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Pope Clement II

Pope Clement II, was Pope from 25 December 1046 until his death in 1047. He was the first in a series of reform-minded popes from Germany. Suidger was the Bishop of Bamberg. In 1046, he accompanied Henry, King of Germany, when at the request of laity and clergy of Rome, Henry went to Italy and summoned the Council of Sutri, which deposed Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III, accepted the resignation of Gregory VI. Henry suggested Suidger for Pope, he was elected, taking the name of Clement II. Clement proceeded with the coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor. Clement's brief tenure as pope saw the enactment of more stringent prohibitions against simony. Born in Hornburg, Lower Saxony, Germany, he was the son of Count Konrad of Morsleben and Hornburg and his wife Amulrad. In 1040, he became Bishop of Bamberg. In the autumn of 1046, there were three rival claimants to the papacy, in St. Peter's, the Lateran, St. Mary Major's. Two of them, Benedict IX and Sylvester III, represented rival factions of the nobility.

The third, Pope Gregory VI, in order to free the city from the House of Tusculum, Benedict's scandalous lifestyle, had paid Benedict money in exchange for his resignation. Regardless the motives, the transaction bore the appearance of simony. Questions regarding the legitimacy of any of them could undermine the validity of a coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor. King Henry crossed the Alps at the head of a large army and accompanied by a brilliant retinue of the secular and ecclesiastical princes of the empire, for the twofold purpose of receiving the imperial crown and of restoring order. In 1046, Suidiger accompanied King Henry on his campaign to Italy and in December, participated in the Council of Sutri, which deposed former Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III and persuaded Pope Gregory VI to resign. King Henry nominated Suidger for the papacy and the council elected him. Suidger insisted upon retaining the bishopric of his see for needed financial support, lest the turbulent Romans should before long send him back to Bamberg.

Suidger took the name Clement II. After his election, King Henry and the new Pope travelled to Rome, where Clement was enthroned as pope. and crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor. Clement's election was criticized by the reform party within the papal curia due to the royal involvement and the fact that the new Pope was bishop of another diocese. Contrary to practice, Clement kept his old see, governing both Rome and Bamberg simultaneously. Clement's first pontifical act was to Agnes of Aquitaine, he bestowed on the Emperor the title and diadem of a Roman Patricius, a dignity, understood to give the bearer the right of indicating the person to be chosen pope. Clement II's short pontificate, starting with the Roman synod of 1047, initiated an improvement in the state of affairs within the Roman Church by enacting decrees against simony. A dispute for precedence among the Sees of Ravenna and Aquileia was settled in favour of Ravenna. Clement accompanied the Emperor in a triumphal progress through southern Italy and placed Benevento under an interdict for refusing to open its gates to them.

Proceeding with Henry to Germany, he canonized Wiborada, a nun of St. Gall, martyred by the Hungarians in 925. On his way back to Rome, he died near Pesaro on 9 October 1047, his corpse was transferred back to Bamberg, which he had loved dearly, interred in the western choir of the Bamberg Cathedral. His is the only tomb of a Pope north of the Alps. A toxicologic examination of his remains in the mid-20th century confirmed centuries-old rumors that the Pope had been poisoned with lead sugar, it is not clear, whether he was murdered or whether the lead sugar was used as medicine. List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Clement II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Dechant, Alfons. Clemens II. Der Papst aus Bamberg: 24 Dezember 1046 – 9 Oktober 1047. Bamberg: St.-Otto-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87693-078-7. Dolley, M.. "Some Neglected Evidence from Irish Chronicles Concerning the Alleged Poisoning of Pope Clement II," Frühmittelalterliche Studien 3, 1969, pp. 343–346.

Gresser, Georg. Clemens II.: der erste deutsche Reformpapst. Paderborn: Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506-76329-7. Mann, Horace K.. The lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages Volume V, pp. 270–285. Migne, J.-P. ed.. Patrologiae cursus Series Latina. Tomus CXLII. Paris: apud Garnier fratres, apud J.-P. Migne. Pp. 577–590. Timmel, R.. "Bischof Suidger von Bamberg – Papst Clemens II. † 1047," Fränkische Lebensbilder 10, 1982, pp. 1–19. Zimmermann, G.. "Bischof Suidger von Bamberg – Papst Clemens II." in: Sorge um den Menschen. Festschrift zum 25jährigen Bischofsjubiläum von Alterzbischof Joseph Schneider, Bamberg 1980, pp. 125–135. Laqua, Hans Peter. "Clemente II" Enciclopedia dei papi

Samuele Buttarelli

Samuele Buttarelli is a professional racing driver from Italy. Buttarelli began his single–seater career in the Spanish–based Master Junior Formula in 2007, he was subsequently classified in 23rd place. The following year, Buttarelli stepped up to Formula Renault, competing in the Italian Formula Renault 2.0 and Swiss Formula Renault 2.0 series with Cram Competition. In the Italian series, he competed in the first ten races of the season before leaving the championship, taking a best result of 10th at Misano, whilst in the Swiss series he took part in six races, with a sixth place at Hockenheim being his best race result. In 2009, Buttarelli graduated to Formula Three, racing in the newly named European F3 Open Championship for the emiliodevillota.com team. He took part in the first six rounds of the season before leaving the series after the Monza round in October, where he had just secured his best race results of the season, he was classified in 18th place in the standings. In June 2009, Buttarelli joined Carlin Motorsport to contest the Masters of Formula 3 event held at Zandvoort.

After qualifying on the back row of the grid, he finished as the last classified finisher in 31st position. In September 2009, he made his debut in the Italian Formula Three Championship, racing for RC Motorsport at Imola, where he finished the two races in 18th and 17th places respectively. For the 2010 season, Buttarelli joined Prema Powerteam to contest the Italian Formula Three Championship. After securing three podium places and a fastest lap in the first ten races, Buttarelli split with the team after the fifth round at Varano, he did, secure a seat alongside Daniel Mancinelli at Team Ghinzani in time for the next round of the series at Vallelunga, where he took a podium in the second race. He finished the season in eighth place. In July 2009, Buttarelli took part in a one–off round of the Formula Le Mans series in Portimão, sharing an Oreca FLM09 with GP2 Series regular Jérôme d'Ambrosio, using the weekend to learn the circuit as it would host the final round of the GP2 Series season.

The pair dominated the event, winning both races whilst taking a pole position and fastest lap. However, as they were guest drivers they were ineligible for championship points. In the summer of 2009, Buttarelli took part in the International Formula Master events that supported the Hungarian Grand Prix and Belgian Grand Prix, as part of series organiser N. Technology's Talent Support Program. In his four races in the series he took a best result of ninth in the Hungaroring sprint race. † – As Buttarelli was a guest driver, he was ineligible for championship points. Official website Samuele Buttarelli career summary at DriverDB.com

Basilica of Maxentius

The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, sometimes known as the Basilica Nova—meaning "new basilica"—or Basilica of Maxentius, is an ancient building in the Roman Forum, Italy. It was the largest building in the Forum, the last Roman basilica built in the city. In ancient Rome, a basilica was a rectangular building with a large central open space, a raised apse at the far end from the entrance. Basilicas served a variety of functions, including a combination of a court-house, council chamber and meeting hall. There might be, numerous statues of the gods displayed in niches set into the walls. Under Constantine and his successors this type of building was chosen as the basis for the design of the larger places of Christian worship as the basilica form had fewer pagan associations than those of the designs of traditional Greco-Roman temples, allowed large congregations; as a result of the building programmes of the Christian Roman emperors the term basilica became synonymous with a large church or cathedral.

Construction began on the northern side of the forum under the emperor Maxentius in 308 AD, was completed in 312 by Constantine I after his defeat of Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The building rose on the north side of the Via Sacra, close to the Temple of Peace, at that time neglected, the Temple of Venus and Rome, whose reconstruction was part of Maxentius' interventions. During the 6th century, the building was called "templum Romae"; the colour of the building before it was destroyed was white. The basilica stood on rectangular platform; the thickness of the platform is not known/communicated. The central nave was 80 meters long, 25 meters wide, 35 meters high, with side aisles 16 metres wide and 24.50 meters high. 8 massive marble columns stood at the corners of the nave. They were all destroyed except one, removed by Paul V in 1613 to the Santa Maria Maggiore where it still stands; the building consisted of a central nave covered by three groin vaults suspended 39 meters above the floor on four large piers, ending in an apse at the western end containing a colossal statue of Constantine.

The lateral forces of the groin vaults were held by flanking aisles measuring 23 by 17 metres. The aisles were spanned by three semi-circular barrel vaults perpendicular to the nave, narrow arcades ran parallel to the nave beneath the barrel vaults; the nave itself measured 25 metres by 80 metres creating a 2000 square meter floor. Like the great imperial baths, the basilica made use of vast interior space with its emotional effect. Running the length of the eastern face of the building was a projecting arcade. On the south face was a projecting porch with four columns; the south and central sections were destroyed by the earthquake of 847. In 1349 the vault of the nave collapsed in another earthquake; the only one of the eight 20-meter-high columns that survived the earthquake was brought by Pope Paul V to Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. All that remains of the basilica today is the north aisle with its three concrete barrel vaults; the ceilings of the barrel vaults show advanced weight-saving structural skill with octagonal ceiling coffers.

On the outside wall of the basilica, facing onto the via dei Fori Imperiali, are contemporary maps showing the various stages of the rise of the Roman Empire which were added during the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini. A map depicting Mussolini's "New Roman Empire" was removed from the wall after the war; the wrestling events were held here during the 1960 Summer Olympic Games. The basilica Maxentius took aspects from Roman baths as well as typical Roman basilicas. At that time, it used the most advanced engineering techniques known including innovations taken from the Markets of Trajan and the Baths of Diocletian. Similar to many basilicas at the time such as the Basilica Ulpia, the Basilica of Maxentius featured a huge open space in the central nave. However, instead of having columns support the ceiling like other basilicas, it was built using arches, a much more common appearance in Roman baths than basilicas. Another difference from traditional basilicas is the roof of the structure. While the former were built with a flat roof, the Basilica of Maxentius featured a folded roof, decreasing the overall weight of the structure and decreasing the horizontal forces exerted on the outer arches.

The artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi drew many etchings of the basilica. The building became an inspiration for many buildings built afterwards, including New York City's former Penn Station. Colossus of Constantine situated in the west apse of the Basilica. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. Pp. 76, 79. The Roman Empire: From the Etruscans to the Decline of the Roman Empire, Henri Stierlin, TASCHEN, 2002, Edited by Silvia Kinkle, Cologne, ISBN 3-8228-1778-3 Weitzmann, Kurt, ed. Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 103, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780870991790.

Giovanni Nepomucene Ruspoli, 5th Prince of Cerveteri

Giovanni Nepomucene, Principe Ruspoli was the 5th Principe di Cerveteri, 5th Marchese di Riano, 10th Conte di Vignanello, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire son of Alessandro Ruspoli, 4th Prince of Cerveteri and wife Mariana Gräfin Esterházy de Galántha and ancestor of the Line I of the Principi Ruspoli. He married in Rome, May 16, 1832 Barbara dei Principi Massimo, by whom he had four children: Francesco Maria Ruspoli, 6th Prince of Cerveteri Donna Maria Cristina dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Rome, November 25, 1859 HH Napoléon Charles Grégoire Jacques Philippe, Prince Bonaparte, 5th Principe di Canino and 5th Principe di Musignano, granted the style Highness on his marriage, recognized as Principe Romano in 1895, had female issue Don Alessandro dei Principi Ruspoli, Honorary Marquess of Riano, married in Lucca, October 9, 1877 Eva Capel Broadwood, had three sons: Don Fabrizio dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Rome, March 4, 1905 Margery Butt, had two daughters: Donna Gabriella dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Donna Cristina dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Don Sforza dei Principi Ruspoli, married at Bagni di Lucca, July 7, 1923 Giuseppina del Grande, had two sons: Don Alessandro dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Siena, February 18, 1960 Patrizia Vanni, had an only daughter: Donna Alessandra Giacinta dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Don Mario dei Principi Ruspoli, married firstly in November, 1964 Dolores Sherwood, without issue, secondly at Zikton, March 3, 1978 Lucy Young, without issue Don Napoleone dei Principi Ruspoli, married in New York City, New York, October 14, 1912 Katherine Quay, without issue Donna Francesca dei Principi Ruspoli Ruspoli Giovanni Nepomucene Ruspoli on a genealogical site

Isotonic contraction

In an isotonic contraction, tension remains the same, whilst the muscle's length changes. Isotonic contractions differ from isokinetic contractions in that in isokinetic contractions the muscle speed remains constant. While superficially identical, as the muscle's force changes via the length-tension relationship during a contraction, an isotonic contraction will keep force constant while velocity changes, but an isokinetic contraction will keep velocity constant while force changes. A near isotonic contraction is known as Auxotonic contraction. There are two types of isotonic contractions: eccentric. In a concentric contraction, the muscle tension rises to meet the resistance remains the same as the muscle shortens. In eccentric, the muscle lengthens due to the resistance being greater than the force the muscle is producing; this type is typical of most exercise. The external force on the muscle is less than the force the muscle is generating - a shortening contraction; the effect is not visible during the classic biceps curl, in fact auxotonic because the resistance does not remain the same through the exercise.

Tension is highest at a parallel to the floor level, eases off above and below this point. Therefore, tension changes as well as muscle length. There are two main features to note regarding eccentric contractions. First, the absolute tensions achieved can be high relative to the muscle's maximum tetanic tension generating capacity. Second, the absolute tension is independent of lengthening velocity. Muscle injury and soreness are selectively associated with eccentric contraction. Muscle strengthening using exercises that involve eccentric contractions is lower than using concentric exercises; however because higher levels of tension are easier to attain during exercises that involve eccentric contractions it may be that, by generating higher signals for muscle strengthening, muscle hypertrophy is better than exercises that involve concentric contractions, albeit at a higher level of resistance. This is an isotonic contraction because there is some fluctuation towards the end of the contraction.

For example, the heart's ventricles contract to expel blood into aorta. As the blood flows out, the previous built-up load is decreased and hence less force is required to expel the rest of the blood, thus the tension is reduced. Isometric exercise Stretching Isotonic+contraction at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Harnamdutt Shastri

Harnamdutt Shastri was a scholar of Sanskrit grammar, born in Jagadhri, India. His father’s name was Muraridutt, he received his education in Varanasi and became a Bhasyacharya of Sanskrit language Vyakaran Shastra. On he became a famous teacher of the Panini Vyakaran based in Churu, Rajasthan; the Sanskrit school he established in Churu was known as the Pandit Harnamdutt Sanskrit Paatshala. Prominent names amongst his students include Giridhar Sharma Chaturvedi, Vidyavachspati Balchandraji, Pandit Ramanandji Maharaj, Pandit Jaidevji Mishra and Pandit Vilasrayaji; the Sanskrit mahakavya, Haranamamritam is a poetic biography written by Vidyavachaspati Vidyadhar Shastri. This mahakavya depicts the life story of the poet’s grandfather Harnamdutt Shastri, it is not a glorification of his family but strives to enlighten readers about the humble and calm qualities of scholars. The poet wishes to encourage the writing of new Sanskrit poetry; the mahakavya is divided into sixteen cantos. In the first canto the poet invokes and bows before the Supreme Being, the current work is stated to be an effort to propagate culture.

In the second canto the protagonist’s father Muraridutt receives advice and instructions regarding continuation of the family traditions. In the third canto the protagonist is born in Jagadhri, soon afterwards his mother dies and he is raised by an aunt; the young boy is disinterested in studies and enjoys wrestling, his father attempts to direct the boy towards setting up his own household. In the fourth canto the young boy wins a wrestling match but is berated by his father. In a fit of anger he heads to Delhi, he inspired by an elderly persons' advice, heads to Varanasi. The fifth canto begins with a description of the spiritual aspect of Varanasi; as the chapter continues, the young man creates a favorable impression on the teachers. After completing his studies Harnamdutt continues in Varanasi as a teacher. Word of his fame as a teacher reaches his father and Muraridutt travels to Varanasi bringing along Harnamdutt’s wife. Upon seeing his son established as a respected teacher, the father is pleased and returns home after a brief stay.

In the sixth canto the protagonist establishes his household in Varanasi. Soon a son is born. On recovering from the tragedy, he devotes himself to prayer and studies. In the seventh canto Seth Bhagwandas Bagala of Churu visits the protagonist and implores him to establish a Sanskrit Paatshala in Churu. Although hesitant at first, Harnamdutt is won over by the entreaties of acquiesces; the chapter contains an excellent description of the desert environment’s beauty. The eighth canto covers the grand welcome to the protagonist by the residents of Churu; the canto describes the ideal perfection of a resident student’s life. The ninth canto describes the misery caused by the famine of 1889, a prayer to Lord Shiva is organized and an unprecedented rainfall results. In the tenth canto the protagonist is accompanied by his pupils on a pilgrimage; the poet describes both the hardships and blissful interludes which occur during travel through the desert. The travelers are waylaid by a band of brigands and the protagonist addresses them in a fearless manner.

He advises the dacoits to become righteous warriors. The eleventh canto is the soul of the mahakavya. In it the protagonist instructs his sons to observe the requirements of nurturing a household; the protagonist proceeds to Haridwar and starts living as a hermit in the siddhashrama. The twelfth canto describes the life of resident students at Gurukul Kangri, it includes a listing of the protagonist's prominent students and collaborators. Next is a description of Kurukshetra where the protagonist proceeds to attend a conference of Brahmins. In the thirteenth canto the protagonist addresses the conference as the chairman, in his address he outlines the duties of a brahmin and enjoins the brahmins to carry out these obligations; the canto ends with a wish for world prosperity. In the fourteenth canto the protagonist opines. In the fifteenth canto the protagonist attends a Sanskrit conference on the occasion of the Kumbha parva, the canto ends with an invocation for the propagation of Sanskrit. In the sixteenth canto we learn that the protagonist is in a sickly state and is being devotedly attended to by his pupils.

The canto lists the disciples who followed in the footsteps of their guru by encouraging the growth of Indian culture. The mahakavya ends with a wish for Indian culture and traditions to be preserved eternally. Sahityasrashta Shri Vidyadhar Shastri at Library of Congress Haranamamritam at Library of Congress