Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
The church of San Pancrazio is a Roman Catholic ancient basilica and titular church founded by Pope Symmachus in the 6th century in Rome, Italy. It stands in via S. Pancrazio, westward beyond the Porta San Pancrazio that opens in a stretch of the Aurelian Wall on the Janiculum, the Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Pancratii is Antonio Cañizares Llovera. Among the previous titulars, Pope Paul IV and Pope Clement VIII, the basilica was built by Pope Symmachus, on the place where the body of the young martyr Saint Pancras of Rome, or Pancratius, had been buried, Via Aurelia miliario secundo. The church was placed by him under the care of the clergy of the Church of S. Crisogono. Due to their neglect of the site, Pope Gregory I ( handed it over to the members of the newly founded Benedictine Order after the Lombards sacked their monastery of Montecassino in 580. In the 17th century, it was given to the Discalced Carmelites, below the church there are huge catacombs, the Catacombe di S. Pancrazio or di Ottavilla.
Entrance is next to the small Museo di S. Pancrazio with fragments of sculpture and pagan, the Church of S. Pancrazio was established as the titulus of a Cardinal-Priest by Pope Leo X on 6 July 1517. Richart Krautheimer, Corpus Basilicarum Christianarum Romae, The Early Christian Basilicas of Rome Part II, john Crook, The Architectural Setting of the Cult of Saints in the Early Christian West c. 300-c.1200, pp. 82-83. Giuseppe Burragato and Antonio Palumbo, Sulle orme di San Pancrazio, media related to San Pancrazio at Wikimedia Commons
The Roman College was a school established by St. Ignatius of Loyola in 1551, just 17 years after he founded the Society of Jesus. It quickly grew to include classes from school through university level. It moved to different locations to accommodate its growing student population. The college, renamed Gregorian University in 1584 after its benefactor, since the Gregorian University has occupied new quarters, but the buildings on this full square block memorialize the early commitment of the Society of Jesus to education. With the burgeoning student population the Jesuits in 1626 replaced the chapel of the Annunziata with the church of St. Ignatius on the premises, in 1787 the college added an observatory that became preeminent. With the Capture of Rome in 1870, the building was taken over by the Italian government, its eastern wing houses the headquarters of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture and the wing that overlooks the square is home to the high school Ennio Quirino Visconti. The first university founded by the Jesuits was the College of Messina in 1548, the funding came from Francis Borgia, 4th Duke of Gandía.
He had been a member of the Society of Jesus since 1548 but secretly, he retained his rank while attending to his obligations. In 1551 the Collegio Romano was a small, rented building at the base of the Capitoline Hill, polanco wrote of teaching Latin and Greek and Hebrew, Christian doctrine is taught. Above the door of the school a sign says, a school of grammar, humanism. Jesuits were the first pupils, Edmond Auger, Emmanuel Gomez, John Egnazi, within its first year the building could not accommodate the influx of students and Ignatius sought a larger facility. Without leaving the center of Rome, in September 1551 he rented a building on Via del Gesù behind the ancient church of Santo Stefano del Cacco and this second home of the Roman College was called the House of Frangipani after the famous family which owned it. This was the home of the Roman College. Despite the cost, Ignatius wanted to begin teaching philosophy and theology in the school year 1553–1554 and this increased the student body, both of Jesuits and externs.
At this time Ignatius founded the print shop which over the years introduced new typefaces, the Roman College was here for only four years when it became too small for the growing number of students and larger premises were sought. The building was demolished when Salviati built the new Roman College, in 1560, Vittoria della Tolfa, Marchesa della Valle, a relative of Paul IV, donated an entire city block and its existing buildings to the Society of Jesus. This remained the site of the Roman College until the takeover of its buildings by the Italian government in 1870, Ignatius of Loyola had died on 31 July 1556 and was succeeded by Fr. James P. Laynez, a companion of Ignatius and a papal theologian during the three periods of the Council of Trent
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna and these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy, only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Popes temporal control. In 1870, the pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Vatican by signing the Lateran Treaty, granting the Vatican City State sovereignty. The Papal States were known as the Papal State, the territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States.
For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized and this system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, and restoring to it any properties that had been confiscated. The Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, other donations followed, primarily in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire. But the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, the seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning In 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italys political, just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, the pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy.
As Byzantine power weakened, the took a ever larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on the exarch, a climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprands Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II. When the Exarchate of Ravenna finally fell to the Lombards in 751, the popes renewed earlier attempts to secure the support of the Franks. In 751, Pope Zachary had Pepin the Younger crowned king in place of the powerless Merovingian figurehead king Childeric III, zacharys successor, Pope Stephen II, granted Pepin the title Patrician of the Romans. Pepin led a Frankish army into Italy in 754 and 756, Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope. The cooperation between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty climaxed in 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor, the precise nature of the relationship between the popes and emperors – and between the Papal States and the Empire – is disputed.
Events in the 9th century postponed the conflict, the Holy Roman Empire in its Frankish form collapsed as it was subdivided among Charlemagnes grandchildren
Apulia is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southernmost portion, known as the Salento peninsula, forms a stiletto on the boot of Italy, the region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, and its population is about 4 million. It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, The Apulia region extends as far north as Monte Gargano. Puglias coastline is longer than any other mainland Italian region, in the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic, while in the south, the flat and dry Salento peninsula forms the heel of Italys boot. It is home to the Alta Murgia and Gargano National Parks, see also, History of Apulia Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks, a number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the Crown of Apulia.
After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, as a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves, in 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin, the regions contribution to Italys gross value added was around 4. 6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average, in comparison with the country as a whole, the economy of Apulia is characterised by a greater emphasis on agriculture and services and a smaller part played by industry. In the last 20 years the base of the regions economy has changed radically. The majority of firms are financed by local capital.
In certain of these sectors – especially textiles, footwear, the region has a good network of roads but the railway network is somewhat inadequate, particularly in the south. Apulias 800 kilometers of coastline is studded with ports, which make this region an important terminal for transport and tourism to Greece, between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. Such growth, over decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Emigration from the depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985, since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration. Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President, Apulia is divided into five administrative provinces and one metropolitan city, Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia
Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI, born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 23 November 1700 to his death in 1721. Clement XI was a patron of the arts and of science and he was a great benefactor of the Vatican Library, his interest in archaeology is credited with saving much of Rome’s antiquity. He authorized expeditions which succeeded in rediscovering various ancient Christian writings and he was of Italian and Albanian origin. Giovanni Francesco Albani was born in 1649 in Urbino to a distinguished family, Albani was educated at the Collegio Romano in Rome from 1660 onwards. He became a very proficient Latinist and gained a doctorate in canon and civil law. He was one of those who frequented the academy of Queen Christina of Sweden and he would serve as a papal prelate under Pope Alexander VIII and was appointed by Pope Innocent XII as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. Throughout this time, he served as the governor of Rieti, Sabina. He was ordained to the priesthood in September 1700 and celebrated his first Mass in Rome on 6 October 1700, after the death of Pope Innocent XII in 1700, a conclave was convoked to elect a successor.
Albani was regarded as a fine diplomat known for his skills as a peacemaker and he agreed to the election after three days of consultation. Having accepted election after some hesitation, he was ordained a bishop on 30 November 1700, cardinal protodeacon Benedetto Pamphili crowned him on 8 December 1700 and he took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 10 April 1701. Soon after his accession to the pontificate, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out, in 1713 Clement issued the bull Unigenitus in response to the spread of the Jansenist heresy. There followed great upheaval in France, where apart from theological issues, the resistance of many French ecclesiastics and the refusal of the French parlements to register the bull led to controversies extending through the greater part of the 18th century. Clement XI was key in the decision to allow cats back into Christian homes after they were seen as overtly Pagan symbols. Clement XI extended the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary to the Universal Church in 1716, Clement XI confirmed the cultus of Ceslas Odrowaz, Jakov Varingez, John of Perugia, Peregrine Laziosi, Peter of Sassoferrato, Buonfiglio Monaldi, Pope Gregory X and Humbeline of Jully.
He formally beatified a number of individuals, Alexis Falconieri, Bartholomew degli Amidei and Benedict Dellantella, in his book Journal of a Soul, while he was preparing for the Second Vatican Council, Pope John XXIII resolved to pray the Universal Prayer and recommends it. Clement XI died in Rome on 19 March 1721 and was buried in the pavement of St. Peters Basilica rather than in a tomb like those of his predecessors. Pope Clement XI shunned nepotism and though his nephew Annibale was appointed a cardinal and he established a committee, overseen by his favourite artists, Carlo Maratta and Carlo Fontana, to commission statuary of the apostles to complete the decoration of San Giovanni in Laterano. He founded a painting and sculpting academy in the Campidoglio and he enriched the Vatican library with numerous Oriental codices and patronaged the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Naples
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Naples is a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in southern Italy, the see being in Naples. A Christian community was founded there in the 1st century AD, two of Archbishops of Naples have been elected Pope, Paul IV and Innocent XII. In 2004 it counted c.1,600,000 baptized people, the current ordinary of the Archdiocese of Naples is Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe. Lucio Lemmo and Gennaro Acampa are auxiliary bishops, acerra Alife-Caiazzo Aversa Capua Caserta Ischia Nola Pompei Pozzuoli Sessa Aurunca Sorrento-Castellammare di Stabia Teano-Calvi List of Bishops and Archbishops of Naples
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks