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Pope Benedict XII

Pope Benedict XII, born Jacques Fornier, was Pope from 30 December 1334 to his death in April 1342. He was the third Avignon Pope. Benedict was a careful pope who opposed nepotism. Unable to remove his capital to Rome or Bologna, he started the great palace at Avignon, he decided against a notion of Pope John XXII by saying that souls may attain the "fulness of the beatific vision" before the Last Judgment. Whilst being a stalwart reformer, he attempted unsuccessfully to reunite the Orthodox Church and Catholic Church 3 centuries after the Great Schism. Little is known of the origins of Jacques Fournier, he is believed to have been born in Canté in the Comté de Foix around the 1280s to a family of modest means. He left the countryside to study at the University of Paris. In 1311 he was made Abbot of Fontfroide Abbey and became known for his intelligence and organizational ability. In 1317 he was made Bishop of Pamiers. There he undertook a rigorous hunt for Cathar heretics, such as Guillaume Bélibaste, which won him praise from religious authorities, but alienated the local people.

His efforts against the Cathars of Montaillou in the Ariège were recorded in the Fournier Register, which he took to Rome and deposited in the Vatican Library. His transcription was edited by Jean Duvernoy and has been documented by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's pioneering microhistory, village occitan. In 1326, upon the successful rooting out of the last – it was believed – heretics of the south, he was made Bishop of Mirepoix in the Ariège, and, a year in 1327, he was made a cardinal. Fournier succeeded Pope John XXII as Pope, after being elected in the Conclave of 1334; the Conclave opened on 13 December, it appeared that there might be a quick election. A two-thirds majority were prepared to elect Cardinal Jean-Raymond de Comminges, the Bishop of Porto, if he would only swear in advance to agree not to return the Papacy to Rome. Comminges refused to make any promises; the Conclave therefore ground on through lengthy discussions. As Fournier himself said, "... in the discussion held over the election of a future pope, they could have agreed on others more conspicuous for the repute of their great merits...", in other words, there were a number of possible candidates.

The Cistercian cardinal, Jacques Fournier, was elected on the evening of 20 December 1334, after Vespers, on the eighth day of the Conclave. Benedict XII was a reforming pope, he chose to make peace with Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV, as far as possible came to terms with the Franciscans, who were at odds with the Roman See. He tried to curb the luxuries of the monastic orders, though without much success, he ordered the construction of the Palais des Papes in Avignon. Benedict spent most of his time working on questions of theology, he rejected many of the ideas developed by John XXII. In this regard, he promulgated an apostolic constitution, Benedictus Deus, in 1336; this dogma defined the Church's belief that the souls of the departed go to their eternal reward after death, as opposed to remaining in a state of unconscious existence until the Last Judgment. Though some claim that he campaigned against the Immaculate Conception, this is far from clear, he engaged in long theological debates with other noted figures of the age, such as William of Ockham and Meister Eckhart.

Though born a Frenchman, Benedict felt no patriotism towards France nor her king, Philip VI. From the start of his papacy, relations between him and Philip were frigid. After being informed of Philip's plan to invade Scotland, Benedict hinted that Edward III, King of England would most win, regardless. Formulare advocatorum et procuratorum Romane curie et regii parlamenti. Venezia: Ottaviano Scoto il giovane. 1536. List of popes Baronio, Cesare. Augustinus Theiner. Annales ecclesiastici: A. D. 1-1571 denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augustino Theiner. Tomus vigesimus quintus. Barri-Ducis: Typis et sumptibus Ludovici Guerin. Guillemain, B.. La politique bénéficiale du Pape Benoît XII. Paris: École des Hautes Études. Mahn, J. B.. Le Pape Benoit XII et les Cisterciens. Paris: École des Hautes études. Melville, G.. "Source Documents on the Pontificate of Benedict XII," in: Historisches Jahrbuch 102, pp. 144-182. Vidal, Jean-Marie. "Notice sur les oeuvres du Pape Benoit XII." in: Revue d'histoire écclesiastique 6, pp. 557-565.

Murphy, Cullen. God's Jury, - The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2012

Colombian Red Cross

The Colombian Red Cross is a Colombian-based nonprofit private entity member of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Society. It has been a member since 1922; the Colombian Red Cross embraces the principles of the International Red Cross. It provides humanitarian aid to people in need of protection, protection of life and health during armed conflict and disaster relief during emergencies within the Colombian territory; the Colombian Red Cross has played a major humanitarian role within the Colombian Armed Conflict as a mediator in the area of Human rights. The National Society of the Colombian Red Cross was founded in 1915; the idea of founding the Colombian Red Cross was first conceived by physician and member of the National Academy of Medicine Dr. Hipolito Machado and followed by pupil and physician Adriano Perdomo. Other original founders were entrepreneur Santiago Samper whom would sponsor it and physicians Jose Maria Montoya and Nicolas Buendia; some of the people mentioned above were participants in the Thousand Days War.

They brought it upon themselves to use a horse-drawn carriage as an ambulance to transport victims in the battlefield. The society was recognized by the Colombian government in 1916 and it was recognized internationally by the International Red Cross in 1922, it exists under Law 852 of 2003 which rules the scope of the activities of the Colombian Red Cross and under Law 875 of 2004 which regulates the use of the emblem. The Colombian Red Cross mission exists under the principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent movement as expressed by the text below: Prevenir y aliviar, el sufrimiento y la desprotección de las personas afectadas por contingencias, con imparcialidad, sin discriminación por nacionalidad, sexo, religión, condición social u opinión política; as a result of the Colombian Armed Conflict and the multiple violations to human rights, the Colombian Red Cross works in the prevention and assistance to victims of the conflict. It has helped clarify and improve the circumstances under such violations existed.

According to a 2009 report by the ICRC the following is the scope on which the Colombian Red Cross has participated: Forced disappearance Homicides and direct attacks against people protected by IHRL Occupation of civilian properties either private or public Cases of sexual violence Recruiting of minors Cases of physical and psychological abuse and threats Cases of pollution through weapons that could affect communities Cases of forced displacement National Office of Aid National Office of Health Transport of resources Colombian Red Cross Lottery Blood Bank National Office of Teaching Volunteering National Office of Cooperation and Development International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement ICRC Human rights in Colombia List of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Colombian Red Cross Colombian Red Cross Society - IFRC Official Red Cross Web Site

Barbacoan languages

Barbacoan is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador. The Barbacoan languages may be related to the Páez language. Barbacoan is connected with the Paezan languages. Other more speculative larger groupings involving Barbacoan include the Macro-Paesan "cluster", the Macro-Chibchan stock, the Chibchan-Paezan stock. Barboacoan consists of 6 languages: NorthernAwan Awa Pit Pasto–MuellamaPasto Muellama Coconucan Guambiano Totoró Coconuco Southern? Caranqui Cha’palaachi Tsafiki Pasto, Muellama and Caranqui are now extinct. Pasto and Muellama are classified as Barbacoan, but the current evidence is weak and deserves further attention. Muellama may have been one of the last surviving dialects of Pasto — Muellama is known only by a short wordlist recorded in the 19th century; the Muellama vocabulary is similar to modern Awa Pit. The Cañari–Puruhá languages are more poorly attested, while placed in a Chimuan family, Adelaar thinks they may have been Barbacoan; the Coconucan languages were first connected to Barbacoan by Daniel Brinton in 1891.

However, a subsequent publication by Henri Beuchat and Paul Rivet placed Coconucan together with a Paezan family due a misleading "Moguex" vocabulary list. The "Moguex" vocabulary turned out to be a mix of both Guambiano languages; this vocabulary has led to misclassifications by Greenberg, Loukotka and Campbell, among others. Although Páez may be related to the Barbacoan family, a conservative view considers Páez a language isolate pending further investigation. Guambiano is more similar to other Barbacoan languages than to Páez, thus Key, Curnow et al. Gordon, Campbell place Coconucan under Barbacoan; the moribund Totoró is sometimes considered a dialect of Guambiano instead of a separate language, indeed, Adelaar & Muysken state that Guambiano-Totoró-Coconuco is best treated as a single language. The Barbácoa language itself is unattested, is only assumed to be part of the Barbacoan family. Nonetheless, it has been assigned an ISO code, though the better-attested and classifiable Pasto language has not.

Loukotka lists the following basic vocabulary items. Paezan languages Páez language Adelaar, Willem F. H.. The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. Brend, Ruth M... From phonology to discourse: Studies in six Colombian languages. Language Data, Amerindian Series. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Beuchat, Henri. Affinités des langues du sud de la Colombie et du nord de l'Équateur. Le Mouséon, 11, 33-68, 141-198. Campbell, Lyle.. American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. Constenla Umaña, Adolfo.. Comparative Chibchan phonology.. Constenla Umaña, Adolfo.. Las lenguas del área intermedia: Introducción a su estudio areal. San José: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Constenla Umaña, Adolfo.. La familia chibcha. In (M. L. Rodríguez de Montes, Estado actual de la clasificación de las lenguas indígenas de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Curnow, Timothy J.. Why Paez is not the use of early sources.

International Journal of American Linguistics, 64, 338-351. Curnow, Timothy J.. The Barbacoan languages of Colombia and Ecuador. Anthropological Linguistics, 40. Douay, Léon.. Contribution à l'américanisme du Cauca. Compte-Rendu du Congrès International des Américanistes, 7, 763-786. Gerdel, Florence L.. Paez. In Aspectos de la cultura material de grupos étnicos de Colombia 2. Bogota: Ministerio de Gobierno and Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Kaufman, Terrence.. Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne, Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3. Kaufman, Terrence.. The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher, Atlas of the world's languages. London: Routledge. Key, Mary R.. The grouping of South American languages. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag. Landaburu, Jon.. Conclusiones del seminario sobre clasificación de lenguas indígenas de Colombia. In (M. L. Rodríguez de Montes, Estado actual de la clasificación de las lenguas indígenas de Colombia.

Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Loukotka, Čestmír.. Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California. Slocum, Marianna C.. Gramática páez. Lomalinda: Editorial

New Court

New Court is a collection of proximate buildings in London having served as the global headquarters of the Rothschild investment bank since 1809. The current building is the fourth incarnation of the Rothschild offices at the same street address; until 2004, the world price of gold was fixed daily at this building. After leaving Frankfurt, Nathan Mayer Rothschild needed a location where he could build his banking business and continue his merchant activities as well as house his family. Rothschild acquired the lease to New Court No. 2 for £750 in 1809 at an annual rate of £150. The location of the building was selected in part due to its proximity to the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England. In 1816 at New Court, Nathan Mayer Rothschild and company formed Alliance Assurance Company." Lionel de Rothschild hired architect Thomas Marsh Nelson to design a building "intended for magnificent business."In 1899, Rothschild refitted New Court with electricity and acquired St Swithin's Lane No 7 for £8,000.

In 1919, on the 12th of September, New Court became the location where the global price of gold was fixed. Every day at 11:00am, the price of gold was set in a special room. By 1968, a second fixing time was added at 3:00pm to correspond with the opening of the American commodity markets. To allow for bank operations during the war, air-raid resistant shelters were constructed within New Court. During WWII, The Rothschild bank moved much of its staff to Nathan's estate at Tring Park, as the distance was farther out of harms way during the Battle of Britain. In a 1941 Nazi air raid, St Swithin's Lane was struck with many buildings erupting in uncontrollable flames; the buildings adjacent to New Court burned and suffered extensive damage, but New Court remained unharmed. As the firm continued to see growth, it again outgrew New Court. Although the idea of extending the buildings vertically was posed, it was decided by Edmund Leopold de Rothschild, Evelyn de Rothschild, Leopold de Rothschild, Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild to develop a new office.

Rothschild chose Fitzroy Robinson of Colls as architect. After three years of construction, New Court reopened in 1965; the building included the largest bank vault door in Europe with over four billion combinations. In 2004, Rothschild announced that it would no longer hold its permanent chairmanship of the global gold fixing market. Since Rothschild withdrew from this line of business, the price of gold has no longer been fixed in person. By the early twenty-first century, the Rothschild Bank had again outgrown the buildings and in 2008 the decision was made to raze the buildings for a fourth time and build anew. Acclaimed architect Rem Koolhaas of OMA was selected to design the new headquarters for Rothschild, it is said that he drew inspiration from the Medici's architecture in Italy

Yuliya Korostylova

Yuliya Serhiïvna Korostylova is a Ukrainian sport shooter. She represented her nation Ukraine in pistol shooting at the 2004 Summer Olympics, trained throughout her sporting career for the shooting team at Lviv Sports Club Academy under her coaching parents Valentina and Serhiy Korostylov. Coming from a sporting pedigree, Korostylova shares the same discipline with her younger brother Pavlo Korostylov, who held the junior world record and won a gold medal in air pistol at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing, China. Korostylova qualified for the Ukrainian squad in pistol shooting at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, by virtue of exchanging quota places won by Germany in the rifle three positions with her spot in the air pistol, having achieved a mandatory Olympic standard of 381. Korostylova started off her run by firing a score of 382 points to secure the tenth position in the women's 10 m air pistol prelims, tying her with four other shooters including 1988 Olympic bronze medalist Nino Salukvadze of neighboring Georgia.

In her second event, the 25 m pistol, Korostylova came strong from her immediate failure in the air pistol to edge out her teammate and Olympic champion Olena Kostevych by a single point with a score of 570, but ended up only in twenty-sixth out of thirty-seven shooters in the prelims. Yuliya Korostylova at the International Shooting Sport Federation

Vegucated

Vegucated is a 2011 American documentary film that explores the challenges of converting to a vegan diet. It "follows three meat- and cheese-loving New Yorkers who agree to adopt a vegan diet for six weeks." Director, Marisa Miller Wolfson interviewed a number of people to participate in this documentary and chose Brian, who likes to eat meat and eat out. In the film Joel Fuhrman and T. Colin Campbell discuss the benefits of a plant-based diet consisting of whole foods; the film features Howard Lyman and Stephen R. Kaufman. Kneel Cohn makes a cameo appearance; the documentary addresses the resistance that some people feel towards vegetarianism and veganism, the disconnect between farm animals and the purchasing of meat, the origins of omnivorism and the ethical and health benefits of a vegan diet. During the filming, participants visited an abandoned slaughterhouse and investigated the reality of intensive animal farming in the US. Of their own accord, they chose to trespass on a factory farm to see for themselves, became passionate about their new-found cause.

Best Documentary, Toronto Independent Film Festival, 2011 Chris Award For Best Educational Film, Columbus International Film & Video Festival Best Food Issue, Cinema Verde Environmental Film and Arts Festival, 2012 Official Selection, Environmental Film Festival in the Nation's Capital, 2012 Official Selection, UK Green Film Festival, 2012 Vegucated is available in DVD format and streaming via iTunes, Amazon Prime, Amazon Video, YouTube, CinemaNow, PlayStation, Fetch TV and Hulu. The GetVegucated YouTube channel contains follow-up films, including Where are they now? and behind the scenes footage. Kanner, Ellen. "Meatless Monday: The Vegucation of Marisa Miller Wolfson," Huffington Post, May 21, 2012. Sachs, Andrea. "‘Vegucated’ digs into some meaty issues, Washington Post, November 8, 2011. Sweet, Joni. "Q&A with Vegucated's Marisa Miller Wolfson," VegNews, September 14, 2011. Official website Vegucated on IMDb