Poole Harbour

Poole Harbour is a large natural harbour in Dorset, southern England, with the town of Poole on its shores. The harbour is a drowned valley formed at the end of the last ice age and is the estuary of several rivers, the largest being the Frome; the harbour has a long history of human settlement stretching to pre-Roman times. The harbour is shallow, with one main dredged channel through the harbour, from the mouth to Holes Bay. Poole Harbour has an area of 36 km2. In 1964 during harbour dredging, the waterlogged remains of a 2000-year-old Iron Age logboat were found off Brownsea Island. Dated at about 295 BC, the 10 metres Poole Logboat is one of the largest vessels of its type from British waters, its low freeboard would have limited its use to within Poole Harbour. Poole was used by the Romans as an invasion port for the conquest of southern England, who established the settlement at Hamworthy, now the western half of Poole. A Roman Road ran north from Hamworthy to a Roman transport hub. At the time of the Norman Conquest, Poole was a small fishing village.

The port grew, in 1433 Poole was made Dorset's Port of the Staple for the export of wool. Medieval Poole had trading links from the Baltics to Italy. In the 17th century, the town began trading with North America, in particular Newfoundland, the town became wealthy. In the 18th century, Poole was the principal British port trading with North America. At the start of the 19th century, 90% of Poole's population's employment was directly dependent on the harbour, but this dropped to 20% during the century as the railways reached the town, deep-hulled boats moved up the coast to Southampton, which had a deeper harbour and is closer to London. With regular dredging of a channel through the harbour, it has regained some importance; the longest ship to enter the harbour is DFDS/LD Lines 186.5 metre Norman Voyager on 15 October 2013, with the second longest being the 167-metre Armorique of Brittany Ferries, which arrived in the port for the first time on 2 February 2010. The previous holder of that title was the 151-metre Bretagne, which arrived in the port for the first time on 27 February 2007.

The entrance to Poole Harbour is via Poole Bay and the English Channel. Entering the harbour, heading west, on either side are the shores of Studland beach and Sandbanks. Directly ahead are several islands, the largest of, Brownsea Island. Following the harbour anti-clockwise, heading north-east passes the built up residential settlements of Poole including Lilliput and Parkstone. About 4 miles north-west of the entrance of the harbour is the entrance to Poole Quay and the Holes Bay. Directly west of the main part of Poole is Hamworthy. Continuing anti-clockwise, heading west around the Harbour are the settlements of Upton and Wareham, as well as the outlet of the River Piddle; this area of water within the Harbour is known as Wareham Channel and includes other places such as Rockley Sands. Continuing anti-clockwise, now heading south are the majority of the islands within the Harbour as well as several small channels and inlets. To the west is Arne Bay and the Wych channel; the majority of land in this area is heathland, there are few settlements, as opposed to the eastern part of the Harbour.

Directly south is Round Island and Ower Bay. Green Island, Furzey Island and Brownsea Island are to the east, with Newton Bay and Brands Bay to the south; this area of water is known as the South Deep. Continuing anti-clockwise comes back to the entrance to the Harbour and to Poole Bay, with Studland beach south-east. Lytchett Bay lies to the north of the Harbour and flows into it through a narrow channel near the edge of the suburb of Hamworthy. Holes Bay is a tidal inland lake, it is a designated harbour quiet area. The entrance to the bay is a small inlet from the main harbour. Spanning the inlet are two bridges: Poole Bridge and the new Twin Sails Bridge. Access to Holes Bay for vessels with a draft greater than 2 metres is only possible when the bridges are lifted, which occurs several fixed times daily and sometimes on request; the new bridge is intended to help reduce traffic jams by ensuring at least one bridge is open to vehicular traffic at any one time. The bay contains Pergins Island, the South Western railway line runs west to east on a causeway across the bay.

To the north of the bay is Upton Country ParkHoles Bay is the location of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution training school, attached to their Poole headquarters. Uses of the bay include fishing and small leisure craft. A large marina known as Cobbs Quay is on the west side of the bay. On its east side the bay runs parallel to the A350. Poole Harbour is the location of a number of various sizes; these islands include: Brownsea Island is near the sea entrance at Sandbanks. Furzey Island is south of Brownsea Island. Green Island is directly south of Furzey island. Long Island is near the Arne Peninsula. Round Island Gigger's Island is in the west of the Harbour near the River Piddle outlet. Drove Island is in the south of the Harbour in Brands Bay. Pergins Island is in the north of the Harbour in Holes Bay. Stone Island lies between Studland, it is a ridge of gravel and sand the remains of an old recurved shingle spit, only visible between high tides, as such is a danger to sailors. It is now being submerged by rising sea-level.

The harbour lies on a band of weak gravel and clay

Hippolyte MariƩ-Davy

Edme Hippolyte Marié-Davy was a French chemist and inventor of the 19th century. He was born in Nièvre. In 1854, he invented the first naval periscope, consisting in a vertical tube with two small mirrors fixed at each end at 45°, he invented a mercury bisulfate battery that bears his name, "the Marie-Davy". In 1854, Marié-Davy invented an electromagnetic motor. Based on it, he proposed a submarine with an electrically driven propeller. McClintock and Watson once planned to use the device on the Hunley; the engine was said to have the power of "a one-horse steam engine". In the 1860s, he was Deputy Director of the Paris Observatory, in charge of meteorology, he devoted himself to the study of local thunderstorms, following the destructive storm of 14 November 1854, in the Crimean War. Works by or about Hippolyte Marié-Davy at Internet Archive

Florence, Nebraska

Florence is a neighborhood in Omaha, United States on the city's north end and one of the oldest cities in Nebraska. It was incorporated by the Nebraska Territorial Legislature on March 10, 1857; the site of Winter Quarters for Mormon migrants traveling west, it has the oldest cemetery for people of European descent and oldest standing gristmill in Nebraska. Florence was the site of an illegal territorial legislature in 1858. Given the high concentration of National Register of Historic Places in the neighborhood, it is regarded as "the historic front door to Omaha as well as the state." In the spring of 1854 James C. Mitchell, following the advice of the fur trader Peter A. Sarpy, platted the village of Florence, including the old buildings and improvements of old Cutler's Park. Cutler's Park was established at the site of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1846 Winter Quarters as a hold-over on their way from Nauvoo, Illinois to Utah. Due to the harsh conditions, 359 members of the 2,500 person party died and are buried in what is now called the Mormon Pioneer Cemetery.

Their community was the first city in the Nebraska Territory. Despite lasting only two years, the city had a mayor and city council, 24 policemen and fireguards, various administrative committees, a town square for public meetings; the Mormon pioneers left their town once they moved on in 1848. Mitchell platted Florence six years later; the town of Florence was named for one Miss Florence Kilbourn. Late in 1854 the town of Florence made a bid to become the Nebraska State Capitol, which it lost to Omaha; the Bank of Florence, now listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was built as a wildcat bank in 1856. It fell in the Panic of 1857, leaving thousands of local townspeople and area farmers financially drained. In January, 1858 a group of representatives illegally moved the Nebraska Territorial Legislature to Florence following a violent outburst at the Territorial Capitol in Omaha. After being dogged out of voting on the removal of the Capitol from Omaha, a skirmish pitted representatives from Nebraska City and other communities to convene outside of Omaha.

Despite having a majority of members present for the vote to remove the Capitol and all agreeing, the "Florence Legislature" did not succeed in swaying the Nebraska Territory governor, the Capitol remained in Omaha until 1867 when Nebraska gained statehood. In 1917 the town was annexed by the City of Omaha; the Fort Omaha Balloon School was established that year as the first such military school in America. "Florence Field," about a mile north of Fort Omaha, consisted of 119 acres. In addition to these historic landmarks designated by the city, state or federal government, a new attraction is the Winter Quarters Nebraska Temple, constructed in 2001; the opening ceremonies and open house for the large temple drew thousands of visitors. The Mormon Trail Center in Florence is a museum interpreting the Mormon Trail and early Mormon-era history of the area. Of interest are the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Bridge, built in 1952; the Mormon Bridge Tollhouse, at 3010 Willit Street, was related to the operations of the toll bridge.

History of North Omaha, Nebraska Timeline of North Omaha, Nebraska history Landmarks in North Omaha, Nebraska Historical Florence website 1856 drawing of the steamer Omaha landing Mormon settlers at Florence