SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Alexander VIII

Pope Alexander VIII, born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. He is to date the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy. Pietro Vito Ottoboni was born in 1610 of a noble Venetian family, was the youngest of nine children of Vittoria Tornielli and Marco Ottoboni, grand chancellor of the Republic of Venice, his early studies were made with marked brilliance at the University of Padua where, in 1627, he earned a doctorate in canon and civil law. Ottoboni went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII and served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura, served as the governor of the cities Terni, Citta di Castello and Spoleto, he served as the auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Pope Innocent X appointed him to the cardinalate and in 1652 at the request of the Venetian government and he was made the Cardinal-Priest of San Salvatore in Lauro, he was appointed as Bishop of Brescia in 1654 and received episcopal consecration in the church of San Marco in Rome.

He would spend a quiet decade in his diocese. He opted to be Cardinal-Priest of San Marco in 1660 and resigned as Bishop of Brescia in 1664. Ottoboni opted to become Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere in 1677 and as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prassede in 1680, he became the Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina in 1681 and to Frascati in 1683. His last swap was that of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1687. Ottoboni was the Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals from 1687 to his pontifical election; the ambassador of King Louis XIV of France succeeded in procuring his election on 6 October 1689, as the successor to Pope Innocent XI. He chose the pontifical name of "Alexander VIII" in gratitude to Cardinal Flavio Chigi, the nephew of Pope Alexander VII, who had helped support his candidacy. Ottoboni was crowned as pontiff on 16 October 1689 by the protodeacon Cardinal Francesco Maidalchini and took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 28 October 1689. Old but of a strong constitution, Alexander VIII was said to be an able diplomat.

During his brief pontificate he managed to destroy most of his predecessor's good work. All the money saved by Innocent XI was spent on enriching the Ottoboni family and to a cardinal he said: "I have no time to lose. Louis XIV, whose political situation was now critical, profited by the peaceful dispositions of the new pope, restored Avignon to him, renounced the long-abused right of asylum for the French Embassy. Charities on a large scale and unbounded nepotism exhausted the papal treasury, reversing the policies of his predecessor. Among the various nominations, his 22-year-old grandnephew Pietro was made cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Church, nephew Marco, son of his brother Agostino, was made inspector of naval fortifications and Duke of Fiano, nephew Antonio, another of Agostino's children, was made general of the church, his nephew Giovanni Rubin was made secretary of bishop of Vicenza. Out of compassion for the poor of the impoverished Papal States, he sought to help them by reducing taxes.

But this same generous nature led him to bestow on his relations the riches they were eager to accumulate. He bought the manuscripts of Queen Christina of Sweden for the Vatican Library. Alexander VIII assisted his native Venice by generous subsidies in the war against the Turks, as well as sending seven galleys and 2,000 infantry for the campaign in Albania. In 1690 he condemned the doctrines of the so-called philosophical sin, taught in the Jesuit schools, he held three consistories that saw 14 new cardinals elevated. Alexander VIII confirmed the cultus of Kinga of Poland on 11 June 1690 which served as the beatification. On 16 October 1690, he canonized several saints: Ss. Pascal Baylon, Lorenzo Giustiniani, John of Sahagun, John of God and John of Capistrano; the pope created 14 cardinals in three consistories and elevated individuals such as his grandnephew Pietro Ottoboni in a restoration of nepotism that had not been seen in his predecessor's reign. Alexander VIII died on 1 February 1691.

His grandiose tomb in St. Peter's was commissioned by his grandnephew, Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, designed by Count Arrigo di San Martino; the bas-relief at the base and the flanking figures were sculpted by Angelo de' Rossi, while the bronze statue of the pope was cast by Giuseppe Bertosi. Pope Alexander VIII was the principal consecrator of: Cardinals created by Alexander VIII Rendina, Claudio. I papi. Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton Compton. Ottoboni family Publications by or about Pope Alexander VIII at VD 17 "Pope Alexander VIII". Germania Sacra people index. Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities

Honor Rising: Japan 2019

Honor Rising: Japan 2019 was a two-day professional wrestling supershow event co-produced by the Japanese New Japan Pro-Wrestling and the American Ring of Honor promotions. The shows took place on February 22 and 23, 2019, at the Korakuen Hall in Tokyo and were streamed live on NJPW World. Continuing the partnership between NJPW and ROH, these will be the fourth annual Honor Rising: Japan shows. Honor Rising: Japan 2019 will feature professional wrestling matches, involving different wrestlers from pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines that play out on ROH's and NJPW's television programs. Wrestlers portray villains or heroes as they follow a series of events that build tension and culminate in a wrestling match or series of matches. 2019 in professional wrestling

Pretending (HIM song)

"Pretending" is a song by the Finnish band HIM, released in 2001 as the fifth track from their album Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights. In 2006, an acoustic version of "Pretending" was released as a double-A-side single along with the string version of "In Joy and Sorrow" on the album Uneasy Listening Vol. 1. The orchestral "In Joy and Sorrow" is the fifth track on the compilation, while the acoustic "Pretending" was an exclusive sixteenth track only available by buying the album from Best Buy. "In Joy and Sorrow"/"Pretending" reached #1 in Finland. The first track on the international release is a shorter version than the official album version; the original version is 3:55 while the single version is 3:44. International release and German and Finnish maxi-single release"Pretending" "Pretending" "Pretending" "Please Don't Let It Go" * "Lose You Tonight" ** - Only on the Limited EditionAlternative release"Lose You Tonight" "Please Don't Let It Go" "Pretending" "Pretending" "In Joy and Sorrow" "Pretending"