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Pope Gregory IV

Pope Gregory IV was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from October 827 to his death in 844. His pontificate was notable for the papacy’s attempts to intervene in the quarrels between the emperor Louis the Pious and his sons, it saw the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in 843. The son of a Roman patrician called John, Gregory was an energetic but mild churchman, renowned for his learning. Consecrated a priest during the pontificate of Pope Paschal I, at the time of Pope Valentine’s death in 827, Gregory was the Cardinal priest of the Basilica of St Mark in Rome. Like his predecessor, Gregory was nominated by the nobility, the electors unanimously agreed that he was the most worthy to become the Bishop of Rome, they found him at the Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian where, despite his protestations, he was taken and installed at the Lateran Palace, after which he was enthroned as Pope-elect sometime in October 827. Gregory’s elevation to the papal see is believed to represent a continuation of the attempts to control the local political situation in Rome which had begun during Pope Eugene II’s pontificate.

His consecration was delayed, until March 29, 828, when he received notice of the Emperor Louis’ approval of his election. This delay was enforced by the imperial envoys, who insisted that the Constitution of 824 expressly forbid the consecration of any Pope-elect until the emperor had satisfied himself of the validity of the election, it was said that the emperor reprimanded Gregory for attempting to have himself consecrated before receiving the approval of the emperor. Gregory complied with these demands of imperial supremacy, in 828 and 829, the Pope sent embassies to Louis for unspecified discussions. In January 829, Gregory was involved in a dispute with Farfa Abbey over the ownership of local monastic land by the Roman church. In a court run by a bishop and a representative of the emperor, in the presence of Gregory, the Abbot of Farfa, claimed that the Frankish emperors had granted them the lands, that Popes Adrian I and Leo III had taken possession of the land illegally; the imperial representative made a ruling in favour of the abbey, that the lands were to be restored to the monastery.

Although Gregory refused to accept the ruling, there is no evidence that he managed to get the decision overturned. In 817, by a solemn deed, confirmed by Paschal I, Louis had made a division of the empire in favour of his three sons by his first wife: the future emperor Lothair I, Pepin I of Aquitaine, Louis the German. Over time, Papal dependence on the Holy Roman Emperor was loosened through the quarrels of Louis the Pious and his sons. Louis’ decision to jettison the agreement of 817 regarding the division of the empire by assigning a kingdom to his youngest son, Charles the Bald, in 829 was criticized by Gregory in a letter to the Frankish bishops; the following year, after a brief rebellion and reconciliation between Louis and his sons, Gregory declared that Louis’ second wife Judith was to be released from the convent where she had been forced to take the veil, to be returned to Louis. When the war between father and sons resumed in Easter 833, Gregory was approached by Lothair, seeking his intervention to bring about reconciliation between Lothair and his father.

He was convinced to leave Rome and travel up to join Lothair, in hopes that his intervention would promote peace, but in practice this action annoyed the Frankish bishops who followed Louis, who believed that Gregory was supporting Lothair. Suspicious of Gregory’s intent, they refused to obey the Pope, threatened to excommunicate him, were he to excommunicate them, to depose him as Pope. Annoyed by their actions, Gregory's response was to insist upon the primacy of St Peter's successor, the papacy being superior to the Emperor, he stated: ”You professed to have felt delighted when you heard of my arrival, thinking that it would have been of great advantage for the emperor and the people. But you ought to have regarded an order from the Apostolic See as not less weighty than one from the emperor.... The government of souls, which belongs to bishops, is more important than the imperial, only concerned with the temporal. Your assertion that I have only come to blindly excommunicate is shameless, your offer to give me an honourable reception if I should have come in the way the emperor wanted me to is contemptuous.

With regards to the oaths I have taken to the emperor, I will avoid perjury by pointing out to the emperor what he has done against the unity and peace of the Church and his kingdom. With regards to the bishops, in opposing my efforts in behalf of peace, what they threaten has not been done, from the beginning of the Church.” Regardless of this claim, the vast bulk of the Frankish bishops maintained that the pope had no business interfering in the internal affairs of the kingdom, or in expecting the Frankish clergy to follow his lead in such matters. Their position was clear; the armies of Louis and two of his sons met at Rotfeld, near Colmar, on June 24, 833. The sons persuaded Gregory to go to Louis's camp to negotiate, Louis refused to treat Gregory with any honour. However, Gregory managed to convince Louis of his good faith, returned to Lothair to arrange a peace. However, Gregory soon learned. Gregory was prevented from returning to the emperor, while Louis was deserted by his supporters and was forced to surrender unconditionally.

Super Junior discography

This is the discography of South Korean boy band Super Junior and managed by SM Entertainment. Super Junior has formed five sub-groups. Super Junior-T, for example, brought influence to the younger generation on trot-styled music and Super Junior-M is credited as an influential group in the Chinese music industry; the group has released nine studio albums, six CD singles, six live albums. The group contributed in a total of seven compilations and soundtracks; the releases below are music records released by Super Junior, although the group has unofficially-released productions, such as opening themes for radio shows and television shows. Their fourth album Bonamana is listed as the best-selling album of 2010 with 200,193 copies sold, the repackaged version at ninth at 99,355 copies. On 12 April 2012, Gaon Chart announced that, up till the end of March 2012, their fifth studio album, Mr. Simple has sold a cumulative total of 548,164 copies in South Korea, the first to exceed half a million in four years in South Korea, hence making it the highest-selling album of their career.

Note: 1) For sub-groups's and individual member's discography, see their articles. 2) The following, except for the group's debut album and their collaboration single with TVXQ, Show Me Your Love, both in which were released under the name of SuperJunior05, are music released and credited under the name of Super Junior. Up till 2008, South Korean chart and sales data were compiled by defunct Music Industry Association of Korea, where upon in February 2010 Gaon Chart was launched with nationwide data from 2009; the releases are in Korean. Solo Yesung discography Kim Ryeowook discography Cho Kyu-hyun discography Subgroups Super Junior-K. R. Y.#Discography Super Junior-T#Discography Super Junior-M#Discography Super Junior-H#Discography Super Junior-D&E#Discography

Cape rain frog

The cape rain frog or giant rain frog is a species of frog in the Brevicipitidae family. Adults grow up to 45 mm in length, it was the first African frog species to be scientifically described by Linnaeus in 1758, under the name Rana gibbosa. It is the largest of rain frogs; the species is endemic to South Africa, where it occurs in the far south-western Cape, in Cape Town and northwards as far as Citrusdal. In this area it inhabits Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation, known as fynbos, pastureland on farms, rural gardens, urban areas, it seems to adapt well to suburban gardens, but like most frog species it is vulnerable to herbicide poisons and domestic pets. The Cape rain frog lives underground and emerges just before rains, it may be seen in misty or damp conditions. Its burrowing provides a role in aerating soil in the south-western Cape, it feeds on small insects. When alarmed, it increases its apparent size by swallowing air; as burrowing frogs, they have muscular legs, which enable them to burrow for shelter.

This species does not require open water to breed. During mating season, males call from beneath vegetation or from their burrows so that the females can locate them. Since he is too small to get a firm grip on the female, she secretes a sticky liquid that glues him to her back. Fertilisation takes place in a burrow that the female has dug where groups of 22 eggs are laid, they lay fertile eggs and jelly capsules. The females will remain burrowed near the eggs until they become young froglets without undergoing the tadpole stage. Species is classified as Near Threatened by the IUCN; the main threats consist of ongoing habitat loss in the diminishing fynbos biomes, through the expansion of urban sprawl and agriculture