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Pope Innocent VI

Pope Innocent VI, born Étienne Aubert, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 December 1352 to his death in 1362. He was the fifth Avignon pope and the only one with the pontifical name of "Innocent". Étienne's father was Adhemar seigneur de Montel-de-Gelat in Limousin province. He was a native of the hamlet of Les Monts, Diocese of Limoges, after having taught civil law at Toulouse, he became successively Bishop of Noyon in 1338 and Bishop of Clermont in 1340. On 20 September 1342, he was raised to the position of Cardinal Priest of SS. John and Paul, he was made cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri on 13 February 1352, by Pope Clement VI, whom he succeeded. Etienne was crowned pope on 30 December 1352 by Cardinal Gaillard de la Mothe after the papal conclave of 1352. Upon his election, he revoked a signed agreement stating the college of cardinals was superior to the pope, his subsequent policy compares favourably with that of the other Avignon Popes. He introduced many needed reforms in the administration of church affairs, through his legate, Cardinal Albornoz, accompanied by Rienzi, he sought to restore order in Rome.

In 1355, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned in Rome with Innocent's permission, after having made an oath that he would quit the city on the day of the ceremony. It was through the exertions of Innocent VI that the Treaty of Brétigny between France and England was brought about. During his pontificate, the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus offered to submit the Greek Orthodox Church to the Roman See in return for assistance against John VI Cantacuzenus; the resources at the disposal of the Pope, were all required for exigencies nearer home, the offer was declined. Most of the wealth accumulated by John XXII and Benedict XII had been lost during the extravagant pontificate of Clement VI. Innocent VI economised by cutting the chapel staff from twelve to eight. Works of art were sold rather than commissioned, his pontificate was dominated by the war in Italy and by Avignon's recovery from the plague, both of which made draining demands on his treasury. By 1357, he was complaining of poverty.

Innocent VI was a liberal patron of letters. If the extreme severity of his measures against the Fraticelli is ignored, he retains a high reputation for justice and mercy. However, St. Bridget of Sweden denounced him as a persecutor of Christians, he died on 12 September 1362 and was succeeded by Urban V. Today his tomb can be found in the Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction, the Carthusian monastery in Villeneuve-les-Avignon. List of popes Modified text from the 9th edition of an unnamed encyclopedia Tomasello and ritual at Papal Avignon 1309–1403. Louis XI,Josepf Frederic, Louis Vaesen,Etienne Charavay,Bernard Edouard de Mandrot-1905. Societe' d'etudes de la province de Cambrai,Lille-1907 Antoine Pellisier. Innocent VI:le reformateur, deuxième pape Limousin

Rafflesiaceae

The Rafflesiaceae are a family of rare parasitic plants comprising 36 species in 3 genera found in the tropical forests of east and southeast Asia, including Rafflesia arnoldii, which has the largest flowers of all plants. The plants are endoparasites of vines in the genus Tetrastigma and lack stems, leaves and any photosynthetic tissue, they rely on their host plants for both water and nutrients, only emerge as flowers from the roots or lower stems of the host plants. Rafflesiaceae flowers mimic rotting carcasses in scent and texture to attract their pollinators, carrion flies. For this reason, some flowers of the family Rafflesia are nicknamed "corpse flowers". Most members of Rafflesiaceae possess a large, bowl-shaped floral chamber formed by a perianth tube and a diaphragm; this diaphragm is the opening for carrion fly pollinators and is surrounded by attractive sterile organs. Flowers are unisexual, can range from tens of cm to over a meter large. Past taxonomic works have varied as to the classification of Rafflesiaceae.

The classification of Rafflesiaceae has been somewhat problematic due to their reduced vegetative parts, modified reproductive structures, anomalous molecular evolution. Rafflesiaceae lacks rbcL and other plastid genes used for phylogenetic inference in green plants. In fact, Molina et al. found that a genus of Rafflesia is the first parasitic plant studied containing no recognizable remnants of the chloroplast genome. Most traditional classifications that were based on morphological features considered Rafflesiaceae sensu lato to include nine genera, but the heterogeneity among these genera caused early workers, such as Harms, to recognize four distinct groups that were classified as tribes; this tribal system was followed by Takhtajan et al.. The first molecular phylogenetic study that showed two of these tribes were not related was by Barkman et al.. This study showed; the genus Mitrastema was shown to be unrelated and a member of the order Ericales. That year, Nickrent et al. using additional molecular data, confirmed the placements by Barkman et al. and examined the positions of the two other tribes and Apodantheae.

Nickrent et al. showed Cytineae was related to Malvales and Apodantheae to either Malvales or Cucurbitales. Apodantheae has since been confirmed to be in the Cucurbitales. Thus, the group traditionally classified as a single family, was composed of at least four distinct and distantly related clades, with their similarities due to convergent evolution under their common parasitic lifestyle. A goal of taxonomy is to classify together only plants that all share a common ancestor, i.e. are monophyletic. Thus, the original Rafflesiaceae sensu lato is split into four families: Rafflesiaceae: Rafflesia, Sapria — order Malpighiales Mitrastemonaceae: Mitrastema — order Ericales Cytinaceae: Bdallophyton, Cytinus — order Malvales Apodanthaceae: Apodanthes, Pilostyles — order CucurbitalesThese four families can be distinguished by floral and inflorescence features: Rafflesiaceae: inferior ovary, large flowers occurring singly Mitrastemonaceae: superior ovary, flowers occurring singly Cytinaceae: inferior ovary, flowers in inflorescences Apodanthaceae: inferior ovary, small flowers occurring singly Early work on higher-level relationships was able to place Rafflesiaceae within the order Malpighiales, but was not able to resolve the closest ancestor within the order.

A more recent phylogenetic analysis found strong support for Rafflesiaceae being derived from within Euphorbiaceae, surprising as members of that family have small flowers. According to their analysis, the rate of flower size evolution was more or less constant throughout the family, except at the origin of Rafflesiaceae — a period of about 46 million years between when the group split from the higher Euphorbiaceae, when the existing Rafflesiaceae split from each other — where the flowers evolved to become much larger before reverting to the slower rate of change. Given that this hypothesis is confirmed, in order to maintain monophyly of Euphorbiaceae, either the basal clade has to be split off as the separate family Peraceae, as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website does, or Rafflesiaceae would have to be included in the Euphorbiaceae. A number of mitochondrial genes in the Rafflesiaceae appear to have come from their hosts; because the hosts are not related to the parasites, this is believed to be the result of horizontal gene transfer.

High rates of HGT have been found to take place in Rafflesiaceae mitochondrial genes when compared to nuclear genes and to HGT in autotrophic plants. Barkman, T. J. S.-H. Lim, K. Mat Salleh and J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world's largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 101:787–792. Charles C. Davis, Maribeth Latvis, Daniel L. Nickrent, Kenneth J. Wurdack, David A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science Express, published online January 11, 2007. Filipowicz, N. and Renner, S. S

Elymus wawawaiensis

Elymus wawawaiensis is a species of grass known by the common name Snake River wheatgrass. It is native to western North America, it is native to parts of Idaho. The Elymus wawawaiensis grass is drought-tolerant. There are cultivars available, including'Secar', tolerant of drought. Other cultivars include'Discovery'. Elymus wawawaiensis is good for binding soil to prevent erosion, it can be added to a mix of native seed and sown on ditches. It is tolerant of fire, it is popular for use in rangeland and habitat restoration throughout the American West. This grass is a good graze forage for livestock and wild ungulates, it can have up to 20% protein in the spring. Grass Manual on the Web — Elymus species treatments — scroll down for Elymus wawawaiensis. Encyclopedia of Life: Information on Snake River Wheatgrass

Triana (band)

Triana was a rock band hailing from Andalusia, Spain. Formed in 1974, the band were known for blending elements of progressive rock and flamenco music to make a style known as Andalusian rock or flamenco rock. Triana was formed in 1974 as a trio consisting of vocalist and organist Jesús de la Rosa Luque, guitarist Eduardo Rodríguez Rodway, drummer Juan José Palacios, better known as Tele; the band released its untitled debut album the next year, presenting a sound that blended elements of Andalusian flamenco music with progressive and psychedelic rock. Although a commercial failure, the album earned the band a cult following among the Spanish youth who, following the belated fall of fascism in the country, were interested in the subversive themes of rock presented in Triana's music. In 1977, Triana released Hijos del agobio; this album was a bigger commercial success than their debut and was notable for its politically-involved lyrics which reflected the tense and unstable nature of Spain's political climate at the time.

Their third album, Sombra y luz, was released in 1979. Their most experimental album to date, Sombra y luz contained elements of jazz and was certified platinum by the AFYVE. In 1980, Triana released Un encuentro. A commercial success, the album demonstrated a pop rock-influenced sound, its follow-up, 1981's Un mal sueño, featured a similar sound, as did their sixth album, 1983's Llegó el día. Shortly after the release of Llegó el día, de la Rosa Luque was killed in a car accident, the band subsequently announced their break-up. In 1985, Rodway and Tele returned to the studio to create a final Triana album, taking vocal passages de la Rosa Luque recorded before his death and adding instrumentation; the resulting album, Tengo que marchar, was released in 1986. In 1994, Tele announced his reformation of Triana without Rodway; the new line-up featured vocalist and guitarist Juan Reina, guitarists Andrés Herrera and Raúl Fernández, keyboardist Emilio Grueso, bassist Santi Camps. The decision to name this band Triana proved controversial among fans, as it included only one of the original members.

Triana released their eighth album, Un jardín eléctrico in 1997, followed the next year by En libertad. Both of these albums received poor reviews. In 2002, Tele died of the band subsequently disbanded again. In 2007, the other five members of the 1994-2002 lineup of Triana announced they were reforming the band with drummer Marcos Gamero taking Tele's place; this move proved controversial among fans as only one of the original trio was alive and he did not take part in the reunion. Rodway released a statement disowning the new Triana, claiming they were trying to profit from the band's legacy. Triana released their tenth album, Un camino por andar, in 2008. Juan Reina Andrés "Pájaro" Herrera Raúl Fernández Emilio Grueso Santi Camps Marcos Gamero Juan José "Tele" Palacios Jesús de la Rosa Luque Eduardo Rodríguez Rodway El Patio Hijos del agobio Sombra y luz Un encuentro Un mal sueño Llegó el día Tengo que marchar Un jardín eléctrico En libertad Un camino por andar En directo Profile on Allmusic

Paul H. Scott

Paul Scott is an American politician from Grand Blanc, Michigan. A member of the Michigan State House of Representatives, Scott was recalled on November 8, 2011. Scott graduated from Grand Blanc High School in 2000, he received his bachelor's degree from the University of Michigan, studied in a master's of public policy program at Harvard University, received a law degree from the University of Michigan School of Law. Scott ran for the Michigan State House of Representatives in 2008, he first faced off against pilot James B. Swenor and businessman won with 41 percent of the vote, he stood against Michael J. Thorp in the general election and defeated him. After one term as State Representative, Scott ran for the Secretary of State nomination in 2010 but lost the nomination at the Republican State Convention to Ruth Johnson. In 2010, he won reelection to the 51st district of the Michigan House of Representatives, defeating Art Reyes. Scott was one of 20 Michigan elected officials targeted for recall efforts in 2011 by voters and interest groups opposed to changes in state education funding mechanisms, taxation of some retirement income and opposition to labor unions.

Voters and the Michigan Education Association, opposed to Scott's actions as the chair of the House Education Committee, launched a recall effort against him. After recall supporters collected enough signatures to put the recall on the November 2011 election ballot in his district, Scott launched a legal challenge against the recall, but the appeal was denied unanimously by the Michigan Supreme Court. On November 8, 2011 Scott was recalled

Morgan Hurd

Morgan Elizabeth Hurd is an American artistic gymnast and a four-time member of the United States women's national team. She is known for her well-balanced strengths across all four events and her well-executed and dramatic floor routines, she is the 2017 World all-around champion and balance beam silver medalist, the 2018 World all-around bronze medalist and floor exercise silver medalist, a five time world medalist. She has won four medals at the USA Gymnastics National Championships during her senior career, she was a member of the gold-medal winning American teams at the 2018 World Championships and the 2019 Pan American Games. Hurd was adopted from China when she was 11 months old. At age 3 she was enrolled in gymnastics. Hurd started training at First State Gymnastics, she resides in Middletown, Delaware with her mother, Sherri. She is one of the rare elite gymnasts to wear glasses during competition. Morgan Hurd competed in the Nastia Liukin Cup in 2014 where she placed 14th as a level 10.

She tied for 8th place at the American Classic in July. At the U. S. Classic Hurd placed 18th behind future fellow National Team member Victoria Nguyen. At the P&G National Championships Hurd finished 29th in the all-around for Juniors. In 2015 Hurd started with the U. S. Classic where she finished 9th on All-Around and 2nd on Uneven Bars, she competed at the P&G National Championships where she placed 8th in the All-Around, 7th on Floor Exercise, tied for 4th on the Uneven Bars. In 2016 Hurd competed at the American Classic, she competed next at the U. S. Secret Classic where she placed 5th in the All-Around, 1st on Floor Exercise, 2nd on the Uneven Bars, she competed at the P&G National Championships again and placed 5th in the All-Around, 3rd on Uneven Bars, 7th on Vault. In 2017, Hurd turned senior, she made her international debut at the 2017 Stuttgart World Cup where she finished third in the all-around behind Tabea Alt of Germany and Angelina Melnikova of Russia. In April Hurd helped the United States finish first.

In July, Hurd competed at the U. S. Classic where she placed 6th on balance beam and 2nd on floor, behind Jade Carey. In August, she competed at the P&G National Championships where she placed 6th in the all-around, eight on uneven bars, fifth on balance beam, tenth on floor exercise. Since she finished in the top six in the all-around, she was named to the national team. In September, Hurd was selected to represent the United States at the 2017 Artistic Gymnastics World Championships in Montreal alongside Ragan Smith, Jade Carey, Ashton Locklear. At the World Championships in Montreal, Morgan started out on the vault in qualifications, receiving a 14.466. On her next event, the uneven bars, she scored 14.333. On the balance beam, she scored 13.500 after upgrading to a full-twisting double tuck dismount, qualifying 2nd into the beam finals. She ended qualifications on floor, where she showed great skills and artistry, but fell on her double full for a score of 12.533. Her total all around score was 54.832, she qualified 6th into the all-around final.

In the all-around final, Hurd won a surprise victory with a total score of 55.232, 0.1 ahead of silver medalist Ellie Black of Canada and 0.4 ahead of bronze medalist Elena Eremina of Russia. Two days in the balance beam final, she matched her ranking from qualifications and won the silver medal, behind Pauline Schäfer of Germany. On December 11, 2017, Hurd was selected to represent the United States at the 2018 American Cup, she competed alongside first-year senior Maile O'Keefe and finished first overall with a score of 56.599. On April 8, Hurd was named to the team to compete at the 2018 Pacific Rim Gymnastics Championships which included fellow seniors Grace McCallum and Jordan Chiles. There she won team gold and placed second in the all-around behind McCallum after a mishap on her balance beam dismount. Due to her balance beam accident, she withdrew from the uneven bars and floor exercise event finals as a precaution. On July 28, Hurd competed at the 2018 U. S. Classic where she finished third in the all-around behind Simone Biles and Riley McCusker, despite falling off the balance beam.

She finished third on uneven bars and floor exercise. In August, Hurd competed at the National Championships where she placed second in the all-around behind Biles, third on uneven bars behind Biles and McCusker, third on floor exercise behind Biles and Jade Carey, she placed fourth on balance beam, making her and Biles the only competitors to place in the top four on every event they competed. She was named to the national team for the third year in a row. In October Hurd participated in the Worlds Team Selection Camp. During the competition a shaky performance caused her to place fourth in the all-around behind Biles, McCusker, McCallum, fourth on uneven bars, fifth on vault, sixth on balance beam, seventh on floor exercise; the following day she was named to the team to compete at the 2018 World Championships alongside Biles, McCusker, Grace McCallum, Kara Eaker, alternate Ragan Smith. During qualifications, Hurd qualified to the all-around final in second place behind Biles, the floor exercise final in fourth place, the uneven bars final in fifth place.

The US qualified to the team final in first place. During the team final Hurd competed on vault, uneven bars, floor exercise, she contributed scores of 14.633, 14.433, 12.966 towards the USA's team total. USA won gold with a score of 171.629, 8.766 points ahead of second place Russia, beating previous margin of victory records set in the open-ended code of points era