SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pope Pius IX

Pope Pius IX was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope. During his pontificate, Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council, which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States. Europe, including the Italian peninsula, was in the midst of considerable political ferment when the bishop of Imola, Giovanni Maria Cardinal Mastai Ferretti, was elected pope, he took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the long-suffering prisoner of Napoleon, Pius VII. He had been elected by the faction of cardinals sympathetic to the political liberalization coursing across Europe, his initial governance of the Papal States gives evidence of his own moderate sympathies. A series of terrorist acts sponsored by Italian liberals and nationalists, which included the assassination of his Minister of the Interior, Pellegrino Rossi, which forced Pius himself to flee Rome in 1848, along with widespread revolutions in Europe, led to his growing skepticism towards the liberal, nationalist agenda.

Through the 1850s and 1860s, Italian nationalists made military gains against the Papal States, which culminated in the seizure of the city of Rome in 1870 and the dissolution of the Papal States. Thereafter, Pius IX refused to accept the Law of Guarantees from the Italian government, which would have made the Holy See dependent on legislation that the Italian parliament could modify at any time. Pius refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican", his ecclesiastical policies towards other countries, such as Russia, Germany or France, were not always successful, owing in part to changing secular institutions and internal developments within these countries. However, concordats were concluded with numerous states such as Austria-Hungary, Spain, Tuscany, Venezuela, Honduras, El Salvador, Haiti. In his encyclical Ubi primum he emphasized Mary's role in salvation. In 1854, he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, articulating a long-held Catholic belief that Mary, the Mother of God, was conceived without original sin.

He conferred the title Our Mother of Perpetual Help on a famous Byzantine icon from Crete entrusted to the Redemptorists. In 1862, he convened 300 bishops to the Vatican for the canonization of Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan, his 1864 Syllabus of Errors stands as a strong condemnation against liberalism, moral relativism and separation of church and state. Pius definitively reaffirmed Catholic teaching in favor of the establishment of the Catholic faith as the state religion in nations where the majority of the population is Catholic. However, his most important legacy is the First Vatican Council, convened in 1869, which defined the dogma of papal infallibility, but was interrupted as Italian nationalist troops threatened Rome; the council is considered to have contributed to a centralization of the church in the Vatican, while clearly defining the Pope's doctrinal authority. Many recent ecclesiastical historians and journalists question his approaches, his appeal for public worldwide support of the Holy See after he became "the prisoner of the Vatican" resulted in the revival and spread to the whole Catholic Church of Peter's Pence, used today to enable the Pope "to respond to those who are suffering as a result of war, natural disaster, disease".

After his death in 1878, his canonization process was opened on 11 February 1907 by Pope Pius X, it drew considerable controversy over the years. It was closed on several occasions during the pontificates of Pope Benedict XV and Pope Pius XI. Pope Pius XII re-opened the cause on 7 December 1954, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him Venerable on 6 July 1985 and beatified him on 3 September 2000. Pius IX was assigned the liturgical feast day of the date of his death. Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti was born on 13 May 1792 in Senigallia, he was the ninth child born into the noble family of Girolamo dei conti Ferretti, was baptized on the same day of his birth with the name of Giovanni Maria Battista Pietro Pellegrino Isidoro. He was educated in Rome; as a young man in the Guardia Nobile the young Count Mastai was engaged to be married to an Irishwoman, Miss Foster, arrangements were made for the wedding to take place in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi. Mastai's parents opposed the marriage and, in the event, he did not appear at the church on the appointed day.

As a theology student in his hometown Sinigaglia, in 1814 he met Pope Pius VII, who had returned from French captivity. In 1815, he was soon dismissed after an epileptic seizure, he threw himself at the feet of Pius VII, who elevated him and supported his continued theological studies. The pope insisted that another priest should assist Mastai during Holy Mass, a stipulation, rescinded, after the seizure attacks became less frequent. Mastai was ordained a priest on 10 April 1819, he worked as the rector of the Tata Giovanni Institute in Rome. Shortly before his death, Pius VII sent him as Auditor to Chile and Peru in 1823 and 1825 to assist the Apostolic Nuncio, Monsignore Giovanni Muzi and Monsignore Bradley Kane, in the first mission to post-revolutionary South America; the mission had the objective to map out the role of the Catholic Church in the newly independent South American republics. He was thus the first pope to have been in America; when he returned to Rome, the successor of Pius VII, Pope Leo

Simon Miotto

Simon Jon Miotto is an Australian footballer. He was last contracted to Tranmere Rovers as a goalkeeper, where he was goalkeeper coach. Born in Launceston, Miotto is an Education graduate from the University of Canberra, he was a promising track and field athlete and was part of the national training programme at the Australian Institute of Sport. As a triple jumper he attained a high national ranking and was regarded as a potential Olympian for 1992, but in 1990 he suffered an injury that led to him playing football as a goalkeeper, beginning his career in 1994 with Riverside Olympic. In 1994, he was signed by Blackpool manager Sam Allardyce, he spent one season at Bloomfield Road. He returned to Blackpool under manager Gary Megson 18 months later. In July 1998 he moved to Hartlepool United, for whom he made five appearances in two years, making his professional debut at the age of 29, he joined Scunthorpe United for a brief period in 2000, moved to Scotland with Raith Rovers in May 2001. He joined St Johnstone in February 2003, proving popular with supporters of the Perthshire club, winning a fans' favourite award without playing a first team game.

The following year, West Bromwich Albion manager Gary Megson signed his former goalkeeper until the end of the 2003–04 season in March 2004. Albion won promotion to the Premier League that season and in the summer, Miotto was given a one-year contract extension at The Hawthorns; that season, working alongside Russell Hoult and Tomasz Kuszczak, Miotto's importance in the dressing room was recognised by his playing colleagues by being voted onto the players' leadership group, while he contributed a regular column to the club's matchday programme, Albion News. His standing at The Hawthorns was further recognised in 2012 when he was asked to contribute to "In Pastures Green" by Chris Lepkowski, a book dedicated to one of Albion's most successful recent eras, from 2000 to 2010. In January 2006, Miotto joined Danish First Division club Ølstykke FC in July, helping them avoid relegation, he moved to Akademisk Boldklub in 2007. The following season he signed for Herfølge Boldklub in January 2009, seeing the club promoted to the Danish Superliga before departing in June.

He joined Conference Premier team York City on 12 February 2010 as player and goalkeeper coach, providing playing cover for Michael Ingham and Josh Mimms. After the end of the 2009–10 season, shortly after seeing York lose the play-off final to Oxford United at Wembley, Miotto was appointed goalkeeper coach at League One team Tranmere Rovers. At 41, Miotto decided to retire from football and left Tranmere on 2 March 2011 to pursue other business interests. Miotto now owns a successful sports management company and has been responsible for mentoring and developing a number of youth international footballers and has been involved with several international football transfers. Simon Miotto at Soccerbase Simon Miotto at Soccerbase

The Price Is Right (British game show)

The Price is Right is a British game show based on the US version of the same name. It aired on ITV from 24 March 1984 to 8 April 1988 and was hosted by Leslie Crowther; the show briefly moved to Sky One for one series as The New Price is Right from 4 September 1989 to 31 August 1990 with Bob Warman as the host. It returned to ITV, as Bruce's Price is Right, from 4 September 1995 to 16 December 2001 with Bruce Forsyth hosting for seven series, again on the same channel from 8 May 2006 until 12 January 2007, this time hosted by Joe Pasquale. Two one-off specials aired as part of ITV's Gameshow Marathon in September 2005 and April 2007. On 30 December 2017, it was revived for a one-off pilot hosted by Alan Carr on Channel 4. In June 2019, it was announced that The Price Is Right had been chosen as one of the country's five all-time favourite game shows to be "supersized and rebooted" in new series Alan Carr's Epic Gameshow commissioned by ITV; the 7 part series will be filmed at dock10 studios and broadcast in the year.

Leslie Crowther hosted the original UK version, having beaten Joe Brown to the role of host after both recorded pilot episodes. It was notable for being produced by William G. Stewart, who made the occasional cameo appearance; the Crowther version is popular with fans of the show for its near-campiness, frenetic pace and the endearing presentation skills of its host, not for its cheaper prizes. Its format was nearly identical to that of CBS's daytime show in the United States, it used the Big Wheel to decide who would go through to the Range Finder, but the IBA forced Central to abandon this because of the lack of pricing skill involved. While the show had to go off air for a while during its first season due to an electricians' strike, the format was adapted to fit into a much more tightly-regulated UK broadcasting environment. After this ruling was made, the show replaced the Big Wheel rounds with a game called "Supermarket", a game loosely based on the American version's "Grocery Game" pricing game.

In "Supermarket", each of the three people would select up to four of six presented grocery products. Series two saw the Big Wheel return for a spin-off to see who would have the option of bidding or passing on the first showcase. If a person scored 100, £400 would be donated to charity on their behalf, Leslie would ask the person a consumer-related question to win £100 for him/herself; the winner was the contestant. The Crowther version replaced Supermarket and the Big Wheel called with the "Showcase Showdown", where all six on-stage contestants played a series of estimated-guess questions and the person farthest away from the actual prize was eliminated; this was done until the last two contestants were left, they advanced to the Range Finder. The final round, the Range Finder, was played the same way as on the Showcase finale on the American version. In the first season, the winner would not win the largest prize in their showcase if their winning guess was not within 10% of the showcase total.

In subsequent seasons, the game was played with 1972–74 United States rules, while it did use the rule for a double overbid. Simon Prebble Marie-Elise Grepne Jacqueline Bucknell Julia Roberts Denise Kelly Sandra Easby Cindy Day Carol Greenwood Gillian de Terville Elsa O'Toole Judy Bailey Laura Calland Sarah Wynter The second version hosted by Bob Warman is considered to be a precursor to the third version hosted by Bruce Forsyth, as it was a half-hour and used the Showcase range game. Having premiered shortly after Leslie Crowther's version went off the air, it retained many elements from the set and props, but was somewhat "Americanized"; the show was hence called "The New Price is Right" and had a red and green pound sign. The Warman version had better and more expensive prizes than the Crowther version due to the program's shorter length, in-show sponsorship, lighter government regulation of satellite television channels; the show had a light border in the opening, used US music, had more colour on the set.

The Showcase round was played differently: After three games and a single Showcase Showdown at the Big Wheel, the Showdown winner selected a range at random from £250 to £1,000. Bargain Bar Cliffhanger Danger Price Five Price Tags Hi Lo Lucky 7 Money Game Pick-a-Pair Race Game Side by Side Switcheroo Ten Chances Bobby Bragg Al Sherwin Suzie Marlowe Tracie Williams Katrina Maltby Julie Broster Peitra Caston When it started in 1995, Bruce's Price is Right was one of the first shows to take advantage of the Independent Television Commission's lifting of the prize limits and the general deregulation of the UK broa