The Papal States the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna, portions of Emilia; these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily.
In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory; the Papal States were known as the Papal State. The territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property. Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of Ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.
Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or by individual members of the Roman churches would be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate "heir" of that property its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop. This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome, thus under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond. This system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, restoring to it any properties, confiscated; the Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. When in the 5th century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths, the Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning in 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy's political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was limited to a diagonal band running from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal enclaves. With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.
The Church's independence, combined with popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor. The pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy; as Byzantine power weakened, the papacy took an ever-larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards through diplomacy. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II; when the Exarchate of
Palestrina is modern Italian city and comune with a population of about 22,000, in Lazio, about 35 kilometres east of Rome. It is connected to the latter by the Via Prenestina, it is built upon the ruins of an ancient city of the same name. Palestrina is the birthplace of composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Palestrina is sited on a spur of the Monti Prenestini, a mountain range in the central Apennines. Palestrina borders the following municipalities: Artena, Castel San Pietro Romano, Gallicano nel Lazio, Rocca di Cave, Rocca Priora, San Cesareo, Zagarolo. Early burials show that the site was occupied in the 8th or 7th century BC; the ancient necropolis lays on a plateau at the foot of the hill below the ancient town. Of the objects found in the oldest graves, supposed to date from about the 7th century BC, the cups of silver and silver-gilt and most of the gold and amber jewelry are Phoenician, but the bronzes and some of the ivory articles seem to be of the Etruscan civilization. Praenestine graves from about 240 BC onwards have been found: they are surmounted by the characteristic pineapple made of local stone, containing stone coffins with rich bronze and gold ornaments beside the skeleton.
From these come the famous bronze boxes and hand mirrors with inscriptions in Etruscan. Famous is the bronze Ficoroni Cista, engraved with pictures of the arrival of the Argonauts in Bithynia and the victory of Pollux over Amycus, found in 1738. An example of archaic Latin is the inscription on the Ficoroni Cista: "Novios Plautios Romai med fecid / Dindia Macolnia fileai dedit"; the caskets are unique in Italy, but a large number of mirrors of similar style have been discovered in Etruria. Hence, although it would be reasonable to conjecture that objects with Etruscan characteristics came from Etruria, the evidence points decisively to an Etruscan factory in or near Praeneste itself. Other imported objects in the burials show that Praeneste traded not only with Etruria but with the Greek east; the origin of Praeneste was attributed by the ancients to Ulysses, or to other fabulous characters variously called Caeculus, Erulus or Praenestus. The name derives from the word Praenesteus, referring to its overlooking location.
Praeneste was under the hegemony of Alba Longa while that city was the head of the Latin League. It withdrew from the league in 499 BC, according to Livy, formed an alliance with Rome. After Rome was weakened by the Gauls of Brennus, Praeneste switched allegiances and fought against Rome in the long struggles that culminated in the Latin War. From 373 to 370, it was in continual war against Rome or her allies, was defeated by Cincinnatus. In 354 and in 338 the Romans were victorious and Praeneste was punished by the loss of portions of its territory, becoming a city allied to Rome; as such, it furnished contingents to the Roman army, Roman exiles were permitted to live at Praeneste, which grew prosperous. The roses of Praeneste were a byword for beauty. Præneste was situated on the Via Labicana, its citizens were offered Roman citizenship in 90 BC in the Social War, when concessions had to be made by Rome to cement necessary alliances. In Sulla's second civil war, Gaius Marius the Younger was blockaded in the town by the forces of Sulla.
When the city was captured, Marius slew himself, the male inhabitants were massacred in cold blood, a military colony was settled on part of its territory. From an inscription it appears that Sulla delegated the foundation of the new colony to Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, consul in 73 BC. Within a decade the lands of the colonia had been assembled by a few large landowners. From the late Republic to the late Empire, baths, shrines and a second forum were built in the lower city, near today's Madonna dell'Aquila. Under the Empire the cool breezes of Praeneste made it a favorite summer resort of wealthy Romans, whose villas studded the neighborhood, though they ridiculed the language and the rough manners of the native inhabitants; the poet Horace ranked "cool Praeneste" with Baiae as favored resorts. The emperor Augustus stayed in Praeneste, Tiberius recovered there from a dangerous illness and made it a municipium; the emperor Marcus Aurelius was at Praeneste with his family. The ruins of the imperial villa associated with Hadrian stand in the plain near the church of S. Maria della Villa, about three-quarters of a mile from the town.
At the site was discovered the Braschi Antinous, now in the Vatican Museums. Pliny the Younger had a villa at Praeneste, L. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus retired there. Inscriptions show. Archaeologists working in the 1950s were able to identify the area around the Cathedral and the Piazza Regina Margherita as the Forum of Ancient Praeneste; the buildings of the forum comprised a central temple, whose walls were re-used for the cathedral, a two-storey civil basilica consisting of four naves separated by columns, once roofed but today an open space. The basilica was flanked by two buildings, the easternmost containing a raised podium and the public treasury, the aerarium, identified by an inscription dating it to ~150 BC. At some date, the buildings flanking the basilica were each embellished with a nymphaeum with a mosaic floor; the western mosaic represents a seascape: a temple of P
Heresy is any belief or theory, at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, blasphemy, an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things; the term is used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used of views opposed to any accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity and Islam. In certain historical Christian and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is met with censure ranging from excommunication to the death penalty; the term heresy, from Greek αἵρεσις meant "choice" or "thing chosen", but it came to mean the "party or school of a man's choice" and referred to that process whereby a young person would examine various philosophies to determine how to live.
The word "heresy" is used within a Christian, Jewish, or Islamic context, implies different meanings in each. The founder or leader of a heretical movement is called a heresiarch, while individuals who espouse heresy or commit heresy are known as heretics. Heresiology is the study of heresy. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him; the Greek for the phrase "divisive person" became a technical term in the early Church for a type of "heretic" who promoted dissension. In contrast correct teaching is called sound not only because it builds up the faith, but because it protects it against the corrupting influence of false teachers; the Church Fathers identified Judaism with heresy. They saw deviations from orthodox Christianity as heresies that were Jewish in spirit. Tertullian implied that it was the Jews who most inspired heresy in Christianity: "From the Jew the heretic has accepted guidance in this discussion " The use of the word "heresy" was given wide currency by Irenaeus in his 2nd century tract Contra Haereses to describe and discredit his opponents during the early centuries of the Christian community.
He described the community's beliefs and doctrines as orthodox and the Gnostics' teachings as heretical. He pointed out the concept of apostolic succession to support his arguments. Constantine the Great, who along with Licinius had decreed toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire by what is called the "Edict of Milan", was the first Roman Emperor baptized, set precedents for policy. By Roman law the Emperor was Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the College of Pontiffs of all recognized religions in ancient Rome. To put an end to the doctrinal debate initiated by Arius, Constantine called the first of what would afterwards be called the ecumenical councils and enforced orthodoxy by Imperial authority; the first known usage of the term in a legal context was in AD 380 by the Edict of Thessalonica of Theodosius I, which made Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire. Prior to the issuance of this edict, the Church had no state-sponsored support for any particular legal mechanism to counter what it perceived as "heresy".
By this edict the state's authority and that of the Church became somewhat overlapping. One of the outcomes of this blurring of Church and state was the sharing of state powers of legal enforcement with church authorities; this reinforcement of the Church's authority gave church leaders the power to, in effect, pronounce the death sentence upon those whom the church considered heretical. Within six years of the official criminalization of heresy by the Emperor, the first Christian heretic to be executed, was condemned in 386 by Roman secular officials for sorcery, put to death with four or five followers. However, his accusers were excommunicated both by Ambrose of Milan and Pope Siricius, who opposed Priscillian's heresy, but "believed capital punishment to be inappropriate at best and unequivocally evil"; the edict of Theodosius II provided severe punishments for those who had or spread writings of Nestorius. Those who possessed writings of Arius were sentenced to death. For some years after the Reformation, Protestant churches were known to execute those they considered heretics, including Catholics.
The last known heretic executed by sentence of the Catholic Church was Spanish schoolmaster Cayetano Ripoll in 1826. The number of people executed as heretics under the authority of the various "ecclesiastical authorities" is not known. In the Catholic Church and willful manifest heresy is considered to spiritually cut one off from the Church before excommunication is incurred; the Codex Justinianus defines "everyone, not devoted to the Catholic Church and to our Orthodox holy Faith" a heretic. The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Donatism and Montanism; the diffusion of the Manichaean sect of Paulicians westwards gave birth to the famous 11th and 12th century heresies of Western Europe. The first one was that of Bogomils in modern-day Bosnia, a sort of sanctuary between Eastern and Western Christianity. By the 11th century, more organised groups such as the Patarini, the Dulcinians, the Waldensians and the Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of northern Italy, southern France and Flanders.
In France the Cathars gr
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its membership is 222, as of 14 March 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy account for the increases in the size of the College. Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, the College itself; the total number of cardinals from 1099 to 1986 has been about 2,900, nearly half of whom were created after 1655. See also: External cardinal § HistoryThe word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge"; the office of cardinal as it is known today evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts".
At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, councils, etc. as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere and Missus Specialis. During the pontificate of Stephen V, the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday; the first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, the cardinal-bishops. The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX. In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed.
In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections. From the 13th to 15th centuries, the size of the College of Cardinals never exceeded thirty, although there were more than thirty parishes and diaconal districts which could have a titular holder. In the ensuing century, increasing the size of the College became a method for the pope to raise funds for construction or war, cultivate European alliances, dilute the strength of the College as a spiritual and political counterweight to papal supremacy; the conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the College to twenty, decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the College had dropped to 16. By the end of the 14th century, the practice of Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes; the most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him.
Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. The Council of Basel limited the size of the College to twenty-four, as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464; the capitulations of the 1484 and 1513 conclaves contained the same restriction. The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals; the Fifth Council of the Lateran, despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not speak to the size of the College. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. Paul IV brought the total to seventy, his immediate successor, Pope Pius IV, raised the limit to seventy-six. Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the College to his legates to the Council of Trent, some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the College.
By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1586, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, six cardinal-bishops. Popes respected that limit until Pope John XXIII increased the number of cardinals several times to a high of 88 in January 1961 and Pope Paul VI continued this expansion, reaching 134 at his third consistory in April 1969; the size of the College lost its significance when Paul decided to allow only cardinals under the age of 80 to vote in a conclave from 1971 onward. In 1975, Paul set the maximum number of those under 80, the cardinal electors, at 120, his next consistory in 1976 brought the number of cardinal electors to its full complement of 120. All three of Paul's successors have at times exceeded the 120 maximum. Pope John Paul II reiterated the 120 maximum in 1996, yet his appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 cardinal electors on 4 of his
Master of the Order of Preachers
The Master of the Order of Preachers is the leader of the Order of Preachers known as the Dominicans. The Master of the Order of Preachers is ex officio Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome, Italy. Fr. Bruno Cadoré is the current Master of the order, elected in 2010 at a General Chapter held in Rome
Charles II of Naples
Charles II known as Charles the Lame, was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier, Prince of Achaea, Count of Anjou and Maine. He was the son of Charles I of Anjou—one of the most powerful European monarchs in the second half of the 13th century—and Beatrice of Provence, his father granted Charles the Principality of Salerno in the Kingdom of Sicily in 1272 and made him regent in Provence and Forcalquier in 1279. After the riot known as the Sicilian Vespers against Charles' father, the island of Sicily became an independent kingdom under the rule of Peter III of Aragon in 1282. A year his father made Charles regent in the mainland territories of the Regno. Charles held a general assembly where unpopular taxes were abolished and the liberties of the noblemen and clerics were confirmed, he could not prevent the Aragonese from occupying the islands in the Gulf of Naples. The Sicilian admiral, Roger of Lauria, captured him in a naval battle near Naples in 1284. For he was still in prison when his father died on 7 January 1285, his realms were ruled by regents.
Born in 1254, Charles was the son of Charles I of Beatrice of Provence. He was the sole heir of his father's vast dominion. By the time of Charles' birth, his father had seized Provence and Forcalquier and Maine, the Kingdom of Sicily. In the 1270s, his father proclaimed himself King of Albania asserted his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, inherited Achaea. Charles' mother died in 1267, but his father's determination to keep his empire intact deprived Charles of his maternal inheritance during his father's lifetime. Charles I arranged a double marriage alliance with Stephen V of Hungary in 1269. Stephen's daughter, Maria was engaged to Charles, Charles' sister, Isabelle to Maria's brother, Ladislaus. Charles fell ill in late 1271. To encourage prayers for his recovery, his father donated Charles' wax sculptures to churches frequented by pilgrims in the whole kingdom. After Charles recovered, his father made a pilgrimage at the shrine of Saint Nicholas in Bari and sent gifts to the sanctuary of Mary the Virgin at Rocamadour.
Charles was knighted together with his brother, 100 Italian and French young noblemen at Pentecost 1272. On this occasion, his father granted him the Principality of Salerno, which had customarily been held by the crown princes during the reign of the Norman kings of Sicily; the king stipulated that Charles could not claim other territories, most in reference to Provence. His father appointed him to administer Provence in late 1279, he accompanied his cousin, Philip III of France, to a meeting with Peter III of Aragon at Toulouse in December 1280. Peter was the son-in-law of Manfred of Sicily who had lost the Kingdom of Sicily to Charles' father in 1266. Peter insolently ignored Charles during the meeting, although both Philip III and James II of Majorca, present, reminded Peter that Charles was related to him. Y no means could find a cheerful countenance nor any comfort in.... And took into a chamber one day and asked him how it was that he did not speak with, but though there were many ties between them, they could obtain nothing from him in the end.
And invited, to a banquet, but would not accept it, wherefore the banquet had to be given up. But showed great civility to and to him, and so, on their departure from the interview, left with and saw them both enter Perpignan, a great feast was made for them, detained for eight days. The envoys of Charles' father with the representatives of Rudolf I of Germany and the Holy See started negotiations about the restoration of the Kingdom of Arles in 1278, they reached a compromise, that Pope Martin IV included in a papal bull on 24 May 1281. The bull prescribed that the kingdom, which should include the Dauphiné, Savoy and the nearby territories, was to be given to Charles' son, Charles Martel, on the day of his marriage with Rudolf's daughter, Clemence. Charles was appointed regent for his minor son. Heavy taxation, forced loans and purveyance caused widespread discontent among Charles I's Italian subjects in the island of Sicily. A French soldier's arrogance caused a popular riot—known as the Sicilian Vespers—in Palermo on 30 March 1282.
The riot spread and put an end to Charles I's rule in the island. Peter III of Aragon came to Sicily accompanied by a large fleet in late August, he was proclaimed king on 4 September. Charles I and Peter III agreed. Before leaving for France in January 1283, Charles I appointed Charles and Charles' cousin, Robert II, Count of Artois, co-regents, he authorized them to take measures, after consulting with the papal legate, Gerard of Parma, to prevent the spread of the rebellion to the mainland territories. Charles and his troops left Reggio Calabria and marched as far as San Martino di Taurianova—an defensible town—on
Philip IV of France
Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King, his fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither beast. He is a statue."Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his nobles. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages, his ambitions made him influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Hungary, he failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor.
He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs. The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with the English over King Edward I's fiefs in southwestern France, a war with the Flemish, who had rebelled against French royal authority and humiliated Philip at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. In 1306, Philip expelled the Jews from France, in 1307 he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar, he was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state". To further strengthen the monarchy, Philip tried to take control of the French clergy, leading to a violent conflict with Pope Boniface VIII; this conflict resulted in the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309. His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle affair, in which Philip's three daughters-in-law were accused of adultery, his three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV. Their deaths without surviving sons of their own would compromise the future of the French royal house, which until seemed secure, precipitating a succession crisis that would lead to the Hundred Years' War.
A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the medieval fortress of Fontainebleau to the future Philip III, the Bold, his first wife, Isabella of Aragon. He was the second of four sons born to the couple, his father was the heir apparent of France at that time, being the eldest son of King Louis IX. In August 1270, when Philip was two years old, his grandfather died while on Crusade, his father became king, his elder brother Louis became heir apparent. Only five months in January 1271, Philip's mother died after falling from a horse. A few months one of Philip's younger brothers, Robert died. Philip's father was crowned king at Rheims on 15 August 1271. Six days he married again. In May 1276, Philip's elder brother Louis died, the eight year old Philip became heir apparent, it was suspected that Louis had been poisoned, that his stepmother, Marie of Brabant, had instigated the murder. One reason for these rumours was the fact that the queen had given birth to her own first son the month Louis died.
However, both Philip and his surviving full brother Charles lived well into adulthood and raised large families of their own. The scholastic part of Philip's education was entrusted to his father's almoner. After the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade against Peter III of Aragon, which ended in October 1285, Philip may have negotiated an agreement with Peter for the safe withdrawal of the Crusader army; this pact is attested to by Catalan chroniclers. Joseph Strayer points out that such a deal was unnecessary, as Peter had little to gain from provoking a battle with the withdrawing French or angering the young Philip, who had friendly relations with Aragon through his mother. Philip married Queen Joan I of Navarre on 16 August 1284; the two were affectionate and devoted to each other and Philip refused to remarry after Joan's death in 1305, despite the great political and financial rewards of doing so. The primary administrative benefit of the marriage was Joan's inheritance of Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France, thus were united to the king's own lands, expanding his realm.
The annexation of wealthy Champagne increased the royal revenues removed the autonomy of a large semi-independent fief and expanded royal territory eastward. Philip gained Lyon for France in 1312. Navarre remained in personal union with France, beginning in 1284 under Philip and Joan, for 44 years; the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees had a degree of strategic importance. When in 1328 the Capetian line went extinct, the new Valois king, Philip VI, attempted to permanently annex the lands to France, compensating the lawful claimant, Joan II of Navarre, senior heir of Philip IV, with lands elsewhere in France. However, pressure from Joan II's family led to Phillip VI surrendering the land to Joan in 1329, the rulers of Navarre and France were again different individuals. After marrying Joan I of Navarre, becoming Philip I of Navarre, Philip ascended the French throne at the age of 17, he was crowned in 1286 in Reims. As king, Philip was determined to strength