missouri, the Cape Steamboats, in honor of the Mississippi River city's history as a port on the river. "Catfish" received about 37% of the vote fan vote, beating out "Bluebirds" and "Steamboats", which received 32% and 31% of the vote, respectively. The Catfish play in 2,000 seat Capaha Field; the stadium home to Southeast Missouri State University's baseball team, received significant renovations prior to the beginning of the team's first season.

On October 16, 2018, the team announced that former Texas Rangers and Cincinnati Reds farmhand Steve Larkin will serve as the manager for the 2019 season. The team clinched the league's West Division championship on August 1st, tying the league record for wins in a season in the process

Don Hopgood

Donald Jack Hopgood was an Australian politician and 5th Deputy Premier of South Australia from 1985 to 1992. Hopgood represented the House of Assembly seats of Mawson from 1970 to 1977 and Baudin from 1977 to 1993 for the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party, was promoted to the Labor frontbench in 1973. Hopgood was moderator of the Synod of South Australia of the Uniting Church in Australia from 1997 to 1999. Hopgood was born in 1938 at an inner northern suburb of Adelaide, his father worked at Berger Paints. His maternal grandfather worked at Islington Railway Workshops, his paternal grandfather was a retired typesetter. Hopgood was a member of the Prospect North Methodist Church Sunday school, he went to Adelaide Boys' High School. Hopgood started learning to play jazz trumpet at age 18, he played in jazz bands at university. He went to Adelaide Teachers' College on Kintore Avenue and taught at Le Fevre Boys’ Technical High School for three years moved to Whyalla Technical High School for a year Westminster School for five years.

He won a scholarship to study for a PhD from Flinders University. He was still studying for his PhD when he was elected to state parliament, so converted the final year to part-time. Murchie, Full transcript of an interview with Don Hopgood, Transcribed by Deborah Gard, retrieved 21 April 2019 Linn, Rob, "Hopgood, Don", J. D. SOMERVILLE ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION, STATE LIBRARY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA: INTERVIEW NO. OH 715/6, SOHC/OH 715/6, retrieved 21 April 2019