Pop rock is rock music with a greater emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft, less emphasis on attitude. Originating in the late 1950s as an alternative to normal rock and roll, early pop rock was influenced by the beat and original style of rock and roll, it may be viewed as a distinct genre field, rather than music that overlaps with rock. The detractors of pop rock deride it as a slick, commercial product, less authentic than rock music. Much pop and rock music has been similar in sound and lyrical content; the terms "pop rock" and "power pop" have been used to describe more commercially successful music that uses elements from, or the form of, rock music. Writer Johan Fornas views pop/rock as "one single, continuous genre field", rather than distinct categories. To the authors Larry Starr and Christopher Waterman, it is defined as an "upbeat variety of rock music" represented by artists and bands such as: Andy Kim, the Bells, Paul McCartney and Peter Frampton; the term pop has been used since the early twentieth century to refer to popular music in general, but from the mid-1950s it began to be used for a distinct genre, aimed at a youth market characterized as a softer alternative to rock and roll.
In the aftermath of the British Invasion, from about 1967, it was used in opposition to the term rock music, to describe a form, more commercial and accessible. As of the 2010s, "guitar pop rock" and "indie rock" are synonymous terms. "Jangle" is a noun-adjective that music critics use in reference to guitar pop with a bright mood. Critic Philip Auslander argues that the distinction between pop and rock is more pronounced in the US than in the UK, he claims in the US, pop has roots in white crooners such as Perry Como, whereas rock is rooted in African-American music influenced by forms such as rock and roll. Auslander points out that the concept of pop rock, which blends pop and rock is at odds with the typical conception of pop and rock as opposites. Auslander and several other scholars such as Simon Frith and Grossberg argue that pop music is depicted as an inauthentic, cynical, "slickly commercial" and formulaic form of entertainment. In contrast, rock music is heralded as an authentic and anti-commercial form of music, which emphasizes song writing by the singers and bands, instrumental virtuosity, a "real connection with the audience".
Simon Frith's analysis of the history of popular music from the 1950s to the 1980s has been criticized by B. J. Moore-Gilbert, who argues that Frith and other scholars have over-emphasized the role of "rock" in the history of popular music by naming every new genre using the "rock" suffix, thus when a folk-oriented style of music developed in the 1960s, Frith terms it "folk rock", the pop-infused styles of the 1970s were called "pop rock". Moore-Gilbert claims that this approach unfairly puts rock at the apex, makes every other influence become an add-on to the central core of rock. In Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, Robert Christgau discussed the term "pop-rock" in the context of popular music's fragmentation along stylistic lines in the 1970s.
The Prix du Petit Couvert is a Group 3 flat horse race in France open to thoroughbreds aged three years or older. It is run at Longchamp over a distance of 1,000 metres, it is scheduled to take place each year in September; the event was held at Chantilly, it is named after a crossroads in Chantilly Forest. It was established in 1867, was an 800-metre race for horses aged two or older, it was run in the second half of October. The Prix du Petit Couvert was staged at Longchamp in 1880, extended to 1,000 metres in 1881, it took place at Longchamp again in 1900. Longchamp became the race's usual venue in 1907, from this point its distance was 1,100 metres, it was abandoned throughout World War I, with no running from 1914 to 1918. It reverted to 1,000 metres in 1921; the Prix du Petit Couvert was cancelled twice during World War II, in 1939 and 1940. It was held at Maisons-Laffitte in 1943 and Le Tremblay in 1944; the race was closed to two-year-olds and switched to September in 2002. It now serves as a trial for the following month's Prix de l'Abbaye de Longchamp.
* The 1912 race was a dead-heat and has joint winners. List of French flat horse races Racing Post/France Galop: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016
The General Mihajlo Apostolski Military Academy is the main educational institution for officers of the Army of the Republic of North Macedonia, located in Skopje. Three years of preparation preceded the Academy's founding, it was established on 7 June 1995 with the ratification of the Law on the Military Academy by the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, with the first class of cadets entering the academy on 25 September 1995. In 1996 the Academy received the name "General Mihajlo Apostolski" Military Academy; the Military Academy is defined as a military higher education and research institution, according to the law, its activities are in accordance with the Law on Higher Education and Law on scientific research in the country. In the academic year 2003-04 not accept cadets for undergraduate studies. In December 2008, the government decided to restart the work of the Military Academy as a part of the Goce Delčev University, in September 2009, after restarting its function, the Military Academy has been received and a new class of cadets.
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