The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years; this absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French, all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, but after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes.
The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. Among the popes who resided in Avignon, subsequent Catholic historiography grants legitimacy to these: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 The two Avignon-based antipopes were: Clement VII: 1378–1394 Benedict XIII: 1394–1423 Benedict XIII was succeeded by three antipopes, who had little or no public following, were not resident at Avignon: Clement VIII: 1423–1429 Benedict XIV: 1424–1429 or 1430 Benedict XIV: 1430?–1437The period from 1378 to 1417, when there were rival claimants to the title of pope, is referred to as the "Western Schism" or "the great controversy of the antipopes" by some Roman Catholic scholars and "the second great schism" by many secular and Protestant historians.
Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the small enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until 1791, under pressure from French revolutionaries, they were absorbed by the short-lived revolutionary Kingdom of France, which, in turn, was abolished in favor of the French First Republic the following year; the papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major temporal role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries; the success of the early Crusades added to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like those of England and the Holy Roman Emperor acting as marshals for the popes and leading "their" armies.
One exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II was moderately successful in the Holy Land; this state of affairs culminated in the unbridled declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam, in November 1302. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." This was directed to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, "Your venerable conceitedness may know that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters." In 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence and beat Pope Boniface VIII, he died shortly thereafter. Nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI, he absolved King Phillip IV and his subjects of their actions against Pope Boniface VIII.
However, Benedict XI died within eight months of being elected to the papacy. After eleven months, Bertrand de Got, a French man and a personal friend of King Phillip IV, was elected as pope and took the name Pope Clement V. Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the Avignon papacy were French. However, this makes. Southern France at that time had a culture quite independent from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were based; the Kingdom of Arles was still independent at that time, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The literature produced by the troubadours in the Languedoc is unique and distinct from that of Royal circles in the north. In terms of religion, the South produced its own variety of Christianity, declared heretical; the movement was fueled in no small part by the strong sense of independence in the
Marsilius of Padua
Marsilius of Padua was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine, who practiced a variety of professions. He was an important 14th-century political figure, his political treatise Defensor pacis, an attempt to refute papalist claims to a "plenitude of power" in affairs of both church and state, is seen by some authorities as the most revolutionary political treatise written in the Middle Ages. It is one of the first examples of a reasoned defense of caesaropapism in Western Europe. Marsilius was born in Padua, an important Italian city, circa 1275-1280, he studied medicine at the University of Padua and went to the University of Paris, where he became a devoted admirer of Aristotle, whom he called'the divine philosopher". He served as rector of the University of Paris in 1313. Marsilius wrote Defensor pacis in 1324; this treatise was written in the context of a power struggle between Pope John XXII and Louis of Bavaria, the elected candidate for Holy Roman Emperor. Louis' policies in the Italian peninsula, where the Empire had important territories, threatened papal territorial sovereignty.
In 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the powerful Kingdom of Naples. Naples, along with France, was a strong ally of John XXII. John demanded that he relinquish his claim to the imperial crown. Louis responded to John XXII with fresh provocations. In Defensor pacis, Marsilius sought to demonstrate, by arguments from reason and by argument from authority the independence of the Holy Roman Empire from the Papacy and the emptiness of the prerogatives alleged to have been usurped by the Roman pontiffs. A number of Marsilius's views were declared to be heretical by Pope John XXII in 1327. Most of Defensor pacis is devoted to theology. Relying on Scripture, Marsilius seeks to show that Jesus did not claim to possess any temporal power and that he did not intend his church to exercise any. On the contrary, Scripture teaches that the church should be subordinate to the state in both secular and spiritual matters. All authority in the church lies with the whole body of the faithful, the secular ruler who acts as the people's representative, general councils called by the secular ruler.
Some of Marsilius's arguments on these themes had a marked influence during the Reformation. Today, Marsilius's Defensor pacis is best remembered not for its theology but for its political philosophy and legal theory. Marsilius agrees with Aristotle that the purpose of government is the rational fulfillment of humans' natural desire for a "sufficient life". However, he goes beyond Aristotle in embracing a form of republicanism that views the people as the only legitimate source of political authority. Sovereignty lies with the people, the people should elect, and, if necessary, depose its political leaders. Democracy, Marsilius argues, is the best form of government because it tends to produce the wisest laws, protects the common benefit, promotes "sufficiency of life", produces laws that are most to be obeyed. Marsilius and John of Jandun, who has sometimes been credited as a co-author of Defensor pacis, left France for Louis' court in Bavaria. Louis admitted John to his circle. Others were under his protection, including Michael of Cesena and the philosopher William of Ockham, an advocate of an early form of church and state separation.
In 1326, Marsilius accompanied Louis to Italy, where he preached or circulated written attacks against the pope. The Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Visconti, suspected of conspiring with John XXII, was deposed and Louis was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors"—Pope John XXII—deposed on grounds of heresy, he installed the Franciscan Pietro Rainalducci as Nicholas V. Nicholas was deposed upon Louis's departure from Rome in 1329. In Bavaria, as imperial vicar, Marsilius persecuted the clergy who had remained faithful to John XXII. In recompense for his services, he was appointed archbishop of Milan, John of Jandun obtained from Louis IV the bishopric of Ferrara. Marsilius composed a treatise De translatione imperii, which some authorities consider is a rearrangement of a similar work by Landolfo Colonna called De jurisdictione imperatoris in causa matrimoniali.
This work, Marsilius's variation, sought to justify the exclusive jurisdiction of the emperor in matrimonial affairs: Louis of Bavaria had annulled the marriage of the son of the King of Bohemia. Marsilius died in Munich around 1342, still unreconciled to the Church; some authorities consider Defensor pacis one of the most important political and religious works of fourteenth-century Europe. In the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated on different points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensor pacis, he dealt here with problems concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction, indulgences and pilgrimages, excommunication, the general church council and divorce, unity with the Greek Orthodox Church. In this work he more articulates imperial supremacy over the Church; the Defender of Peace. Writings on the Empire: Defensor minor and De translatione imperii. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Marsilius of Padua". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the pub
Saint Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, Doctor of the Church. He is an immensely influential philosopher and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis; the name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. He was the father of Thomism, his influence on Western thought is considerable, much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas in the areas of ethics, natural law and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity, his best-known works are the Disputed Questions on Truth, the Summa contra Gentiles, the Summa Theologiae. His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.
The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines. Thomas Aquinas is considered philosophers. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This Order... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools." The English philosopher Anthony Kenny considers Thomas to be "one of the dozen greatest philosophers of the western world". Thomas was most born in the castle of Roccasecca, Aquino, in the Kingdom of Sicily, c. 1225, According to some authors, he was born in the castle of Landulf of Aquino.
Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger II, he held the title miles. Thomas's mother, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family. Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the family's sons pursued military careers, the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy. At the age of five Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early 1239, Landulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale established by Frederick in Naples, it was here that Thomas was introduced to Aristotle and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy. It was during his study at Naples that Thomas came under the influence of John of St. Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers.
There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry and music was Petrus de Ibernia. At the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the founded Dominican Order. Thomas's change of heart did not please his family. In an attempt to prevent Theodora's interference in Thomas's choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome, from Rome, to Paris. However, while on his journey to Rome, per Theodora's instructions, his brothers seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano. Thomas was held prisoner for one year in the family castles at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration. Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomas's release, which had the effect of extending Thomas's detention. Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order. Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas.
At one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend, Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate. By 1244, seeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family's dignity, arranging for Thomas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans. Thomas was sent first to Naples and to Rome to meet Johannes von Wildeshausen, the Master General of the Dominican Order. In 1245 Thomas was sent to study at the Faculty of the Arts at the University of Paris, where he most met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus the holder of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James in Paris; when Albertus was sent by his superiors to teach at the new studium generale at Cologne in 1248, Thomas followed him, declining Pope Innocent
In Christian theology, the beatific vision is the ultimate direct self-communication of God to the individual person. A person possessing the beatific vision reaches, as a member of redeemed humanity in the communion of saints, perfect salvation in its entirety, i.e. heaven. The notion of vision stresses the intellectual component of salvation, though it encompasses the whole of human experience of joy, happiness coming from seeing God face to face and not imperfectly through faith.. It is related to the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox belief in theosis, the Wesleyan notion of Christian perfection, is seen in most – if not all – church denominations as the reward for Christians in the afterlife. In Christianity, the Bible teaches that God "dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see", but when God reveals Himself to us in heaven we will see Him face to face; this concept has been termed "the beatific vision of God" by theologians of the Catholic Church as well as various Protestant denominations, including the Lutheran Church and the Methodist Church.
Saint Cyprian wrote of the saved's seeing God in the Kingdom of Heaven. How great will your glory and happiness be, to be allowed to see God, to be honored with sharing the joy of salvation and eternal light with Christ your Lord and God... to delight in the joy of immortality in the Kingdom of Heaven with the righteous and God's friends! Monsignor Edward A. Pace in the Catholic Encyclopedia defined the Beatific Vision: The immediate knowledge of God which the angelic spirits and the souls of the just enjoy in Heaven, it is called "vision" to distinguish it from the mediate knowledge of God which the human mind may attain in the present life. And since in beholding God face to face the created intelligence finds perfect happiness, the vision is termed "beatific." Methodist co-founder Charles Wesley, in his 1747 hymn "Maker, in Whom We Live," described union with God through the Holy Spirit as "beatific sight": Spirit of Holiness, let all thy saints adore / thy sacred energy, bless thine heart-renewing power.
/ No angel tongues can tell thy love's ecstatic height, / the glorious joy unspeakable, the beatific sight. In Catholic theology, the intercession of saints is valid because those who have died in the Faith are with God in Heaven and enjoy the Beatific Vision, i.e. unmediated access to God's Presence in Paradise itself, seeing God. Thomas Aquinas defined the beatific vision as the human being's "final end" in which one attains to a perfect happiness. Thomas reasons that one is happy only when all one's desires are satisfied, to the degree that happiness could not increase and could not be lost. "Man is not happy, so long as something remains for him to desire and seek."STh I–II, q. 3, a. 8. But this kind of perfect happiness cannot be found in any physical pleasure, any amount of worldly power, any degree of temporal fame or honor, or indeed in any finite reality, it can only be found in something, infinite and perfect – and this is God. STh I–II, q. 2, a. 8. And since God is not a material thing but is pure spirit, we are united to God by knowing and loving him.
The most perfect union with God is the most perfect human happiness and the goal of the whole of the human life. But we cannot attain to this happiness by our own natural powers. STh I, q. 12, a. 4. Further, since every created image or likeness of God is finite, it would thus be infinitely less than God himself. STh I, q. 12, a. 2. The only perfect and infinite good, therefore, is God himself, why Aquinas argues that our perfect happiness and final end can only be the direct union with God himself and not with any created image of him; this union comes about by a kind of "seeing" the divine essence itself, a gift given to our intellects when God joins them directly to himself without any intermediary. And since in seeing this perfect vision of what God is, we grasp his perfect goodness, this act of "seeing" is at the same time a perfect act of loving God as the highest and infinite goodness. According to Aquinas, the Beatific Vision surpasses both reason. Rational knowledge does not satisfy humankind's innate desire to know God, since reason is concerned with sensible objects and thus can only infer its conclusions about God indirectly.
Summa Theologiae The Theological virtue of faith, too, is incomplete, since Aquinas thinks that it always implies some imperfection in the understanding. The believer does not wish to remain on the level of faith but to grasp directly the object of faith, God himself. Summa Contra Gentiles Thus only the fullness of the Beatific Vision satisfies this fundamental desire of the human soul to know God. Quoting St Paul, Aquinas notes "We see now in a glass darkly, but face to face"; the Beatific Vision is the final reward for those saints elect by God to partake in and "enjoy the same happiness wherewith God is happy, seeing Him in the way which He sees Himself" in the next life. Summa Contra Gentiles Pope John XXII caused a controversy involving the Beatific Vision, he said not as Pope but as a private theologian that the saved do not attain the Beatific Vision until Judgment Day, a view more consistent with soul sleep. The general understanding at the time was that the saved attained Heaven after being purified and before Judgment Day
Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Porto-Santa Rufina
The Diocese of Porto and Santa-Rufina is a suburbicarian diocese of the Holy Roman Church and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy. It was formed from the union of two suburbicarian sees of Rome. From 1967, the diocese has had both a titular Cardinal bishop, a resident bishop who handles the diocesan business. Porto was in the chief harbour of Rome, it owes its origin to the port built by Claudius opposite Ostia. Trajan enlarged the basin, in a short time there grew around it a city which soon became independent of Ostia, it was near Porto. During the Gothic War the town served the Goths and the Byzantines as a base of operations against Rome. In the 9th and 10th centuries it was sacked on several occasions by the Saracens. In 849 Pope Leo IV fortified it and established there a colony of Corsicans for the defence of the coast and the neighbouring territory, but the city continued to decay. Christianity was early established there. Several martyrs of Porto are known, including Herculanus, Martialis, Saturninus Epictetus and Felix.
The place was famous as the probable see of St. Hippolytus. In 314 Gregorius was bishop; the great xenodochium, or hospice, of Pammachius was built about 370. Santa Rufina grew up around the basilica of the Holy Martyrs Sts. Rufina and Secunda on the Via Aurelia, fourteen miles from Rome. In the 9th century this town was destroyed by the Saracens, the efforts of Pope Leo IV and Pope Sergius III were unable to save it from total ruin: all that remains are the remnants of the ancient basilica and a chapel; the first notice of it as an episcopal see dates from the 5th century, when its bishop Adeodatus was present at the councils held by Pope Symmachus. Among its other bishops mention should be made of Tiberius Ursus Nicetas Hildebrand Peter, whose jurisdiction over the Leonine City, the Trastevere, the Insula Tiberina was confirmed; the residence of the bishops of Silva Candida was on the Insula Tiberina beside the church of Sts. Adalbert and Paulinus, while that of the bishops of Porto was on the same island near the church of San Giovanni.
The bishops of Silva Candida, enjoyed great prerogatives in relation with the ceremonies of the basilica of St. Peter; the most famous of these prelates was Cardinal Humbertus, who accompanied Leo IX from Burgundy to Rome. He wrote against Berengarius; the last legitimate Bishop was Mainardo of Pomposa. During the schism of antipope Clement III there was a pseudocardinal-bishop Adalbert antipope Adalbert; the Bishop of Porto became the second cardinal, the Bishop of Ostia being the first, officiated on Mondays in the Lateran Basilica. In 1826, Civitavecchia was separated from the Diocese of Viterbo and Toscanella and united with that of Porto, but in 1854, with Corneto, it was made an independent see. Mention should be made of the Cardinal Bishop of Porto Luigi Lambruschini, who restored the cathedral and the episcopal palace. From the 16th century, the incumbency of prelates of this see was, as a rule, of short duration, because most of the cardinal-bishops preferred the See of Ostia and Velletri, which they exchanged for their own as soon as possible.
The Diocese of Cære, now Cerveteri, has been united with that of Porto since the 12th century. Cære was an ancient city, called at first Agylla, where the sanctuaries of Rome and the Vestals were hidden during the invasion of the Gauls. Cervetri had bishops of its own until the 11th century; the last known was Benedictus, referred to in 1015 and 1029. The Diocese of Porto and Santa Rufina has 18 parishes, with 4600 inhabitants. Eugène Tisserant Paolo Marella Agostino Casaroli Roger Etchegaray Andrea Pangrazio Pellegrino Tomaso Ronchi Diego Natale Bona Antonio Buoncristiani Gino Reali In 1826, Civitavecchia was separated from the Diocese of Viterbo and Toscanella and united with that of Porto, but in 1854, with Corneto, it was made an independent see. Mention should be made of the Cardinal Bishop of Porto Luigi Lambruschini, who restored the cathedral and the episcopal palace. From the 16th century, the incumbency of prelates of this see was, as a rule, of short duration, because most of the cardinal-bishops preferred the See of Ostia and Velletri, which they exchanged for their own as soon as possible.
The Diocese of Cære, now Cerveteri, has been united with that of Porto since the 12th century. Cære was an ancient city, called at first Agylla, where the sanctuaries of Rome and the Vestals were hidden during the invasion of the Gauls.
Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of 148 km southeast of Florence, it covers a high part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany and Marche; the history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period. The city is known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, other institutes. Perugia is a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy; the city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g. the Eurochocolate Festival, the Umbria Jazz Festival, the International Journalism Festival, is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.
The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia and one fresco. Another famous painter, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia; the city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae was agreed upon. In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41–40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, its senators sent to their death.
A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found around the city. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno—the massive Etruscan terrace-walls can hardly have suffered at all—and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose, it must have been rebuilt at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr Perusia restituta. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, it is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be beheaded. St. Herculanus became the city's patron saint. In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the 9th century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes.
In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city. On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those that elected Honorius III, Clement IV, Celestine V, Clement V, but Perugia had no mind to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. On the other hand, side by side with the 13th century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines; however this dominant tendency was rather an Italian political strategy. The Angevin presence in Italy appeared to offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei P