Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was the head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Fieschi was studied at the universities of Parma and Bologna. Considered a fine canonist, he served in the Curia for Pope Honorius III. Pope Gregory IX made Fieschi a cardinal and appointed him governor of the March of Ancona in 1235, he was elected pope in 1243 and took the name Innocent IV. He inherited an ongoing dispute over lands seized by the Holy Roman Emperor, the following year relocated to France to escape imperial plots against him in Rome, he returned to Rome after the death of the Emperor in 1250. Born in Genoa in an unknown year, Sinibaldo was the son of Beatrice Grillo and Ugo Fieschi, Count of Lavagna; the Fieschi were a noble merchant family of Liguria. Sinibaldo received his education at the universities of Parma and Bologna and, for a time, taught canon law at Bologna, it is pointed out by Agostino Paravicini-Bagliani, that there is no documentary evidence of such a professorship.
From 1216-1227 he was Canon of the Cathedral of Parma. He was considered one of the best canonists of his time, was called to serve Pope Honorius III in the Roman Curia as Auditor causarum, from 11 November 1226 to 30 May 1227, he was promoted to the office of Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, though he retained the office and the title for a time after he was named Cardinal. Vice-Chancellor Sinibaldo Fieschi was created Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina on 18 September 1227 by Pope Gregory IX, he served as papal governor of the March of Ancona, from 17 October 1235 until 1240. It is repeated, from the 17th century on, that he became bishop of Albenga in 1235, but there is no foundation to this claim. Innocent's immediate predecessor was Pope Celestine IV, elected 25 October 1241, whose reign lasted a mere fifteen days; the events of Innocent IV's pontificate are therefore inextricably linked to the policies dominating the reigns of popes Innocent III, Honorius III and Gregory IX. Gregory had been demanding the return of portions of the Papal States taken over by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II when he died.
The Pope had called a general council so he could depose the emperor with the support of Europe's spiritual leaders, but Frederick had seized two cardinals traveling to the council in hopes of intimidating the curia. The two prelates remained incarcerated and missed the conclave that elected Celestine; the conclave that reconvened after his death fell into camps supporting contradictory policies about how to treat with the emperor. After a year and a half of contentious debate and coercion, a papal election reached a unanimous decision. Cardinal de' Fieschi reluctantly accepted election as Pope 25 June 1243, taking the name Innocent IV; as Cardinal de' Fieschi, Sinibaldo had been on friendly terms with Frederick after his excommunication. The Emperor greatly admired the cardinal's wisdom, having enjoyed discussions with him from time to time. Following the election the witty Frederick remarked that he had lost the friendship of a cardinal but made up for it by gaining the enmity of a pope, his jest notwithstanding, Frederick's letter to the new pontiff was couched in respectful terms, offering Innocent congratulations and success expressing hope for an amicable settlement of the differences between the empire and the papacy.
Negotiations leading to this objective proved abortive. Innocent refused to back down from his demands, Frederick II refused to acquiesce, the dispute continued, its major point of contention being the reinstatement of Lombardy to the Patrimony of St Peter; the Emperor's machinations caused a good deal of anti-papal feeling to rise in Italy in the Papal States, imperial agents encouraged plots against papal rule. Realizing how untenable his position in Rome was growing, Innocent IV secretly and hurriedly withdrew, fleeing Rome on 7 June 1244. Traveling in disguise, Innocent made his way to Sutri and Civitavecchia, to Genoa, his birthplace, where he arrived on 7 July. From there, on 5 October, he fled to France. Making his way to Lyon, where he arrived on November 29, 1244, Innocent was greeted by the magistrates of the city. Finding himself now in secure surroundings and out of the reach of Frederic II, Innocent summoned, in a sermon preached on December 27, 1244, as many bishops as could get to Lyon, to attend what became the 13th General Council of the Church, the first to be held in Lyon.
The bishops met for three public sessions: 28 June, 5 July, 17 July 1245. Their principal business was to subjugate the Emperor Frederick II. An earlier pope, Gregory IX, had issued letters on 9 June 1239, ordering all the bishops of France to confiscate all Talmuds in the possession of the Jews. Agents were to raid each synagogue on the first Saturday of Lent of 1240, seize the books, placing them in the custody of the Dominicans or the Franciscans; the Bishop of Paris was ordered to see to it that copies of the Pope's mandate reached all the bishops of France, Aragon, Castile and León, Portugal. On 20 June 1239, there was another letter, addressed to the Bishop of Paris, the Prior of the Dominicans and the Minister of the Franciscans, calling for the burning of all copies of the Talmud, any obstructionists to be visited with ecclesiastical censures. On the same day he wrote to the King of Portugal ordering him to see to it that all copies of the Talmud be seized and turned over to the Dominicans or Franciscans.
Louis IX, King of France, on account of
Frederick Woodruff "Ted" Field is an American media mogul and film producer. He founded Interscope Communications to develop and produce films in 1984, produced his first hit, Revenge of the Nerds, the same year. Since that early success, he has gone on to become one of Hollywood’s most successful entertainment executives with an exhaustive track record in film and music, he is an heir of the Marshall Field family. Field was born on June 1, 1953 in Chicago, Cook County, the son of Marshall Field IV, who owned the Chicago Sun-Times from 1956 to 1965, Katherine Woodruff Fanning, an editor of several newspapers. Field's parents divorced. Field's mother married Larry Fanning, who became Field's stepfather. Field, his sisters, his mother and his stepfather moved to Alaska. Field's mother and Larry Fanning purchased the Anchorage Daily News from founder Norman C. Brown in 1967. Larry Fanning died in 1971: Kay Fanning continued to operate the paper until 1979 when she sold it to The McClatchy Company.
She remained as publisher until 1983. Field's Interscope Racing started off entering Danny Ongais in Formula 5000 in 1975, graduating to USAC racing and the Indianapolis 500 in Parnelli chassis. Field funded Ongais to make occasional Formula One outings in a Penske during the 1978 season. Field backed the construction in 1980 of an Interscope chassis designed by Roman Slobodinskij for the Indianapolis 500; this was intended to take a turbocharged six-cylinder Porsche engine but a dispute with USAC over turbo boost meant the program was abandoned. The car was fitted with a conventional Ford Cosworth DFX engine and entered in the 1981 500. Ongais led the race but was critically injured. In 1982 a recovered Ongias that too ended with an accident. In 1984, Field founded Interscope Communications. In 1984, Field was a leader of a group. In 1987, Panavision was sold to Lee International. In 1990, he co-founded Interscope Records. After leaving Interscope in January 2001, he formed ARTISTdirect Records with the backing of BMG.
Ted Field is chairman and CEO of Radar Pictures. Field and Radar Pictures have faced legal action in recent years. In December 2016, Field and his company assigned profits from then-upcoming Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle, to Filmula Entertainment, to satisfy a judgment over the unsuccessful reboot of Trauma Records. From 1984 to 1998, he owned a mansion owned by Howard B. Keck located at 1244 Moraga Drive in the gated community of Moraga Estates in California. Field is a tournament chess player who sponsored the World Chess Championship in NYC between Gary Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov, he is developing a movie about the current world chess champion Magus Carlson. All films, he was producer. Thanks Madsen, Axel; the Marshall Fields: The Evolution of an American Business Dynasty. Wiley: 2002. Ted Field on IMDb Filmbug: Ted Field biography
Alexander Filippovich Kokorinov was a Russian architect and educator of Siberian origin, one of the founders, the first builder and rector of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Peterburg. Kokorinov has been house architect of the Razumovsky family and Ivan Shuvalov, the first President of the Academy. Kokorinov's surviving architectural legacy, once believed to be substantial, has been reduced by recent research to only two buildings, the Imperial Academy of Arts and Kirill Razumovsky palace in Saint Petersburg; the Academy was designed by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe based on an earlier proposal by Jacques-François Blondel, while Kokorinov managed the construction in its early phases. Alexander Kokorinov was born in Tobolsk in the family of a government clerk. At the age of 14 he began training with Johann Blank, a self-proclaimed architect exiled from Saint Petersburg for his involvement in the alleged conspiracy of Artemy Volynsky. With the ascension of Elisabeth in 1741 survivors of the Volynsky affair were amnestied and the Blanks returned to Moscow, taking Kokorinov with them.
Kokorinov and Karl Blank studied arts and architecture in Moscow under Ivan Korobov, in 1749 Kokorinov was hired by prince Dmitry Ukhtomsky the leading Moscow architect of Elisabethan Baroque and dean of an architectural school based in Moscow Kremlin. He received the degree of Master of Mathematics from Moscow University and in 1754 Kokorinov passed professional examination as a junior architect, joined the staff of Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli and relocated to Saint Petersburg where he made contact with count Ivan Shuvalov, founder of Moscow State University and the Imperial Academy of Arts. Kokorinov joined the staff of the Academy since its first days. Shuvalov proposed to set up the Academy in Moscow and commissioned Jacques-François Blondel to design the new campus there. Empress Elisabeth insisted that the Academy must be based in Saint Petersburg, the task of adapting Blondel's plans was awarded to Kokorinov, who has designed Shuvalov's own house in Saint Petersburg. Kokorinov trained only in Baroque styling, struggled with Blondel's French neoclassical design and in 1759 Shuvalov hired another Frenchman to assist Kokorinov.
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe, Blondel's cousin and a recent graduate of the Royal Academy of Architecture, became Kokorinov's peer on the Academy project and soon surpassed him. Design of the building is traditionally credited by Kokorinov and de la Mothe, but recent research in French archives indicate that it was de la Mothe's own work, while no drafts by Kokorinov were found; the Academy, a complex structure measuring 140 by 125 meters, bears traces of Blondel's style yet, according to Dmitry Shvidkovsky, "is more up to date... noticeable in plan. Where Blondel specified a corinthian order, the stricter Roman Doric was used; the cupola too is more laconic than as designed by Blondel. The complete building turned out more austere than it appears in de la Mothe's drawings."In 1761 Kokorinov was appointed director of the Academy, but it was not until 1765 when he became its professor. He taught elementary architectural theory and history of architecture, while de la Mothe taught advanced architectural subjects.
While the architects finalized their proposal, Russia was shaken by a brief reign and murder of emperor Peter III, succeeded by Catherine II. The new empress sent Shuvalov to a de facto exile in his country estate and installed Ivan Betskoy as the new President of the Academy. March 18, 1764, she authorized financing for construction in earnest and set up construction board, headed by Kokorinov. De la Mothe, who always shied away from practical construction, was not involved on site. During Russian-Turkish war of 1768–1774 financing of the project stopped, while Betskoy initiated a criminal case against alleged fraud on the site. Kokorinov, blamed with cost overruns, died in 1772. De la Mothe left Russia in 1775, the building was completed by Yury Felten in 1788. Lisovsky, Vladimir. Leonty Benua i peterburgskaya shkola. Saint Petersburg: Kolo. ISBN 5-901841-44-1. Shvidkovsky, D. S.. Russian architecture and the West. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300109121, ISBN 978-0-300-10912-2. Shuisky, V. K.. Zolotoy vek barocco i classicizma v Sankt-Peterburge.
Centrpoligraph. ISBN 978-5-9524-3777-7