Pope Gregory VII, born Hildebrand of Sovana, was pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085. One of the great reforming popes, he is best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor that affirmed the primacy of papal authority and the new canon law governing the election of the pope by the College of Cardinals, he was at the forefront of developments in the relationship between the emperor and the papacy during the years before he became pope. He was the first pope in several centuries to rigorously enforce the Western Church's ancient policy of celibacy for the clergy and attacked the practice of simony. Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV three times. Henry IV would appoint Antipope Clement III to oppose him in the political power struggles between the Catholic Church and his empire. Hailed as one of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs after his reforms proved successful, Gregory VII was, during his own reign, despised by some for his expansive use of papal powers.
Because this Pope was such a prominent champion of papal supremacy, his memory was evoked on many occasions in generations, both positively and negatively reflecting writers' attitude to the Catholic Church and the papacy. Beno of Santi Martino e Silvestro, who opposed Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy, leveled against him charges such as necromancy, torture of a former friend upon a bed of nails, commissioning an attempted assassination, executions without trials, unjust excommunication, doubting the Real Presence of the Eucharist, burning the Eucharist; this was eagerly repeated by opponents of the Catholic Church, such as the English Protestant John Foxe. Twentieth century British writer Joseph McCabe describes Gregory as a "rough and violent peasant, enlisting his brute strength in the service of the monastic ideal which he embraced." In contrast, the modern historian of the 11th century H. E. J. Cowdrey writes, " was flexible, feeling his way and therefore perplexing both rigorous collaborators... and cautious and steady-minded ones...
His zeal, moral force, religious conviction, ensured that he should retain to a remarkable degree the loyalty and service of a wide variety of men and women." Gregory was born as Ildebrando di Soana in Sovana, in the county of Grosseto, now southern Tuscany, central Italy. The historian Johann Georg Estor made the claim; as a youth he was sent to study in Rome at the monastery of St. Mary on the Aventine, according to some unconfirmed sources, his uncle was abbot of a monastery on the Aventine Hill. Among his masters were the erudite Lawrence, archbishop of Amalfi, Johannes Gratianus, the future Pope Gregory VI; when the latter was deposed by Holy Roman Emperor Henry III and exiled to Germany, Hildebrand followed him to Cologne. According to some chroniclers, Hildebrand moved to Cluny after Gregory VI's death, which occurred in 1048, he accompanied Abbot Bruno of Toul to Rome. Leo sent Hildebrand as his legate to Tours in France in the wake of the controversy created by Berengar of Tours. At Leo's death, the new Pope, Victor II, confirmed him as legate, while Victor's successor Stephen IX sent him and Anselm of Lucca to Germany to obtain recognition from the Empress Agnes de Poitou.
Stephen died before being able to return to Rome. With the help of 300 Norman knights sent by Richard of Aversa, Hildebrand led the conquest of the castle of Galeria Antica where Benedict had taken refuge. Between 1058 and 1059, he was made archdeacon of the Roman church, becoming the most important figure in the papal administration, he was again the most powerful figure behind the election of Anselm of Lucca the Elder as Pope Alexander II in the papal election of October 1061. The new pope put forward the reform program devised by his followers. In his years as papal advisor, Hildebrand had an important role in the reconciliation with the Norman kingdom of southern Italy, in the anti-German alliance with the Pataria movement in northern Italy and, above all, in the introduction of a law which gave the cardinals exclusive rights concerning the election of a new pope. Pope Gregory VII was one of the few popes elected by acclamation. On the death of Alexander II on 21 April 1073, as the obsequies were being performed in the Lateran Basilica, there arose a loud outcry from the clergy and people: "Let Hildebrand be pope!", "Blessed Peter has chosen Hildebrand the Archdeacon!"
Hildebrand fled, hid himself for some time, thereby making it clear that he had refused the uncanonical election in the Liberian Basilica. He was found at the Church of San Pietro in Vincoli, to which a famous monastery was attached, elected pope by the assembled cardinals, with the due consent of the Roman clergy, amid the repeated acclamations of the people, it was debated at the time—and remains debated by historians—whether this extraordinary outburst in favour of Hildebrand by clergy and people was wholly spontaneous or could have been the result of some pre-concerted arrangements. According to Benizo, Bishop of Sutri, a supporter of Hildebrand, the outcry was begun by the actions of Cardinal Ugo Candidus, Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente, who rushed into a pu
Youth Projects is an independent, not-for-profit organisation founded in Melbourne, Australia. The goal of youth projects is to create life changing opportunities for every young person, working with them to build resilience, promote inclusion and empower them to overcome disadvantage. Youth Projects provides a broad range of services designed to enable a holistic approach to tackling social disadvantage and drug and alcohol issues including health and education programs, community outreach and training and employment services. Youth Projects operates a drop-in centre in Hosier Lane called The Living Room and its main office is located in Glenroy. In 1981, the Broadmeadows City Council established a drop-in centre in a building at 6 Hartington Street, Glenroy; the centre was aimed at the young unemployed as a safe place to discuss their personal issues. In 1984, with additional support from Commonwealth authorities and charitable trusts, the Broadmeadows Taskforce was established and opened by the Premier of Victoria, the Hon John Cain Tuesday 28 August 1984.
At the end of 1984, the committee of management of the Broadmeadows Taskforce elected change its name to Broadmeadows Youth Projects. Following the group's incorporation, the organisation became known as Youth Projects Inc; the Living Room is a Primary Health Service located in Hosier Lane that provides free healthcare and support to people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness or with complex healthcare needs. The Living Room is the only service of its kind in the CBD of Melbourne where people can receive medical attention, legal advice, as well as wash their clothes and access the internet and send and receive mail. Foot Patrol is a confidential mobile, street based, syringe exchange program that operates in the Melbourne CBD 365 days a year, it enables injecting drug users - who may not otherwise seek assistance - to access clean injecting equipment and contraception in their own, familiar environment. Mobile Syringe Exchange prevents the transmission of blood borne viruses through the provision of clean injecting equipment, safer using advice, safe syringe disposal units, safe sex information and referrals.
Operating from a car The Youth Northern Outreach Team provides drug and alcohol treatment for young people aged between 12 – 21 years of age. Clean Up is a syringe cleanup team that conducts inspections across the Melbourne CBD to safely dispose discarded syringes. Drink Drug Drive is an accredited education program to assist people who have lost their driving license as a result of driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol; the Youth Projects Living Room Roar is a football team comprising clients of the Living Room. The Living Room Roar are part of a competition run by Reclink; the aim of the football program is to promote health and physical and mental well being, social inclusion and engagement. The Living Room Roar are supported by the Richmond Football Club, Victoria Police and YMCA. Youth Projects Employment services supports individuals with education and training while assisting them to secure ongoing employment. Youth Connections is a program. Youth Projects is part of a consortium.
Melbourne Training Options is a Registered Training Organisation that delivers high quality and nationally accredited courses to individual who want to increase their skills. Youth Projects was awarded the 2010 Melbourne Award for Contribution to the Community. Youth Projects Official Site Youth Projects education videos City of Melbourne Needle and Syringe Program Information
Piers O'Conor is an English rugby union fullback for Bristol Bears in Premiership Rugby. O'Conor has played for Wasps and Ealing Trailfinders. Born in Sydney, Australia, O'Conor is qualified to play international rugby for Australia, New Zealand and England, he has played for Ireland at England at under-20s level. O'Conor took up rugby at Cumnor House School aged 7, he played for several club in Sussex, including winning the national U-17s Bowl with Heathfield and Waldron in 2012, before joining Eastbourne College where he was coached by Russell Earnshaw. O'Conor played for Ireland under-19s in 2013 before signing for Wasps, he made his Wasps debut in November 2014 in the LV Cup against Sale. O'Conor left Wasps in 2017 to join Ealing Trailfinders in the RFU Championship. After one season at Ealing O'Conor moved on to newly promoted Bristol Bears in Premiership Rugby