Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464. He was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a impoverished family, his longest and most enduring work is the story of his life, the Commentaries, the only revealed autobiography to have been written by a reigning pope. Aeneas was born to Silvio, a soldier and member of the House of Piccolomini, Vittoria Forteguerri, who had 18 children including several twins, though most died at a young age, he worked with his father in the fields for some years and at age 18 left to study at the universities of Siena and Florence. He settled in the former city as a teacher, but in 1431 accepted the post of secretary to Domenico Capranica, bishop of Fermo on his way to the Council of Basel. Capranica was protesting against the new Pope Eugene IV's refusal of a cardinalate for him, designated by Pope Martin V. Arriving at Basel after enduring a stormy voyage to Genoa and a trip across the Alps, he successively served Capranica, who ran short of money, other masters.
In 1435 he was sent by Cardinal Albergati, Eugenius IV's legate at the council, on a secret mission to Scotland, the object of, variously related by himself. He visited England as well as Scotland, underwent many perils and vicissitudes in both countries, left an account of each; the journey to Scotland proved so tempestuous that Piccolomini swore that he would walk barefoot to the nearest shrine of Our Lady from their landing port. This proved to be Dunbar; the journey through the ice and snow left Aeneas afflicted with pain in his legs for the rest of his life. Only when he arrived at Newcastle, did he feel that he had returned to "a civilised part of the world and the inhabitable face of the Earth", Scotland and the far north of England being "wild and never visited by the sun in winter". In Scotland, he fathered a child. Upon his return to Basel, Aeneas sided with the council in its conflict with the Pope, although still a layman obtained a share in the direction of its affairs, he participated in his coronation.
Aeneas was sent to Strasbourg where he fathered a child with a Breton woman called Elizabeth. The baby died 14 months later, he withdrew to the court of Holy Roman Emperor Emperor Frederick III in Vienna. He had been crowned imperial poet laureate in 1442, he obtained the patronage of the emperor's chancellor, Kaspar Schlick; some identify the love adventure at Siena that Aeneas related in his romance The Tale of the Two Lovers with an escapade of the chancellor. Aeneas' character had hitherto been that of an easy and democratic-minded man of the world with no pretense to strictness in morals or consistency in politics, he now began to be more regular in the former respect, in the latter adopted a decided line by making his peace between the Empire and Rome. Being sent on a mission to Rome in 1445, with the ostensible object of inducing Pope Eugene to convoke a new council, he was absolved from ecclesiastical censures and returned to Germany under an engagement to assist the Pope; this he did most effectually by the diplomatic dexterity with which he smoothed away differences between the papal court of Rome and the German imperial electors.
He played a leading role in concluding a compromise in 1447 by which the dying Pope Eugene accepted the reconciliation tendered by the German princes. As a result, the council and the antipope were left without support, he had taken orders, one of the first acts of Pope Eugene's successor, Pope Nicholas V, was to make him Bishop of Trieste. He served as Bishop of Siena. In 1450 Aeneas was sent as ambassador by the Emperor Frederick III to negotiate his marriage with Princess Eleonore of Portugal. In 1451 he undertook a mission to Bohemia and concluded a satisfactory arrangement with the Hussite leader George of Poděbrady. In 1452 he accompanied Frederick to Rome, where Frederick wedded Eleanor and was crowned emperor by the pope. In August 1455 Aeneas again arrived in Rome on an embassy to proffer the obedience of Germany to the new pope, Calixtus III, he brought strong recommendations from Frederick and Ladislaus V of Hungary for his nomination to the cardinalate, but delays arose from the Pope's resolution to promote his own nephews first, he did not attain the object of his ambition until December of the following year.
He did acquire temporarily the bishopric of Warmia. Calixtus III died on 6 August 1458. On 10 August, the cardinals entered into a papal conclave. According to Aeneas' account, the wealthy cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville of Rouen, though a Frenchman and of exceptionable character, seemed certain to be elected. In a passage of his own history of his times, long excerpted from that work and printed clandestinely in the Conclavi de' Pontifici Romani, Aeneas explained how he frustrated the ambitions of d'Estouteville, it seemed appropriate to Aeneas that the election should fall upon himself: although the sacred college included a few men of higher moral standards, he believed that his abilities made him most worthy of the papal tiara. It was the peculiar faculty of Aeneas to accommodate himself to whatever position he might be called upon to occupy, he now believed that he could exploit this adaptability to assume the papacy with appropriate success and personal character. After a minimum of intrigue among the cardinals, he was able to secure enough votes for his candidacy after the
Orthovoltage x-rays are produced by x-ray tubes operating at voltages in the 100–500 kV range, therefore the x-rays have a peak energy in the 100–500 keV range. Orthovoltage X-rays are sometimes termed "deep" x-rays, they cover the upper limit of energies used for diagnostic radiography, are used in external beam radiotherapy to treat cancer and tumors. They penetrate tissue to a useful depth of about 4–6 cm; this makes them useful for treating skin, superficial tissues, ribs, but not for deeper structures such as lungs or pelvic organs. The energy and penetrating ability of the x-rays produced by an x-ray tube increases with the voltage on the tube. External beam radiotherapy began around the turn of the 20th century with ordinary diagnostic x-ray tubes, which used voltages below 150 kV. Physicians found that these were adequate for treating superficial tumors, but not tumors inside the body. Since these low energy x-rays were absorbed in the first few centimeters of tissue, to deliver a large enough radiation dose to buried tumors would cause severe skin burns.
Therefore beginning in the 1920s "orthovoltage" 200–500 kV x-ray machines were built. These were found to be able to reach shallow tumors, but to treat tumors deep in the body more voltage was needed. By the 1930s and 1940s megavoltage X-rays produced by huge machines with 3-5 million volts on the tube, began to be employed. With the introduction of linear accelerators in the 1970s, which could produce 4-30 MV beams, orthovoltage x-rays are now considered quite shallow. Megavoltage X-rays
Wilhelm Ludwig Ferdinand Stumpf was a German landscape/portrait painter and illustrator. He was the son of Gustav Stumpf. From 1884 to 1889, he attended the König-Albert-Gymnasium in Leipzig, he attended the art academies in Leipzig and Munich, where he specialized in landscape and portrait painting. In Munich he studied under Karl Raupp, Paul Hoecker and Heinrich von Zügel, his style of painting was, therefore influenced by Impressionism. From 1898 to 1899 he attended the art school at Burghausen. In 1904 he married a painter from Magdeburg, they lived in Wolfratshausen at first from 1908 to 1910, in Regenstauf. From 1900 to 1922 he exhibited at the Munich Glaspalast. In that year, he won the Silver Medal for decorative design at the Leipzig Art Exhibition. In addition to his paintings, he produced woodcuts and book illustrations. During the First World War, he served as a war correspondent and illustrator for the German campaign in the Vosges; this was not only psychologically damaging as well. After the war and his wife moved to the Oberallgäu district, settling in Oberstaufen, where he stayed at a rehabilitation center, hoping to recuperate his strength and peace of mind.
The hyperinflation of the 1920s wiped out his savings and he was in little demand as an artist. As a result, he fell into committed suicide. In 2009, a memorial exhibition was presented in Oberstaufen, accompanied by the first comprehensive catalog of his works. Ingrid Huober, Monika Gauss, Anne Marie Mörler: Wilhelm Stumpf 1873-1926. Gedächtnisausstellung im Färberhaus Oberstaufen 2009. Herausgegeben vom Künstlerkreis Oberstaufen, Oberstaufen 2009. Gunther le Maire: Ein Weimarer hofft auf Heilung im Allgäu. Kunstgeschichte 49: Wilhelm Stumpf. In: Allgäuer Anzeigenblatt. Oberallgäu-Kultur, Nr. 70, 24 March 2007. Rosemarie Schwesinger: Das tragische Ende eines Heilung-Suchenden. In: Allgäuer-Anzeigenblatt. Oberallgäu-Kultur, Nr. 219 23 September 2009. Galerie Remise: Paintings by Wilhelm Stumpf Wilhelm Stumpf: Vorfrühling im Gebirge on Artnet Wilhelm Stumpf: Winters Ende in Kitzbühel on Artnet Wilhelm Stumpf Auctions Letzte Jahre in Oberstaufen