Pontic–Caspian steppe

The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe, or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Dobruja in the northeastern corner of Bulgaria and southeastern Romania, through Moldova and eastern Ukraine across Russian Northern Caucasus and lower Volga regions to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east. It is a part of the Palearctic temperate grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome; the area corresponds to Cimmeria and Sarmatia of classical antiquity. Across several millennia the steppe was used by numerous tribes of nomadic horsemen, many of which went on to conquer lands in the settled regions of Europe and in western and southern Asia; the term Ponto-Caspian region is used in biogeography for plants and animals of these steppes, animals from the Black and Azov seas. Genetic research has identified this region as the most probable place where horses were first domesticated.

According to a theory, called Kurgan hypothesis in Indo-European studies, the Pontic–Caspian steppe was the homeland of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language. The Pontic steppe covers an area of 994,000 square kilometres of Europe, extending from Dobrudja in the northeastern corner of Bulgaria and southeastern Romania, across southern Moldova, through Russia and northwestern Kazakhstan to the Ural Mountains; the Pontic steppe is bounded by the East European forest steppe to the north, a transitional zone of mixed grasslands and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. To the south, the Pontic steppe extends to the Black Sea, except the Crimean and western Caucasus mountains' border with the sea, where the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex defines the southern edge of the steppes; the steppe extends to the western shore of the Caspian Sea in the Dagestan region of Russia, but the drier Caspian lowland desert lies between the Pontic steppe and the northwestern and northern shores of the Caspian.

The Kazakh Steppe bounds the Pontic steppe to the east. The Ponto-Caspian seas are the remains of the Turgai Sea, an extension of the Paratethys which extended south and east of the Urals and covering much of today's West Siberian Plain in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Linear Pottery culture 5500–4500 BC Cucuteni-Trypillian culture 5300–2600 BC Khvalynsk culture 5000–3500 BC Sredny Stog culture 4500–3500 BC Yamna/Kurgan culture 3500–2300 BC Catacomb culture 3000–2200 BC Srubna culture 1600–1200 BC Novocherkassk culture 900–650 BC Cimmerians 12th–7th centuries BC Dacians 11th century BC – 3rd century AD Scythians 8th–4th centuries BC Sarmatians 5th century BC – 5th century AD Ostrogoths 3rd–6th centuries Huns and Avars 4th–8th centuries Bulgars 4th–7th century Alans 5th–11th centuries Eurasian Avars 6th–8th centuries Göktürks 6th–8th centuries Sabirs 6th–8th centuries Khazars 6th–11th centuries Pechenegs 8th–11th centuries Kipchaks and Cumans 11th–13th centuries Mongol Golden Horde 13th–15th centuries Cossacks, Crimean Khanate, Volga Tatars and other Turkic states and tribes 15th–18th centuries Russian Empire 18th–20th centuries Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 19th-20th centuries Soviet Union 20th century "Pontic steppe".

Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Google maps: Pontic-Caspian steppe

Peter Wall (footballer)

Peter Thomas Wall is an English retired professional footballer who played in England and the United States as a full back. He subsequently became a coach in the United States. Wall was born on 13 September 1944 in Shrewsbury and signed a professional contract with Shrewsbury Town in 1963, making 18 league appearances during the next two seasons, he signed for Wrexham in 1965, made 22 league appearances over the next two seasons. Wall moved to Liverpool in 1967, over the next three seasons made 31 league appearances. Wall signed for Crystal Palace, where he made 177 league appearances over seven seasons. While at Crystal Palace, Wall spent the 1972–73 season on loan with Leyton Orient. Wall played in the NASL for the St. Louis Stars and the California Surf. Following his retirement as a player following the end of the 1980 season, Wall became manager of the California Surf for the 1981 season, the Los Angeles Lazers between 1982 and 1987. Peter Wall at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Wall at

117th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The Soviet 117th Rifle Division was a rifle division that served during the Second World War. Formed in 1939 destroyed and reformed during the war. Formed on 23 August 1939 in the Volga Military District, under the command of Colonel Spiridon Chernyugov. On 22 June 1941 the division was still located in the district; the division was assigned to the 21st Army moving from the Volga Military District to Gomel in the Western Special Military District when the war started. The army was to attack north from Gomel area into the rear of the German advance. On 5–6 July 1941 the division attacked across the Dnepr River at Zhlobin as part of the 63rd Rifle Corps and 21st Army. Of the 12,000 men assigned to the division and despite the support of the 546th Corps Artillery Regiment the division lost 20% of its strength in the space of two days. By 12 July the division was retreating back behind the Dnepr River. By early September when the German 2nd Panzer Group struck south the division, along with most of the Central and Southwestern Fronts in the Kiev Pocket and annihilated.

The division headquarters was disbanded on 20 September 1941. 240th Rifle Regiment 269th Rifle Regiment 275th Rifle Regiment 322nd Light Artillery Regiment 707th Howitzer Regiment 222nd Antitank Battalion 321st Anti-aircraft Battalion Tank Battalion The second formation was formed on 7 January by redesignating the 308th Rifle Division at Ivanovo in the Moscow Military District. In late February the division left the Moscow Military District and moved to the Kalinin Front reserves. In March the Front assigned the division to the 3rd Shock Army and it remained in that army until February 1943. In February the division went back into Kalinin Front reserves as part of the 2nd Guards Rifle Corps and as part of this corps was assigned to the 22nd Army. In April 1943 the 22nd Army was transferred from the Kalinin to the Northwestern Front. In September 1943 the division was moved to the 4th Shock Army, which became part of the 1st Baltic Front after 20 October 1943. In February 1944 the division served in the 1st Baltic Front's 43rd Army and went into STAVKA reserves and moved south.

In late April 1944 the division was assigned to the 91st Rifle Corps in the 69th Army of the 1st Belorussian Front. The division spent the rest of war under this command structure. 240th Rifle Regiment 269th Rifle Regiment 275th Rifle Regiment 322nd Artillery Regiment 222nd Antitank Battalion List of infantry divisions of the Soviet Union 1917–1957