Pope Clement VII, born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534. “The most unfortunate of the Popes,” Clement VII’s reign was marked by a rapid succession of political and religious struggles—many long in the making—which had far-reaching consequences for Christianity and world politics. Elected in 1523 at the end of the Italian Renaissance, Clement VII came to the papacy with a high reputation as a statesman. He'd served with distinction as chief advisor to Pope Leo X, Pope Adrian VI, commendably as gran maestro of Florence. Assuming leadership at a time of crisis, with the Protestant Reformation spreading, he attempted to liberate Italy from foreign occupation, believing that it threatened the Church's freedom. The complex political situation of the 1520s thwarted Clement's efforts. Inheriting daunting challenges, including Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation in Northern Europe. After escaping confinement in the Castel Sant'Angelo, Clement—with few economic, military, or political options remaining—compromised the Church's and Italy's independence by allying with his former jailor, Emperor Charles V.
In contrast to his tortured Papacy, Clement VII was respectable and devout, possessing a “dignified propriety of character,” “great acquirements both theological and scientific,” as well as “extraordinary address and penetration—Clement VII, in serener times, might have administered the Papal power with high reputation and enviable prosperity. But with all of his profound insight into the political affairs of Europe, Clement does not seem to have comprehended the altered position of the Pope” in relation to Europe’s emerging nation-states and Protestantism. In matters of science, Clement VII is best known for approving, in 1533, Nicolaus Copernicus’s theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun—99 years before Galileo Galilei’s heresy trial for similar ideas. Ecclesiastically, Clement VII is remembered for issuing orders protecting Jews from the Inquisition, approving the Capuchin Franciscan Order, securing the island of Malta for the Knights of Malta. Giulio de' Medici's life began under tragic circumstances.
On April 26, 1478 — one month before his birth — his father, Giuliano de Medici was murdered in the Florence Cathedral by enemies of his family. He was born illegitimately on May 1478, in Florence. Giulio spent the first seven years of life with his godfather, the architect Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. Thereafter, Lorenzo the Magnificent raised him as one of his own sons, alongside his children Giovanni and Giuliano. Educated at the Palazzo Medici in Florence by humanists like Angelo Poliziano, alongside prodigies like Michelangelo, Giulio became an accomplished musician. In personality he was reputed to be shy, in physical appearance, handsome. Giulio's natural inclination was for the clergy, but his illegitimacy barred him from high-ranking positions in the Church. So Lorenzo the Magnificent helped, he was enrolled in the Knights of Rhodes, but became Grand Prior of Capua. In 1492, when Lorenzo the Magnificent died and Giovanni de' Medici assumed his duties as a cardinal, Giulio became more involved in Church affairs.
He studied canon law at the University of Pisa, accompanied Giovanni to the conclave of 1492, where Rodrigo Borgia was elected Pope Alexander VI. Following the misfortunes of Lorenzo the Magnificent's firstborn son, Piero the Unfortunate, the Medici were expelled from Florence in 1494. Over the next six years, Cardinal Giovanni and Giulio wandered throughout Europe together — twice getting themselves arrested; each time Piero the Unfortunate bailed them out. In 1500, both returned to Italy and concentrated their efforts on re-establishing their family in Florence. Only in 1512, with the assistance of Pope Julius II and the Spanish troops of Ferdinand of Aragon, did the Medici retake control of the city. In 1510, while the Medici were living near Rome, a black servant in their household — identified in documents as Simonetta da Collevecchio — became pregnant giving birth to a son, Alessandro de' Medici. Nicknamed “il Moro” due to his dark complexion, Alessandro was recognized as the illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de Medici.
The truth of his lineage remains debated. Regardless of his paternity, throughout Alessandro's brief life, Giulio — as Pope Clement VII — showed him great favoritism, elevating Alessandro over Ippolito de Medici to become Florence's first hereditary monarch, d
Dole Whip is a soft serve dairy-free frozen dessert created by Dole Food Company in 1986. The original pineapple flavor is best known but six additional fruit flavors are sold: Mango Lemon Orange Raspberry Strawberry Lime Dole Whip was introduced sometime in 1986, 10 years after Dole Food Company took over from United Airlines as the sponsor of Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room, an attraction inside the Adventureland section of Disneyland. Dole Whip built on the attraction's initial refreshment offering of pineapple fruit spears. Dole Whip has achieved a cult following among Disney park-goers, allowing merchandise to be created in the Disney Snacks Merchandise category. Disneyland and Walt Disney World serve Dole Whip with Dole pineapple juice; the latter combination is called a Dole Whip float. Since at least 2013, Dole Whip has been made with vegan ingredients, it has always been gluten free. For adults visiting the Disneyland and Walt Disney World parks there is a Rum version of the Dole Whip.
Rondout Light is a lighthouse on the west side of the Hudson River at Kingston, New York. The official name in the Coast Guard Light List is Rondout Creek Leading Light; the National Register name, Kingston/Rondout 2 Lighthouse comes from its location in a series of day beacons and lights in Rondout Creek. Number 2 is the first on the right hand side; the USCG history site calls it Rondout Creek Light. The first lighthouse at the entrance to the Rondout Creek was a wooden one built in 1837, it was replaced by a second lighthouse, made of sturdier bluestone, in 1867. The bluestone lighthouse was torn down in the 1950s. Only its circular stone foundation remains today; the current lighthouse was built in 1915. In 1954 the light was automated and the building closed; the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act provides for the Coast Guard to declare some lighthouses surplus, for their ownership to be transferred to historical, non-profit or local government entities following an application process and review.
Nine lighthouses were identified in the fall of 2001 as part of a pilot program to transfer such lighthouses. Rondout Light was one of those nine. Rondout Light was transferred from the Coast Guard to the City of Kingston in 2002, it is managed by the non-profit Hudson River Maritime Museum. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979