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Pope Paul IV

Pope Paul IV, C. R. born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559. While serving as papal nuncio in Spain, he developed an anti-Spanish outlook that coloured his papacy. A part of the Papal States was invaded by Spain during his papacy and in response to this, he called for a French military intervention. To avoid a conflict at the same time of the Italian War of 1551–1559, the Papacy and Spain reached a compromise with the Treaty of Cave: French and Spanish forces left the Papal States and the Pope adopted a neutral stance between France and Spain. Carafa was appointed bishop of Chieti, but resigned in 1524 in order to found with St. Cajetan the Congregation of Clerics Regular. Recalled to Rome, made Archbishop of Naples, he was instrumental in setting up the Roman Inquisition, was opposed to any dialogue with the emerging Protestant party in Europe. Carafa was elected pope in 1555 through the influence of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in the face of opposition from Emperor Charles V.

His papacy was characterized by strong nationalism in reaction to the influence of Philip II of Spain and the Habsburgs. He compelled the Jews of Rome to confine themselves to a ghetto; the appointment of Carlo Carafa as Cardinal Nephew damaged the papacy further when Paul was forced to remove him from office following a scandal. He curbed many clerical abuses in Rome. Paul IV had some hundred of the Marranos of Ancona thrown into prison. Paul IV may he considered the instigator of one of the most wretched periods in the history of the Jews in Italy – the period of the ghettos, which dragged on for three centuries. Gian Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples, his father Giovanni Antonio Carafa died in West Flanders in 1516 and his mother Vittoria Camponeschi was the daughter of Pietro Lalle Camponeschi, 5th Conte di Montorio, a Neapolitan nobleman, wife Dona Maria de Noronha, a Portuguese noblewoman of the House of Pereira. He was mentored by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, his relative, who resigned the see of Chieti in his favour.

Under the direction of Pope Leo X, he was ambassador to England and papal nuncio in Spain, where he conceived a violent detestation of Spanish rule that affected the policies of his papacy. However, in 1524, Pope Clement VII allowed Carafa to resign his benefices and join the ascetic and newly founded Congregation of Clerks Regular, popularly called the Theatines, after Carafa's see of Theate. Following the sack of Rome in 1527, the order moved to Venice, but Carafa was recalled to Rome by the reform-minded Pope Paul III, to sit on a committee of reform of the papal court, an appointment that forecast an end to a humanist papacy and a revival of scholasticism, for Carafa was a thorough disciple of Thomas Aquinas. In December 1536 he was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio and Archbishop of Naples; the Regensburg Colloquy in 1541 failed to achieve any measure of reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants in Europe, but instead saw a number of prominent Italians defect to the Protestant camp.

In response, Carafa was able to persuade Pope Paul III to set up a Roman Inquisition, modelled on the Spanish Inquisition with himself as one of the Inquisitors-General. The Papal Bull was promulgated in 1542 and Carafa vowed, "Even if my own father were a heretic, I would gather the wood to burn him", he was a surprise choice as pope to succeed Pope Marcellus II. He accepted because Emperor Charles V was opposed to his accession; as pope his nationalism was a driving force. Like Pope Paul III, he was an enemy of the Colonna family, his treatment of Giovanna d'Aragona, who had married into that family, drew further negative comment from Venice. This because she had long been a patron of writers. Paul IV was displeased at the French signing a five-year truce with Spain in February 1556 and urged King Henry II to join the Papal States in an invasion of Spanish Naples. On 1 September 1556, King Philip II responded by preemptively invading the Papal States with 12,000 men under the Duke of Alba, but French forces approaching from the north were defeated and forced to withdraw at Civitella in August 1557.

The Papal armies were left exposed and were defeated, with Spanish troops arriving at the edge of Rome. Out of fear of another sack of Rome, Paul IV agreed to the Duke of Alba's demand for the Papal States to declare neutrality. Emperor Charles V criticized the peace agreement as being overly generous to the Pope; as Cardinal-nephew, Carlo Carafa became his uncle's chief political adviser. Having accepted a pension from the French, Cardinal Carafa worked to secure a French alliance. Carlo's older brother Giovanni was made commander of the papal forces and Duke of Paliano after the pro-Spanish Colonna were deprived of that town in 1556. Another nephew, was given command of the Papal guard and made Marquis of Montebello, their conduct became notorious in Rome. However at the conclusion of the disastrous war with Philip II of Spain in the Italian War of 1551–59 and after many scandals, in 1559 the Pope publicly disgraced his nephews and banished them from Rome. With the Protestant Reformation, the Papacy required all Roman Catholic rulers to consider Protestant

Germany–Ukraine relations

Germany–Ukraine relations are foreign relations between Germany and Ukraine. Diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Germany were established in 1918 as between Ukrainian People's Republic and German Empire, but were discontinued soon thereafter due to occupation of Ukraine by the Red Army. Current relations were resumed in 1989 at a consulate level, in 1992 as full-scale diplomatic mission. 1918 - In the aftermath of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, German troops provided military assistance to Ukraine against the Soviet Russia. 1941-1944 - German troops occupy most of Soviet Ukraine and portioning between General Government and Reichskommissariat Ukraine. 1944-1950s - surviving OUN leaders find refuge in the US occupation zone of Germany, which becomes home to many Ukrainian displaced persons 1953 - Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty starts its operations in Munich, broadcasting to Ukraine in Ukrainian 1959 - Stepan Bandera killed in Munich by a Soviet agent 2011 - the Nord Stream makes Ukraine economically vulnerable 2014 - EU sanctions against Russia.

Germany belongs to the Normandy format. 2018 - the planned Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from Russia to Germany was opposed by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. Germany has 1 Consulate-General in Donetsk. Ukraine has an embassy in Berlin and 3 Consulates-General in Frankfurt and Munich. Germany1917-18 Alfons Mumm von Schwarzenstein 1918-19 Johannes Graf von BerchemUkraine1918-18 Oleksandr Sevriuk 1918-18 Omelian Koziy 1918-18 Teodor Shteingel 1918-20 Mykola Porsh 1921-23 Roman Smal-Stocki 1923-23 Nikolaus von Wassilko Soviets 1921-23 Voldemar Aussem Ukrainian diaspora Cold War II German Foreign Ministry about relations with Ukraine German embassy in Kiev Ukrainian embassy in Berlin

Suzanne Farrell Ballet

The Suzanne Farrell Ballet is a ballet company housed at the Kennedy Center, Washington, D. C. and founded in 2000 by Suzanne Farrell, one of George Balanchine's most celebrated ballerinas, a former New York City Ballet principal dancer. Until 2017, the Suzanne Farrell Ballet was a full-fledged company produced by the Kennedy Center and had performed there since 1999 in addition to presenting extensive national and international tours. In September 2016, the Center announced that the company would be disbanding at the end of 2017, citing "possibilities of new expansion" and indicating that Farrell would return to "full-time teaching." In 1993 and 1994, the Kennedy Center offered two series of ballet master classes for students with Farrell. In 1995, the Center expanded the program to a national level; this three weeks long yearly initiative of intense study grew into a full-fledged program, Exploring Ballet with Suzanne Farrell. Students from the Exploring Ballet program have started to join the ranks of the Suzanne Farrell Ballet.

The company made its debut in the fall of 1999 during the Kennedy Center's Balanchine Celebration, performing Divertimento No. 15. In the fall of 1999, Ms. Farrell received critical acclaim for the successful Kennedy Center engagement and East Coast tour of Suzanne Farrell Stages the Masters of 20th Century Ballet. Following the Kennedy Center's debut, the newly named Suzanne Farrell Ballet, a group of professional dancers hand selected by Ms. Farrell; the Suzanne Farrell Ballet opened the Kennedy Center's ballet season in the fall of 2001 with nearly two weeks of performances in the Eisenhower Theater – featuring no less than six company premieres. The company was again seen at the Kennedy Center in the fall of 2002, among other works, company premieres of Balanchine's Chaconne, Raymonda Variations, Who Cares?, Canadian choreographer Anthony Morgan's A Farewell to Music. Following an extensive Fall 2003 U. S. tour that, for the first time, took them to the West Coast, the company opened the Kennedy Center's 2003–2004 ballet season with a full week of performances in the Eisenhower Theater.

The week included performances of Mozartiana, Tchaikovsky's Pas de Deux and Tempo di Vals from George Balanchine's The Nutcracker, as part of the 2003 Kennedy Center Tchaikovsky Festival, plus The Balanchine Couple. In June 2005 the company collaborated with the National Ballet of Canada to present the first staging of Balanchine's Don Quixote in more than 25 years; the evening-length ballet was created by George Balanchine for Suzanne Farrell. The Suzanne Farrell Ballet kicked off the 2005–2006 ballet season at the Kennedy Center with an all Balanchine program featuring Duo Concertant, La Source, La Valse and the Contrapuntal Blues pas de deux from Clarinade. In the summer of 2006 the company performed at Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival as well as at the Edinburgh International Festival with the European premiere of Balanchine's Don Quixote; the company returns to the Kennedy Center Opera House in June 2007 with two programs, which include Balanchine's Scotch Symphony, Slaughter on Tenth Avenue, Mozartiana, Béjart's Scène d'amour from Romeo and Juliet, as well as the Washington, D.

C. premieres of two newly re-staged works which have not been seen in forty years: Balanchine's Divertimento Brillante and the Adagio from Concierto de Mozart. Committed to carrying forth the legacy of George Balanchine through performances of his classic ballets, The Suzanne Farrell Ballet announced the formal creation of the Balanchine Preservation Initiative in February 2007; this initiative serves to introduce seen or "lost" Balanchine works to audiences around the world. Many of these works have not been performed in nearly forty years; the Initiative is produced with the cooperation of The George Balanchine Trust. To date, the Company's repertoire includes ten Balanchine Preservation Initiative Ballets. In November 2007, the Company launched an Artistic Partnership outreach program. Showcasing her teaching gifts Suzanne Farrell brought together her Company and Cincinnati Ballet, a nationally recognized company from her hometown, to present Chaconne. In 2008, the company presented Episodes.

In 2011, the company will partner with The Sarasota Ballet to present Diamonds in Washington, DC ], Sarasota, FL, Clearwater, FL. The mission of this initiative is to salute and galvanize ballet companies throughout the United States. In June 2010, the Company traveled to Sofia, Bulgaria, to perform Agon in a shared evening with the National Ballet of Bulgaria in a program titled "Balanchine and Farrell: American Ballet for Bulgaria" presented by Cultural Bridges Association; this trip marks the Company's second international appearance. In October 2011, The Suzanne Farrell Ballet celebrates 10 years of annual engagements at the Kennedy Center; as a part of the anniversary celebration the Company will travel to New York City for a week of performances at The Joyce Theater followed by touring to The Lied Center of Kansas, the Van Wezel Performing Arts Hall in Sarasota Florida with The Sarasota Ballet, the Ruth Eckerd Hall in Clearwater Florida with The Sarasota Ballet followed by a spring tour that starts with a Florida State University Residency with performances at the Seven Days of Opening Nights Festival, the Van Wezel Performing Arts Hall in Burlington Vermont, the Lyndon Institute Auditorium in Lyndon Vermont..

For the 2012 – 2013 season The Suzanne Farrell Ballet began with an October residency at Florida State University followed by performances at the VelocityDC Dance Festival in Washington DC and at the Millennium Stage at t

CervecerĂ­a Centro Americana

Cervecería Centro Americana Sociedad Anónima is a Guatemalan brewery based in Guatemala City, Guatemala. It was founded by his brother, Rafael Castillo Córdova. Gallo is a 5% abv pale lager, it is Guatemala's oldest continually produced beer, dating back to 1896. It is the most famous beer in the country, has become part of Guatemalan popular culture, it is sold in 350 ml aluminum cans, 355 ml returnable bottles, 355 ml non-returnable bottles, 1-liter returnable bottles. In recent years Gallo has been exported to other Central American countries, Mexico and the United States, it is sold under the name Famosa in the latter two. The label's design features a cockerel. Gallo has received several international certifications, including the gold medal certification "Monde Selection" from Belgium, in recognition for its outstanding quality; the brewery claims to have received the "Prestige Award" and claims to be the only 2 breweries in the Americas to have received it. Gallo Light is a light beer, the first and only one in the Guatemalan market, with low calories and a 4.2% alcohol content.

Victoria is a pale lager with a 5% alcohol content by volume. Victoria was launched, in a 12-U. S.-fluid-ounce canned format, in the western part of Guatemala in 1996. It proved successful, expansion into the rest of the nation's territory began shortly afterwards. Chopp Gallo, Dorada Ice, Dorada Draft, Monte Carlo, Malta Official web site Redict Site Cervecería Centroamericana, S. A. Cerveza Gallo Cerveza Dorada Ice Conéctate Con tu Chela

The Last Chance (1945 film)

The Last Chance is a 1945 Swiss war film directed by Leopold Lindtberg. It won the Grand Prize of the Festival; the film was selected for screening as part of the Cannes Classics section at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival. In 1943, the Allies have landed in southern Italy, so Allied prisoners of war are transported north by train; when the train is bombed from the air at night, some of the prisoners escape. Englishman Lieutenant Halliday and American Sergeant Braddock stumble across each other in the dark and team up; the next day, they are given a ride in a cart carrying sacks of wheat. The driver manages to talk Italian soldiers out of inspecting his cargo, before letting his passengers off in the countryside; when they reach a river, they split up to search for a boat. The Englishman encounters a pretty young woman washing clothes; the two men get a boat and start rowing, but the woman runs up and tells them that an armistice has been signed, so they turn around. They head to town, but it is strangely quiet, nobody is in the streets celebrating.

The Germans arrive and take over. The woman's uncle gives the two men civilian clothes and recommends they try to sneak aboard a freight train, which they do. At one stop, they watch helplessly as a woman is separated from her husband, taken away with others by train by the Germans. Afterward, they head into the mountains, they encounter a band of partisans. One of the Italians warns them not to endanger the people in the town; the pair go to the church. Refugees return from trying to cross the mountains, driven back by a snow storm; the priest introduces him to Giuseppe, the guide. He promises to try to get the entire party, along with the new additions, across tomorrow, he points out a Polish tailor and his niece, a factory worker from Belgrade, a professor more concerned about his papers than his own life, Frenchwoman Madame Monnier. As Halliday is leaving, Frau Wittels and her son Bernard arrive to join the group. Hiding in the church is British Major Telford, he persuades Halliday and Braddock to stick around and join the partisans.

A radio broadcast announces that Il Duce, the deposed Italian fascist leader, has been freed by the Germans. A disgruntled former fascist heads to the valley to betray the refugees; that night, shooting is heard coming from the bridge. The people seek the priest for advice, he leave the children and old people in his charge. The priest persuades the three soldiers to lead the refugees to Giuseppe. After they are gone, the fascist informant reluctantly tells the priest that he has to take him to the Germans; when the refugees reach Giuseppe's village, they find. Giuseppe's mother tells them her son. Another villager asks the soldiers to take some orphans with them too. Reluctantly, the major agrees; the group head up into the mountains during a snowstorm. The aged tailor cannot keep up; the others find shelter in a mountain rescue hut. When the storm ends, a German patrol appears; the soldiers have orders to close the frontier, so they bypass the hut. Halliday proposes he create a diversion, using the major's pistol.

Instead, the entire party set out at night. They have to hide. Bernard draws the Germans away, though he is shot dead; the others make it into Switzerland. A Swiss officer informs them that people over 65 and political refugees can remain, he manages to get authority from the government to let everyone stay. In the final scene, they attend Halliday's funeral; as listed in opening credits: Ewart G. Morrison as Major Telford John Hoy as Lieutenant John Halliday Ray Reagan as Sergeant Jim Braddock Luisa Rossi as Tonina Odeardo Mosini as An Innkeeper Giuseppe Galeati as A Carrier Romano Calò as Priest Leopold Biberti as A Swiss lieutenant Therese Giehse as Frau Wittels Robert Schwarz as Bernard, her sonOther: Tino Erler as Muzio Sigfrit Steiner as Military Doctor Emil Gerber as Frontier Guard Germaine Tournier as Mme. Monnier M. Sakhnowsky as Hillel Sokolowski Berthe Sakhnowsky as Chanele Rudolf Kamft as Professor Jean Martin as Dutchman Gertrudten Cate as Dutchwoman Carlo Romatko as Yugoslav Worker Bosley Crowther, film critic of The New York Times, praised The Last Chance, describing it as "a vivid and honest film" and "a tense, exciting drama based on documented facts."

The Last Chance on IMDb The Last Chance is available for free download at the Internet Archive

Ariaal people

The Ariaal are northern Kenyan pastoralists. They claim descent from cattle-owning Samburu who captured significant herds of camels and learned how to manage them from their eastern neighbours, the Rendille; this led them to adopt the Rendille culture and other Rendille practices, such as monogamy. Before Kenya independence, the separation between the cattle and camel economies was vividly reflected in the division between an Ariaal elder’s senior wife, whose family would be reared as Ariaal, his junior wives who lived with his cattle as Samburu. In effect, such elders continued to straddle the boundary between monogamous camel-owning Ariaal and polygynous cattle-owning Samburu, speaking both languages and participating in both cultures. An Ariaal person killing a lion is respected, they have been the subject of much study by anthropologists Elliot Fratkin. More recent work has been conducted by Bettina Shell-Duncan, Benjamin Campbell and their respective students. An article in the New York Times reports on research for which the evolution of the societal patterns of the Ariaal people into two subgroups seems to provide a rather unusual intersection for the study of genetics and behavior.

The researcher, Dan T. A. Eisenberg, a University of Washington anthropologist, is reported to be studying genetic variation of a Dopamine type 4 receptor and finding correlated differences between the genetic variation and the chosen lifestyle of a given Ariaal subgroup. Eisenberg's research builds on a growing number of studies connecting the status of an individual's dopamine receptors and an ADHD diagnosis, is presented in this article in the context of the proliferation of ADHD diagnoses in Western society, as one key new body of research exploring whether ADHD is more functional than is recognized, a distinctive but functional phenomenon that has significant evolutionary roots in terms of having predisposed survival at a time when a hunter's instinct was aided by a certain restlessness; the research into the Ariaal subgroup differences seems to have suggestive implications supportive of a nonpathologizing view that what "ADHD" signifies is an individual's suitedness to a different kind of environment than the one the individual finds him/herself in