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Pope Julius III

Pope Julius III, born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. After a career as a distinguished and effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate after the death of Paul III; as pope, he made only reluctant and short-lived attempts at reform devoting himself to a life of personal pleasure. His reputation, that of the Catholic Church, were harmed by his scandal-ridden relationship with his adopted nephew. Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte was born in Monte San Savino, he was educated by the humanist Raffaele Brandolini Lippo, studied law at Perugia and Siena. During his career, he distinguished himself as a brilliant canonist rather than as a theologian. Del Monte was the nephew of Archbishop of Manfredonia; when his uncle exchanged this see for a position as a Cardinal in 1511, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte succeeded in Manfredonia in 1512. In 1520, del Monte became Bishop of Pavia.

Popular for his affable manner and respected for his administrative skills, he was twice Governor of Rome and was entrusted by the papal curia with several duties. At the Sack of Rome he was one of the hostages given by Pope Clement VII to the Emperor's forces, escaped execution. Pope Paul III made him Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina in 1536 and employed him in several important legations, notably as papal legate and first president of the Council of Trent and at Bologna. Paul III died on 10 November 1549, in the ensuing conclave the forty-eight cardinals were divided into three factions: of the primary factions, the Imperial faction wished to see the Council of Trent reconvened, the French faction wished to see it dropped; the Farnese faction, loyal to the family of the previous Pope, supported the election of Paul III's grandson, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the family's claim to the Duchy of Parma, contested by Emperor Charles V. Neither the French nor the Germans favoured del Monte, the Emperor had expressly excluded him from the list of acceptable candidates, but the French were able to block the other two factions, allowing del Monte to promote himself as a compromise candidate and be elected on 7 February 1550.

Ottavio Farnese, whose support had been crucial to the election, was confirmed as Duke of Parma. But, when Farnese applied to France for aid against the emperor, Julius allied himself with the emperor, declared Farnese deprived of his fief, sent troops under the command of his nephew Giambattista del Monte to co-operate with Duke Gonzaga of Milan in the capture of Parma. At the start of his reign Julius had desired to bring about a reform of the Catholic Church and to reconvene the Council of Trent, but little was achieved during his five years in office. In 1551, at the request of Emperor Charles V, he consented to the reopening of the council of Trent and entered into a league against the duke of Parma and Henry II of France, causing the War of Parma. However, Julius soon came to terms with the duke and France and in 1553 suspended the meetings of the council. King Henry II of France had threatened to withdraw recognition from the Pope if the new Pope was pro-Habsburg in orientation, when Julius III reconvened the Council of Trent, Henry blocked French bishops from attending and did not enforce the papal decrees in France.

After Julius III suspended the Council again he proceeded to bully the pope into taking his side against the Habsburgs by threatening schism. Julius contented himself with Italian politics and retired to his luxurious palace at the Villa Giulia, which he had built for himself close to the Porta del Popolo. From there he passed the time in comfort, emerging from time to time to make timid efforts to reform the Church through the reestablishment of the reform commissions, he was a friend of the Jesuits, to whom he granted a fresh confirmation in 1550. During his pontificate, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553. Julius sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate with powers that he could use at his discretion to help the restoration succeed. In February 1555, an envoy was dispatched from the English Parliament to Julius to inform him of the country's formal submission, but the pope died before the envoy reached Rome. Shortly before his death, Julius dispatched Cardinal Giovanni Morone to represent the interests of the Holy See at the Peace of Augsburg.

His inactivity during the last three years of his pontificate may have been caused by the frequent and severe attacks of the gout to which he was subject. Julius' papacy was marked by scandals, the most notable of, centered around the pope's adoptive nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. Innocenzo del Monte was a teenaged beggar found in the streets of Parma, hired by the family as a lowly hall boy in their primary residence, the boy's age being variously given as 14, 15, or 17 years. After the elevation of Julius to the papacy, Innocenzo Del Monte was adopted into the family by the pope's brother and, by Julius, was promptly created cardinal-nephew. Julius showered his favourite with benefices, including the commendatario of the abbeys of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy and Saint Zeno in Verona, of the abbeys of Saint Saba, Miramondo and Frascati, among others; as rumours began to circle about the particular relationship between the pope and his adoptive nephew, Julius refused to take advice.

The cardinals Reginald Pole and Giovanni Carafa warned t

Jack White (footballer, born 1924)

John "Jack" White was an English footballer who played as a centre half. He made over 420 Football League appearances in the years after the Second World War. "Jack" White a former miner played locally for Frickley Colliery in Yorkshire. White signed for Aldershot from Sheffield FC in July 1944. Pat Beasley signed White in October 1952 from Aldershot for £5,300 for Bristol City. Jack White displaced Dennis Roberts both at the heart of the defence and as captain of the side. Jack White made his Bristol City debut at centre half in a 4–0 win v Gillingham on 11 October 1952. Bristol City reached 2nd place during the 1952–53 season but finished in 5th position. White made 33 appearances scoring 4 goals in his first season with Bristol City; the following season 1953–54 Bristol City rose to 3rd place as Jack White played a mixture of centre half and left back when Dennis Roberts returned to the side. He spent the second half of that season at left half when Ernie Peacock and Terry Compton held the centre half position.

White made 40 appearances scoring 3 goals including one goal in a 5–2 win at Aldershot. Jack White captained Bristol City to the Third Division South championship in 1954–55 when White was present making 46 appearances scoring 2 goals whilst playing in all three half back positions. In the Second Division in 1955–56 Jack White made 41 appearances scoring 1 goal missing only one match and playing at right half alongside Peacock at centre half and Cyril Williams at left half. Jack White was the regular right half centre half when Peacock was missing in 1956–57. White made 37 appearances scoring 1 goal with Bristol City a mid table Second Division side. In his final season with Bristol City Jack White made 20 appearances without scoring in 1957–58 under the new captain Tommy Burden. Jack White joined Cambridge City of the Southern League as player manager in April 1958. Cambridge City finished above Cambridge United in all three seasons playing in the South Eastern division in 1958–59 finished 5th in the Premier Division in 1959–60 and 9th the following season.

After three seasons White moved on to Wellington Town as manager. Wellington United were 13th in the Premier Division in 1961–62 and as Wellington Town finished 6th in 1962–63. After retiring from football Jack White became a service engineer in Tonbridge with a firm run by Bristol City chairman Harry Dolman, he worked for Tonbridge Printers and returned to Doncaster in 1978 to work as a labourer at Thorpe Marsh Power Station. He retired in March 1989 and was living in Tonbridge in 1997. Jack White's younger brother Len White was a professional footballer playing for Rotherham United, Newcastle United, Huddersfield Town and Stockport County. Len White made 245 appearances scoring 197 goals for Newcastle United; this the third highest career total of League goals for Newcastle United exceeded only by Jackie Milburn and Alan Shearer. With Bristol CityFootball League Third Division South winner: 1954–55

Uncle Buck (2016 TV series)

Uncle Buck is an American single-camera comedy television series based on the 1989 movie of the same name that debuted on ABC as an entry in the 2015–16 television season. The series was created for television by Brian Bradley; the show was picked up to series on May 8, 2015 and aired from June 14, 2016 to July 5, 2016. On July 6, 2016, ABC cancelled the series after one season. Mike Epps as Buck Russell Nia Long as Alexis Smith-Russell James Lesure as Will Russell Iman Benson as Tia Russell Sayeed Shahidi as Miles Russell Aalyrah Caldwell as Maizy Russell Uncle Buck received negative reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the series holds an approval rating of 32%, based on 19 critics, with an average rating of 4.3/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Despite the efforts of a charming cast, Uncle Buck is a painfully predictable adaptation without enough laughs." On Metacritic, the series has a score of 37 out of 100, based on 15 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". Official website Uncle Buck on IMDb

Concilium Bibliographicum

The Concilium Bibliographicum was established in Zurich. Switzerland in 1895 by the U. S. zoologist Herbert Haviland Field in response to the lack of timely and complete bibliographies to serve the new sciences that had begun to emerge in the late nineteenth century. Using his own funds, Field assumed the task of surveying all science journals and to use the new index-cards and the sophisticated but complex Universal Decimal Classification system to send packets, bi-weekly, to his subscribers who were each to build a cumulative card file that would allow access to complete bibliographic citations and subject identifiers for all the literature on zoology and related fields from 1895 to the present. Field cooperated with the grand information efforts of Belgians Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine who had founded the Institut International de Bibliographie in Brussels in 1895 renamed as the International Federation for Information and Documentation. In its early years the Concilium operated as an affiliate of the IIB.

Field is credited with persuading La Fontaine to adopt the 75 x 125 mm card size. He was responsible for developing at the Concilium the Zoology sections of the Universal Decimal Classification; the Concilium and the IIB faced hostilities arising from nationalistic competition among England and Germany, but by 1903 the Concilium had sent some 13,000,000 cards to over 600 subscribers in Europe and North and South America. It was, difficult to make the Concilium financially viable and just as it was on the verge of becoming self-sustaining the outbreak of war in 1914 forced it to suspend operations. After the war, as Herbert Field was overcoming objections to his system by applied scientists, such as those represented by the National Research Council who favored a simpler and less expensive system based on volunteers composing abstracts of articles and saw no need for'old knowledge', just as he was about to receive funding from America's Rockefeller Foundation, he died; the Concilium was left in the hands of Johannes Strohl, a rather stubborn European scientist who found himself in conflict with the foundation, with those who favored a new world science information system based on abstracts, with his subscribers who objected to the increased prices he had to charge as well as to the unwieldy size of the Concilium files as the number of science publications increased.

On its last-legs, the outbreak of war in 1939 led to the closing of the Concilium in 1940. There were no attempts to revive it. General referencesBuckland, Michael K.. "Precise zoological information: The Concilium Bibliographicum". Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 42: 15-19. Burke, Colin B.. Information and Intrigue: From Index Cards to Dewey Cards to Alger Hiss. MIT Press. Murra, Kathrine O.. History of some attempts to organize bibliography internationally, In: Bibliographic Organization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp. 24–53. Rayward, W. Boyd; the Universe of Information: The Work of Paul Otlet for Documentation and International Organisationis. Moscow, Russia: VINITI. Buckland, Michael. "The Concilium Bibliographicum 1895-1940"

SS K├Ânig Albert

The SS König Albert was a German Barbarossa class ocean liner owned by the Norddeutscher Lloyd Line. Interned in Italy at the outbreak of World War I, she was seized by the Italian Government in 1915 and converted to a hospital ship. Sold into merchant service in 1920, she was used as a transport for the Italian Navy, before being scrapped in 1926; the SS König Albert was built by Stettiner Vulcan of Stettin, Germany for the Norddeutscher Lloyd Line of Bremen, launched in 1899. She sailed on her maiden voyage via the Suez Canal to the Far East, she completed eight round voyages on this service and was transferred on 3 March 1903 to the Bremen - Cherbourg - New York City route for a single voyage. On 16 April 1903 she went to the Genoa - Naples - New York City run and stayed on this service until commencing her last voyage on 11 June 1914. On the outbreak of World War I, SS König Albert, like many of her sister ships, was interned in a neutral country to avoid capture by the Royal Navy; when Italy joined the war in May, 1915, the ship was seized by the Italian Government.

The ship was converted to a hospital ship and renamed the Ferdinando Palasciano, after the Italian physician and politician Ferdinando Palasciano. On 20th January 1916 off the Albanian coast she was captured as a prize by the Kuk Austro-Hungarian Navy U-boat 11, escorted into their naval base of Cattaro, she was handed back to the Italians. The reasons for this are unknown, but done due to her hospital ship status. In 1920, the ship was chartered to Navigazione Generale Italiana of Genoa and on June 15, 1920 commenced her first voyage Genoa - Naples - New York, she completed 6 round trip voyages on this route, the last one commencing April 13, 1921. Media related to SS König Albert at Wikimedia Commons S. S. Konig Albert Passenger Ship at RootsWeb

Madhuranthaganallur

Madhuranthaganallur is a village located in the Keerapalayam panchayath, Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located 49 km to the south of District headquarters Cuddalore, 8 km from Keerapalayam, 230 km from state capital Chennai. Chidambaram, Cuddalore, Virudhachalam are the nearby cities to Madhuranthaganallur. Nearby Railway Stations is Chidambaram- 14 km. Nearby Airports Chennai Airport- 207 km, Trichy Airport - 170 km. Agrahaaram Street Sivan koil Street Reddiyar Mettu Street East Street West Street North Street South Street Main Road New Street Kuttakaran Street Manthakarai Street Periya Street Periya Street Small Street Puram Harijana Street Panchayath Union Middle School Madhuranthaganallur. Aadi dravidar Government Higher Secondary School Madhuranthaganallur. Thiruvalluvar Higher Secondary School Orathur - 3 km. DGM Higher Secondary School Sethiathope - 9 km. RCTHSS, Nandanar, Nirmala matric, Venus Matric, Kamaraj Matric Higher Secondary schools in Chidambaram - 11 km.

Annamalai University in Chidambaram - 11 km. Sri Ragavendra Arts and Science College Keezhmoongiladi - 15 km. MRK Institute of Technology - Kattumannarkoil - 20 km. periya nayagi temple in madhuranthaganallur sivan temple in madhuranthaganallur perumal temple in madhuranthaganallur Sri Ragavendra Swami birthplace in Buvangiri - 7 km. Nataraja Temple in Chidambaram - 11 km. Pichavaram Mangroove Forest - 20 km. Cuddalore Silver Beach - 57 km. Velankanni Temple - 125 km