Wazo of Liège
Wazo of Liège was bishop of Liège from 1041 to 1048, a significant educator and theologian. His life was chronicled by his contemporary Anselm of Liège. During this period Liège became known as an educational center. Wazo, himself a student with Heriger of Lobbes, served as school master, under his predecessor Notker of Liège, before himself becoming bishop, he is noted for his nuanced approach to cases of heresy. In a letter he wrote to Roger, Bishop of Châlons, he quoted the New Testament Parable of the Tares and argued "the church should let dissent grow with orthodoxy until the Lord comes to separate and judge them", he was involved in the period 1021-5 in a controversy with John and provost in Liège. His election as bishop in 1041 was contested, with Emperor Henry III against him. Klaus-Gunther Wesseling. "Wazo von Lüttich". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 13. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 394–398. ISBN 3-88309-072-7
The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops
Lateran and Laterano are the shared names of several buildings in Rome. The properties were once owned by the Lateranus family of the Roman Empire; the Laterani lost their properties to Emperor Constantine who gave them to the Roman Catholic Church in 311. The most famous Lateran buildings are the Lateran Palace, once called the Palace of the Popes, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome, which although part of Italy is a property of the Holy See, which has extraterritorial privileges as a result of the 1929 Lateran Treaty; as the official ecclesiastical seat of the Pope, St. John Lateran is the Papal cathedra; the Lateran is Christendom's earliest basilica. Attached to the basilica is the Lateran Baptistery, one of the oldest in Christendom. Other constituent parts of the Lateran complex are the building of the Scala Sancta with the Sancta Sanctorum and the Triclinium of Pope Leo III; the Pontifical Lateran University, or Lateranum, is one of the pontifical universities of Rome.
An ecclesiastical college in the Philippines was named after the Basilica of St. John Lateran, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, founded in 1620. Scala Sancta - Article from the Catholic Encyclopedia Christian Museum of Lateran - Article from the Catholic Encyclopedia Colegio de San Juan de Letran#History
Boniface III, Margrave of Tuscany
Boniface III, son of Tedald of Canossa and the father of Matilda of Canossa, was the most powerful north Italian prince of his age. By inheritance he was Count of Brescia, Ferrara, Lucca, Modena, Pistoia, Parma and Verona from 1007 and, by appointment, Margrave of Tuscany from 1027 until his assassination in 1052, he was Willa of Bologna. The Lombard family's ancestral castle was Canossa and they had held Modena for several generations, they possessed their power lay chiefly in Emilia. Boniface was associated with his father before the latter's death. In 1004, with the title marchio, he donated land to the abbey of Polirone, he appears in two documents of the same year as gloriosus marchio, he kept his court at Mantua, which he transformed into a city of culture: "With so many magnificent spectacles and feasts that all posterity and all their contemporaries marvelled thereat." In 1014, Boniface aided the Emperor Henry II in putting down Arduin, Margrave of Ivrea, self-styled King of Italy, a royal title that the Emperor did not recognise.
His father nominated him as heir over his brothers and, in 1016, he was again fighting alongside the emperor, this time against the Margrave of Turin, Ulric Manfred II. In 1020, he defeated a rebellion of his brother Conrad, but the two reconciled and both were recorded as duces. In 1027, he supported the candidacy of Conrad II of Germany for the Iron Crown of Lombardy and the Imperial Crown against the other claimants: William V of Aquitaine, Robert II of France, or Hugh Magnus; when Boniface's Lombard enemies tried to incite his brother against him, the two offered battle to them at Coviolo, near Reggio, emerged victorious, though Conrad was killed. When Conrad II succeeded in entering Italy, he was met with defiance at Lucca and he deposed the reigning margrave of Tuscany and gave his lands and titles to Boniface; this seems to be the probable scenario, though the exact date of Boniface's assumption of the Tuscan lordship is uncertain. Boniface subdued Pavia and Parma, in revolt against the Emperor, the Emperor made a treaty with Boniface, an act, construed as recognition of Boniface's independence.
In 1032, he was at war with the rebel Odo II, Count of Blois, Chartres and Troyes. In early summer 1036, Boniface attended the Emperor at Nijmegen. In 1037, he helped put down a revolt against the Emperor Conrad, in February 1038, hosted the Emperor, while the latter journeyed to Florence. In 1043, for services rendered the Empire, he received the Duchy of Camerino, he acquired more land in Parma and Piacenza, his chief residence in this time was at Mantua. In 1039, he travelled to Miroalto to aid the Emperor Henry III against the rebellious Odo of Blois. While he was returning, he destroyed the grain fields of the region and the enraged populace retaliated and stole some of his retainers' horses, it was during his blood reprisal. Preparing to hack off the ears and nose of a young man, Boniface was confronted by the youth's mother, who begged him be spared and promised him her son's weigh in silver. Boniface replied to his offer that he "was no merchant, but a soldier," adding: "Absit ut hostes ferro capti redimantur argento".
In 1046, Henry III entered Italy to be crowned Emperor. Boniface received the emperor and his empress, Agnes of Poitou, with honour and munificence on their arrival at Piacenza and his governor did so at Mantua on their return journey; the relationship between Boniface and Henry, soon deteriorated in 1047. With the death of Pope Clement II, Pope Benedict IX, with the covert support of Boniface, was re-instated, This was a choice not universally approved, by Christmas 1047, a delegation of Romans met with the emperor to ask him to name a successor; the following month, Henry called a council. Although the Romans wanted Halinard of Lyons, the Bavarian Bishop Poppo of Brixen was chosen, taking the name of Damasus II. On his way to Rome, Damasus met Boniface, who informed him that Benedict had been chosen by the people. Damasus returned to Henry, who viewed Boniface's support of Benedict a challenge to imperial authority, he ordered Boniface to escort Damasus to Rome. Damasus was consecrated on July 17, 1048, but died less than a month at Palestrina, just outside Rome poisoned.
In fact, his habit of cheating the church of land the Diocese of Reggio, by offering some small farm land and an annual rent in turn for it was legendary. He paid the promised rents. However, Boniface joined the reform party of Leo IX and was present at the Synod of Pavia in 1049. In his years, he kept the Abbey of Pomposa well-endowed for the sake of his soul and confessed to simony and permitted Guido of Pomposa to flagellate him in punishment for it, he tried to restrict the rights of his valvassores, despite Conrad's imperial edict of 1037. It was this action against his undertenants which got him killed in 1052, during a hunting expedition; this version of Boniface's death is disputed. Some have alleged, it is held by some that in 1044 there was an attempt made on the margrave's life at Brescia and that the conspirators fled to Verona, which Boniface subsequently sacked before expelling some Veronese conspirators from Mantua as well. One Scarpetta Carnevari nursed a grudge for this act and years while Boniface was preparing a galley for a p
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Pope Clement II
Pope Clement II, was Pope from 25 December 1046 until his death in 1047. He was the first in a series of reform-minded popes from Germany. Suidger was the Bishop of Bamberg. In 1046, he accompanied Henry, King of Germany, when at the request of laity and clergy of Rome, Henry went to Italy and summoned the Council of Sutri, which deposed Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III, accepted the resignation of Gregory VI. Henry suggested Suidger for Pope, he was elected, taking the name of Clement II. Clement proceeded with the coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor. Clement's brief tenure as pope saw the enactment of more stringent prohibitions against simony. Born in Hornburg, Lower Saxony, Germany, he was the son of Count Konrad of Morsleben and Hornburg and his wife Amulrad. In 1040, he became Bishop of Bamberg. In the autumn of 1046, there were three rival claimants to the papacy, in St. Peter's, the Lateran, St. Mary Major's. Two of them, Benedict IX and Sylvester III, represented rival factions of the nobility.
The third, Pope Gregory VI, in order to free the city from the House of Tusculum, Benedict's scandalous lifestyle, had paid Benedict money in exchange for his resignation. Regardless the motives, the transaction bore the appearance of simony. Questions regarding the legitimacy of any of them could undermine the validity of a coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor. King Henry crossed the Alps at the head of a large army and accompanied by a brilliant retinue of the secular and ecclesiastical princes of the empire, for the twofold purpose of receiving the imperial crown and of restoring order. In 1046, Suidiger accompanied King Henry on his campaign to Italy and in December, participated in the Council of Sutri, which deposed former Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III and persuaded Pope Gregory VI to resign. King Henry nominated Suidger for the papacy and the council elected him. Suidger insisted upon retaining the bishopric of his see for needed financial support, lest the turbulent Romans should before long send him back to Bamberg.
Suidger took the name Clement II. After his election, King Henry and the new Pope travelled to Rome, where Clement was enthroned as pope. and crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor. Clement's election was criticized by the reform party within the papal curia due to the royal involvement and the fact that the new Pope was bishop of another diocese. Contrary to practice, Clement kept his old see, governing both Rome and Bamberg simultaneously. Clement's first pontifical act was to Agnes of Aquitaine, he bestowed on the Emperor the title and diadem of a Roman Patricius, a dignity, understood to give the bearer the right of indicating the person to be chosen pope. Clement II's short pontificate, starting with the Roman synod of 1047, initiated an improvement in the state of affairs within the Roman Church by enacting decrees against simony. A dispute for precedence among the Sees of Ravenna and Aquileia was settled in favour of Ravenna. Clement accompanied the Emperor in a triumphal progress through southern Italy and placed Benevento under an interdict for refusing to open its gates to them.
Proceeding with Henry to Germany, he canonized Wiborada, a nun of St. Gall, martyred by the Hungarians in 925. On his way back to Rome, he died near Pesaro on 9 October 1047, his corpse was transferred back to Bamberg, which he had loved dearly, interred in the western choir of the Bamberg Cathedral. His is the only tomb of a Pope north of the Alps. A toxicologic examination of his remains in the mid-20th century confirmed centuries-old rumors that the Pope had been poisoned with lead sugar, it is not clear, whether he was murdered or whether the lead sugar was used as medicine. List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Clement II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Dechant, Alfons. Clemens II. Der Papst aus Bamberg: 24 Dezember 1046 – 9 Oktober 1047. Bamberg: St.-Otto-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87693-078-7. Dolley, M.. "Some Neglected Evidence from Irish Chronicles Concerning the Alleged Poisoning of Pope Clement II," Frühmittelalterliche Studien 3, 1969, pp. 343–346.
Gresser, Georg. Clemens II.: der erste deutsche Reformpapst. Paderborn: Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506-76329-7. Mann, Horace K.. The lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages Volume V, pp. 270–285. Migne, J.-P. ed.. Patrologiae cursus Series Latina. Tomus CXLII. Paris: apud Garnier fratres, apud J.-P. Migne. Pp. 577–590. Timmel, R.. "Bischof Suidger von Bamberg – Papst Clemens II. † 1047," Fränkische Lebensbilder 10, 1982, pp. 1–19. Zimmermann, G.. "Bischof Suidger von Bamberg – Papst Clemens II." in: Sorge um den Menschen. Festschrift zum 25jährigen Bischofsjubiläum von Alterzbischof Joseph Schneider, Bamberg 1980, pp. 125–135. Laqua, Hans Peter. "Clemente II" Enciclopedia dei papi
San Lorenzo fuori le Mura
The Basilica Papale di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura is a Roman Catholic Papal minor basilica and parish church, located in Rome, Italy. The Basilica is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome and one of the five former "patriarchal basilicas", each of, assigned to the care of a Latin Church patriarchate; the Basilica was assigned to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The Basilica is the shrine of the tomb of its namesake, Saint Lawrence, one of the first seven deacons of Rome, martyred in 258. Many other saints and Bl. Pope Pius IX are buried at the Basilica, the center of a large and ancient burial complex. Before the present-day Basilica was constructed, the former estate upon which it sits was once home to a small oratory built by Emperor Constantine I; the Emperor built it over the site on which it tradition held that St. Lawrence was buried in 258. In the 580s, Pope Pelagius II commissioned the construction of a church over the site in honor of the Saint. In the 13th century, Pope Honorius III commissioned the construction of another church in front of the older one.
It was adorned with frescos depicting the lives of Saint Lawrence and the first martyred deacon, St. Stephen, interred with St. Lawrence in the crypt, or confessio, under the high altar; the two structures were united during a program of urban renewal. Excavations have revealed several other crypts of various persons, buried below the contemporary street level. Pope St. Hilarius is buried here; the portico of circa 1220 has Cosmatesque decoration by the Vassalletto family of craftsmen. The 13th-century frescoes, which were reconstructed, depict scenes from the lives of St. Lawrence and St. Stephen, both being martyred, young deacons. There are two ancient sarcophagi in the portico: a Christian one decorated in the 7th century on an older sarcophagus, has a relief depicting putti picking grapes. While vines and grapes are symbols of the Holy Eucharist, these images are not symbols thereof. Further, two Romanesque stone lions were moved here from the old entrance; the campanile was built in the 12th century.
Inside the entrance is the tomb of Guglielmo Cardinal Fieschi, who died in 1256, but was entombed in an ancient sarcophagus, itself being incidentally carved with a relief depicting a pagan marital feast. Inside, the choir enclosure and pulpit have Cosmatesque decoration, there is a fine Cosmatesque Paschal candlestick from the 12th or 13th century; the antique Ionic capital on the column directly behind the pulpit has carvings of a frog and a lizard. On the triumphal arch are Byzantine mosaics from the 6th century, depicting Christ with saints; the confessio below the high altar is entered from the nave. Here, St. Lawrence and St. Stephen are enshrined; the latter was transferred from Constantinople by Pope Pelagius II during his restoration of the Basilica. Behind the high altar is a Papal altar with an inscription of the names of the makers, namely the Cosmati family, dating it to 1148; the Basilica was home to the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1374 to 1847. In 1943 the Basilica was bombed during the Second World War.
Restoration continued until 1948. However, the frescoes on the facade were destroyed; the Basilica adjoins a major cemetery, therefore holds a large number of funerals. Deacon of Rome and martyr St. Lawrence Proto-martyr St. Stephen Pope St. Hilarius Bl. Pope Pius IX Italian Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi, a founding father of the European Union Pope Pius XII's parents. Claussan, D. Mondini, D. Senekovic, Die Kirchen der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter 1050-1300, Band 3, Stuttgart 2010, pp. 317–527, ISBN 978-3-515-09073-5 Webb, Matilda. "San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura and Catacomb". The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. Pp. 240–245. ISBN 1-902210-58-1. A. Muñoz, La Basilica di S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Roma 1944. G. Da Bra, S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Roma 1952 R. Krautheimer, Corpus basilicarum christianarum Romae, S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Città del Vaticano 1962. High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of San Lorenzo fuori le Mura | Art Atlas