Mary I of England
Mary I known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII; the executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood, her younger half-brother Edward VI succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign. On his death, leading politicians proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England.
In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan era. Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in England, she was the only child of his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth, her godparents included Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey. Henry VIII's cousin once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Mary's confirmation, held after the baptism.
The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary's governess. Sir John Hussey Lord Hussey, was her chamberlain from 1530, his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent, was one of Mary's attendants. Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals. A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives for advice and commissioned him to write De Institutione Feminae Christianae, a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could write Latin, she studied French, music and Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, "This girl never cries"; as the miniature portrait of her shows, Mary had, like both her parents, a fair complexion, pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair.
She was ruddy cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, leaving Henry without a legitimate male heir. In 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of Wales to preside in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches, she was given her own court based at Ludlow Castle and many of the royal prerogatives reserved for the Prince of Wales. Vives and others called her the Princess of Wales, although she was never technically invested with the title, she appears to have spent three years in the Welsh Marches, making regular visits to her father's court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528. Throughout Mary's childhood, Henry negotiated potential future marriages for her; when she was only two years old, she was promised to Francis, the infant son of King Francis I of France, but the contract was repudiated after three years.
In 1522, at the age of six, she was instead contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However, the engagement was broken off within a few years by Charles with Henry's agreement. Cardinal Wolsey, Henry's chief adviser resumed marriage negotiations with the French, Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I himself, eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Wolsey secured an alliance with France without the marriage. According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion. Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, but Pope Clement VII refused his request. Henry claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother Arthur.
Catherine claimed so was not a valid marriage. Her first marriage had been annulled by a previous pope, Julius II, on t
Roman Catholic Diocese of Gubbio
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Gubbio is in the province of Perugia, in Umbria, central Italy. The earliest known Bishop of Gubbio is Decentius, though a letter of Pope Innocent I notes that he had predecessors. Gregory the Great entrusted to Bishop Gaudiosus of Gubbio the spiritual care of Tadinum, about a mile from the modern Gualdo, long without a bishop of its own. In the eighth century Gubbio became part of the Patrimony of St. Peter, together with the duchy of Spoleto. Arsenius of Gubbio together with Nicholas of Anagni, opposed the election of Pope Benedict III, it was at war with Perugia, its victory in 1151 over Perugia and ten other towns is famous. St. Ubald, bishop of the city, directed the campaign. Gubbio favoured the Ghibelline party. Giovanni Gabrielli, lord of Gubbio, was expelled by Cardinal Albornoz and the town handed over to a pontifical vicar. In 1381, the bishop, Gabriele Gabrielli, succeeded in being appointed pontifical vicar and again, lord of Gubbio. Other bishops of Gubbio were Rudolph Gabrielli, honoured for his sanctity by Peter Damian.
The bishopric of Theobaldus Balbi, O. S. B. was a time of great upheaval in the Church. The papal conclave of September 1159 had produced two popes, a schism; the majority of cardinals elected Cardinal Rolando Bandinelli, who called himself Pope Alexander III. Victor was a adherent of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. While Bishop Theobaldus professed obedience to Pope Alexander, Frederick appointed as Bishop of Gubbio the Abbot of the monastery of S. Donnato, Abbot Bonactus; the schism thus enveloped the diocese of Gubbio. A grant to the Church of Gubbio by the Emperor Frederick, dated 8 November 1163, indicates that the Ghibellines were in full control of the city and that Bonactus was bishop-elect. Bishop Theobaldus had retreated to the monastery of Fonte Avellina, where he had been Prior before his election as bishop; the schismatic Pope Victor IV died on 20 April 1164, his schismatic successor Guido Cremensis died on 20 September 1168. Their successor, Joannes de Struma, surrendered to the real Pope, Alexander III, on 29 August 1178.
The remnants of the schism were liquidated at the Third Council of the Lateran in March 1179, by which time Bishop Theobaldus had died. From time immemorial, the bishops of Gubbio had been directly subordinate of the Holy See, with no supervisory archbishop intervening, were therefore required to attend Roman synods, but in 1563 the situation was altered. In his bull Super universas of 4 June 1563, Pope Pius IV reorganized the administration of the territories of the March of Ancona by creating a new archbishopric by elevating the bishop and Archdiocese of Urbino, he created the new ecclesiastical province of Urbino, to include the dioceses of Cagli, Fossombrone, Senigallia. and Gubbio. But, as a result of the resistance begun by Bishop Mariano Savelli, it was not until the eighteenth century that Urbino could exercise effective metropolitan jurisdiction. In the 15th century, the dukedoms of Montefeltro and Urbino fell into the hands of the della Rovere family, but the family did not prosper, in terms of male heirs.
In 1623, the aged duke, Francesco Maria II lost his only son to an epileptic fit. Without suitable collateral relatives, he determined to leave his dukedoms to the Papacy, and, on 30 April 1624, the appropriate documents were registered in Rome. Taddeo Barberini, the nephew of Pope Urban VIII, took formal possession and appointed a governor, though Duke Francesco Maria continued to rule during his lifetime; when he died on 23 April 1631, Gubbio along with it, was incorporated into the Papal States. In accordance with the decree Christus Dominus, chapter 40, of the Second Vatican Council, on 15 August 1972 Pope Paul VI issued the decree Animorum utilitate, in which he changed the status of the diocese of Perugia, from being directly dependent upon the Holy See to being a Metropolitan archdiocese; the ecclesiastical province of Perugia was to contain as suffragans the dioceses of Assisi, Citta di Castello, Citta della Pieve, Foligno and Tadinum, Gubbio. The diocese of Gubbio ceased to be dependent upon the archdiocese of Urbino.
A diocesan synod was an irregularly held, but important, meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy. Its purpose was to proclaim the various decrees issued by the bishop. Bishop Alessandro Sperelli presided over seven diocesan synods. Bishop Sostegno Maria Cavalli held a diocesan synod in Gubbio in 1725. Bishop Vincenzo Massi held a diocesan synod on 5—7 June 1827. Mario Ancaiani Vincenzo Massi Giuseppe Pecci Innocenzo Sannibale Luigi Lazzareschi Macario Sorini Angelo Maria Dolci (1900–1906 Appointed, Titular Archbis
Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII, born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534. “The most unfortunate of the Popes,” Clement VII’s reign was marked by a rapid succession of political and religious struggles — many long in the making — which had far-reaching consequences for Christianity and world politics. Elected in 1523 at the end of the Italian Renaissance, Clement VII came to the papacy with a high reputation as a statesman, having served with distinction as chief advisor to both Pope Leo X and Pope Adrian VI. Assuming leadership in a time of crisis, with the Church nearly bankrupt, Clement VII sought to unite Christendom, fragmenting, by making peace among the many Christian leaders at odds, he aspired to liberate Italy, which had become a battleground for invading, foreign armies, thereby threatening the Church’s freedom. The complex political situation of the 1520s thwarted Clement's intentions.
Inheriting Martin Luther’s growing Protestant Reformation in Northern Europe. After escaping confinement in the Castel Sant'Angelo, Clement — with few economic, military, or political options remaining — compromised the Church's and Italy's independence by allying with his former jailor, Emperor Charles V. In contrast to his tortured Papacy, Clement VII was respectable and devout, possessing a “dignified propriety of character,” “great acquirements both theological and scientific,” as well as “extraordinary address and penetration — Clement VII, in serener times, might have administered the Papal power with high reputation and enviable prosperity, but with all of his profound insight into the political affairs of Europe, Clement does not seem to have comprehended the altered position of the Pope” in relation to Europe’s emerging nation-states and Protestantism. A discerning patron, Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo’s The Last Judgment for the Sistine Chapel. Artistic trends of the era are sometimes called the “Clementine style,” and notable for their virtuosity.
In matters of science, Clement VII is best known for approving, in 1533, Nicholaus Copernicus’s theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun — 99 years before Galileo Galilei’s heresy trial for similar ideas. Ecclesiastically, Clement VII is remembered for issuing orders protecting Jews from the Inquisition, approving the Capuchin Franciscan Order, securing the island of Malta for the Knights of Malta. Giulio de' Medici's life began under tragic circumstances. On April 26, 1478 — one month before his birth — his father, Giuliano de Medici was murdered in the Florence Cathedral by enemies of his family. Born illegitimately on May 26, 1478, in Florence, the exact identity of his mother remains unknown — although a plurality of scholars contend that it was Fioretta Gorini, the daughter of a university professor. Giulio spent the first seven years of life with his Godfather, the architect Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. Thereafter, Lorenzo the Magnificent raised him as one of his own sons, alongside his children Giovanni and Giuliano, the former of whom became Pope Leo X. Educated at the Palazzo Medici in Florence by humanists like Angelo Poliziano, alongside prodigies like Michelangelo, Giulio became an accomplished musician.
In personality he was reputed to be shy, in physical appearance, handsome. Since Giulio's illegitimacy barred him from pursuing high-ranking positions in the Church — his natural inclination was for the clergy — Lorenzo the Magnificent helped him carve out a career in the military, he was enrolled in the Knights of Rhodes, but became Grand Prior of Capua. In 1492, when Lorenzo the Magnificent died and Giovanni de' Medici assumed his duties as a cardinal, Giulio became more involved in Church affairs, he studied canon law at the University of Pisa, accompanied Giovanni to the conclave of 1492, where Rodrigo Borgia was elected Pope Alexander VI. Following the fortunes of Lorenzo the Magnificent's firstborn son, Piero the Unfortunate, in 1494, the Medici were expelled from Florence. Over the next six years, Cardinal Giovanni and Giulio wandered throughout Europe together — twice getting themselves arrested; each time Piero the Unfortunate bailed them out. In 1500, both returned to Italy and concentrated their efforts on re-establishing their family in Florence.
Only in 1512, with the assistance of Pope Julius II and the Spanish troops of Ferdinand of Aragon did the Medici retake control of the city. In 1510, while the Medici were living near Rome, a black servant in their household — identified in documents as Simonetta da Collevecchio — became pregnant giving birth to a son, Alessandro de' Medici. Nicknamed “il Moro” due to his dark complexion, Alessandro was recognized as the illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de Medici.
Reginald Pole was an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the last Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office from 1556 to 1558, during the Counter-Reformation. Pole was born at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, on 12 March 1500. to Sir Richard Pole and Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, was their third son. His maternal grandparents were George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, Isabella Neville, Duchess of Clarence, he received his early education nursery at Sheen Priory. He matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1512, at Oxford was taught by William Latimer and Thomas Linacre, graduating with a BA on 27 June 1515. In February 1518, King Henry VIII granted him the deanery of Dorset, he was a canon in York, had several other livings, although he had not been ordained a priest. Assisted by Bishop Edward Foxe, he represented Henry VIII in Paris in 1529, researching general opinions among theologians of the Sorbonne about the annulment of Henry's marriage with Catherine of Aragon.
In 1521, Pole went to the University of Padua, where he met leading Renaissance figures, including Pietro Bembo, Gianmatteo Giberti, Jacopo Sadoleto, Gianpietro Carafa, Rodolfo Pio, Otto Truchsess, Stanislaus Hosius, Cristoforo Madruzzo, Giovanni Morone, Pier Paolo Vergerio the younger, Peter Martyr and Vettor Soranzo. The last three were condemned as heretics by the Catholic Church, with Vermigli—as a well-known Protestant theologian—having a significant share in the Reformation in Pole's native England, his studies in Padua were financed by his election as a fellow of Corpus Christi College, with more than half of the cost paid by Henry VIII himself on 14 February 1523, which allowed him to study abroad for three years. Pole returned home in July 1526. Henry VIII offered him the Archbishopric of York or the Diocese of Winchester if he would support his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Pole withheld his support and went into self-imposed exile in France and Italy in 1532, where he continued his studies in Padua and Paris.
After his return he held the benefice of Vicar of Piddletown, between 20 December 1532 and about January 1535/1536. In May 1536, Reginald Pole and decisively broke with the King. In 1531, he had warned of the dangers of the Boleyn marriage. Eustace Chapuys, the Ambassador to England of Emperor Charles V, had suggested to Emperor Charles V that Pole marry the Lady Mary and combine their dynastic claims. At this time Pole was not definitively in Holy Orders; the final break between Pole and Henry followed upon Thomas Cromwell, Cuthbert Tunstall, Thomas Starkey and others addressing questions to Pole on behalf of Henry. He answered by sending the king a copy of his published treatise Pro ecclesiasticae unitatis defensione, besides being a theological reply to the questions, was a strong denunciation of the king's policies that denied Henry's position on the marriage of a brother's wife and denied the Royal Supremacy. Henry wrote to the Countess of Salisbury, who in turn sent her son a letter reproving him for his "folly."
On 22 December 1536, Pole a deacon, was created a cardinal over Pole's own objections. He became Papal Legate to England in February 1536/1537. Pope Paul III put him in charge of organising assistance for the Pilgrimage of Grace, an effort to organise a march on London to demand Henry replace his ‘reformist’ advisers with more traditional, Catholic minds. In 1539, Pole was sent to the Emperor to organise an embargo against England – the sort of countermeasure he had himself warned Henry was possible; the king, with Pole himself out of his reach, took revenge on Pole's family for engaging in treason by word against the king. This became known as the Exeter Conspiracy; the leading members were arrested, all their properties seized. The action destroyed the Pole family. Sir Geoffrey Pole was arrested in August 1538. Under interrogation, Sir Geoffrey said that Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, Exeter had all been parties to his correspondence with Reginald. Montagu and Lady Salisbury were arrested in November 1538, together with Henry Pole and other family members, on charges of treason, although Cromwell had written that they had "little offended save that he is of their kin".
They were committed to the Tower of London and, with the exception of Geoffrey Pole, they were all executed. In January 1539, Sir Geoffrey was pardoned, Montagu and Exeter were tried and executed for treason, while Reginald Pole was attainted in absentia. In May 1539, Exeter, Lady Salisbury, others were attainted, as her father had been.
Roman Catholic Diocese of Lamezia Terme
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Lamezia Terme is in Calabria. In 1818 the ancient see of the former Mamertum, was united to the diocese of Nicastro; the diocese was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Reggio in Calabria. In 1986, the historic Diocese of Nicastro had its name changed, it is called the Diocese of Lamezia Terme, it is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Catanzaro-Squillace. The name change reflects the incorporation of the comune of Nicastro into Lamezia Terme, an administrative change of 1968 on the part of the State of Italy; the earliest appearance of the name Nicastro is in the Diatyposis of Leo the Wise, composed at Constantinople around 900. Nicastro is listed twelfth and last among the bishops of the Greek Metropolitanate of Reggio Calabria. For a long time, the Greek Rite was in use at Nicastro; the church in the village below the citadel of Nicastro was built and endowed by the Norman Aumberga, the niece of Robert Guiscard and sister of Count Richard Dapifer, the son of Drago.
It became the Cathedral of S. Peter. In 1101, Count Richard the Dapifer transferred to the diocese of Nicastro property and chattels which had belonged to Aumberga in the territory between Agarena and Nicastro; the first bishop of this city of whom there is any record was Henricus, mentioned in the donation. Among the ten subscribers to the charter is Archbishop Robert of Reggio Calabria and Bishop Sasso of Cassano, serving as Papal Vicar in Calabria for Pope Paschal II. Pope Calixtus II visited Nicastro on 9 December 1121, on his way from Taranto to Catanzaro. Bishop Tancredo da Monte Foscolo was deposed by Pope Nicholas IV for having consecrated James II of Sicily, but he was reinstated by Pope Boniface VIII. In 1638 a major earthquake struck Calabria. Nicastro was severely hit. All the buildings were damaged or destroyed, some 1200 people lost their lives. At Martirano the death toll was 517; the old cathedral of Nicastro, built by the generosity of Aumberga, was destroyed by the earthquake. A new cathedral was erected in a more expansive location by Bishop Perrone.
The cathedral was served by a Chapter composed, of six dignities and fourteen Canons. The dignities were: the Dean, the Archdeacon, the Cantor, the Treasurer, the Cappellanus Major, the Penitentiary. In 1773 there were twenty-four Canons; the town had three other parishes besides the Cathedral: S. Teodoro, Santa Maria Maggiore, Santa Lucia. In Nicastro there was a convent of the Franciscans, founded in 1400 by the Conventual Franciscans and dedicated to S. Maria della Grazia. There was a convent of the Dominicans, established in 1502 and dedicated to the Annunciation; the Capuchins established the convent of S. Maria degli Angeli in 1545. All three were converted into other uses. Latin Name: NeocastrensisMetropolitan: Archdiocese of Reggio Calabria... Henricus Guido Bohemund Rogerius... Thaddeus Urso Gualterius de Cusencia Samuel, O. Min. Bernardus Leonardus Robertus Tancredus de Montefusculo, O. Min. Name Changed: 30 September 1986Latin Name: NeocastrensisMetropolitan: Archdiocese of Catanzaro-Squillace Luigi Antonio Cantafora Eubel, Conradus.
Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series... A pontificatu Pii PP. VII usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP. XVI. Volume VII. Monasterii: Libr. Regensburgiana. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi... A Pontificatu PII PP. IX usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP. XIII. Volume VIII. Il Messaggero di S. Antonio.
Pięta, Zenon. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi... A pontificatu Pii PP. X usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP. XV. Volume IX. Padua: Messagero di San Antonio. ISBN 978-88-250-1000-8. Ardito, Pietro. Spigolature storiche sulla città di Nicastro. Nicastro: tip. E libr. Bevilacqua. Avino, Vincenzio d'. Cenni storici sulle chiese arcivescovili, vescovili, e prelatizie del regno delle due Sicilie. Naples: dalle stampe di Ranucci. Pp. 456–471. Cappelletti, Giuseppe. Le chiese d'Italia: dalla loro origine sino ai nostri giorni. Tomo decimo
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de-facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians and the Salians. Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740; the final emperors were from the House of Lorraine, from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved after the defeat at Austerlitz by emperor Francis II, who continued to rule as Austrian emperor; the Holy Roman Emperor was perceived to rule by divine right, though he contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among other Catholic monarchs.
In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith; until the Reformation, the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. After the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, the electors voted in their own political interest. From the time of Constantine I, the Roman emperors had, with few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity; the reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church.
Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, uphold ecclesiastical unity. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period; the ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. From the western perspective, the interregnum in the Roman Empire spanned the 8th centuries; the title of Emperor was revived in 800, when Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III. The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope; as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration.
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924; the comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire. Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers; the King of the Germans would be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, his successor, Ferdinand I adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558; the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.
The term sacrum in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans"; when Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title. The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, that of German Emperor on the other; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e. the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor".
The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops