Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family, his father was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian; when Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor before his death. Rome's military and Senate approved Hadrian's succession, but four leading senators were unlawfully put to death soon after, they had opposed Hadrian or seemed to threaten his succession, the senate held him responsible for it and never forgave him. He earned further disapproval among the elite by abandoning Trajan's expansionist policies and territorial gains in Mesopotamia, Assyria and parts of Dacia. Hadrian preferred to invest in the development of stable, defensible borders and the unification of the empire's disparate peoples.
He is known for building Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian energetically pursued personal interests, he visited every province of the Empire, accompanied by an Imperial retinue of specialists and administrators. He encouraged military preparedness and discipline, he fostered, designed, or subsidised various civil and religious institutions and building projects. In Rome itself, he constructed the vast Temple of Venus and Roma. In Egypt, he may have rebuilt the Serapeum of Alexandria, he was an ardent admirer of Greece and sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire, so he ordered the construction of many opulent temples there. His intense relationship with Greek youth Antinous and Antinous' untimely death led Hadrian to establish a widespread cult late in his reign, he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea. Hadrian's last years were marred by chronic illness, he saw the Bar Kokhba revolt as the failure of his panhellenic ideal. He executed two more senators for their alleged plots against him, this provoked further resentment.
His marriage to Vibia Sabina had been childless. Hadrian died the same year at Baiae, Antoninus had him deified, despite opposition from the Senate. Edward Gibbon includes him among the Empire's "Five good emperors", a "benevolent dictator", he has been described as enigmatic and contradictory, with a capacity for both great personal generosity and extreme cruelty and driven by insatiable curiosity, self-conceit, ambition. Modern interest was revived thanks to Marguerite Yourcenar's novel Mémoires d'Hadrien. Hadrian was born on 24 January 76 in Italica in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, he was named Publius Aelius Hadrianus. His father was Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a senator of praetorian rank and raised in Italica but paternally linked, through many generations over several centuries, to a family from Hadria, an ancient town in Picenum; the family had settled in Italica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Hadrian's mother was Domitia Paulina, daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman senatorial family from Gades.
His only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina. Hadrian's great-nephew, Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino would become Hadrian's colleague as co-consul in 118; as a senator, Hadrian's father would have spent much of his time in Rome. In terms of his career, Hadrian's most significant family connection was to Trajan, his father's first cousin, of senatorial stock, had been born and raised in Italica. Hadrian and Trajan were both considered to be – in the words of Aurelius Victor – "aliens", people "from the outside". Hadrian's parents died in 86, he and his sister became wards of Publius Acilius Attianus. Hadrian was physically active, enjoyed hunting. Hadrian's enthusiasm for Greek literature and culture earned him the nickname Graeculus. Trajan married Paulina off to the three-times consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. Hadrian's first official post in Rome was as a judge at the Inheritance court, one among many vigintivirate offices at the lowest level of the cursus honorum that could lead to higher office and a senatorial career.
He served as a military tribune, first with the Legio II Adiutrix in 95 with the Legio V Macedonica. During Hadrian's second stint as tribune, the frail and aged reigning emperor Nerva adopted Trajan as his heir, he was transferred to Legio XXII Primigenia and a third tribunate. Hadrian's three tribunates gave him some career advantage. Most scions of the older senatorial families might serve one, or at most two military tribunates as a prerequisite to higher office; when Nerva died in 98, Hadrian is said to have hastened to Trajan, to inform him ahead of the official envoy sent by the go
Pope Alexander I
Pope Alexander I was the Bishop of Rome from c. 107 to his death c. 115. The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio identifies him as a Roman who reigned from 108 or 109 to 116 or 119; some believe he suffered martyrdom under the Roman Emperor Trajan or Hadrian, but this is improbable. According to the Liber Pontificalis, it was Alexander I who inserted the narration of the Last Supper into the liturgy of the Mass. However, the article on Saint Alexander I in the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia, written by Thomas Shahan, judges this tradition to be inaccurate, a view shared by both Catholic and non-Catholic experts, it is viewed as a product of the agenda of Liber Pontificalis—this section of the book was written in the late 5th century—to show an ancient pattern of the earliest bishops of Rome ruling the church by papal decree. The introduction of the customs of using blessed water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences, as well as that of mixing water with the sacramental wine, are attributed to Pope Alexander I.
Some sources consider these attributions unlikely. It is possible, that Alexander played an important part in the early development of the Church of Rome's emerging liturgical and administrative traditions. A tradition holds that in the reign of Emperor Hadrian, Alexander I converted the Roman governor Hermes by miraculous means, together with his entire household of 1,500 people. Saint Quirinus of Neuss, Alexander's supposed jailer, Quirinus' daughter Saint Balbina were among his converts. Alexander is said to have seen a vision of the infant Jesus, his remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria, Germany in AD 834. Some editions of the Roman Missal identified with Pope Alexander I the Saint Alexander that they give as commemorated, together with Saints Eventius and Theodulus, on 3 May. See, for instance, the General Roman Calendar of 1954, but nothing is known of these three saints other than their names, together with the fact that they were martyred and were buried at the seventh milestone of the Via Nomentana on 3 May of some year.
For this reason, the Pope John XXIII's 1960 revision of the calendar returned to the presentation, in the 1570 Tridentine Calendar of the three saints as "Saints Alexander and Theodulus Martyrs" with no suggestion that any of them was a pope. The Roman Martyrology lists them as Eventius and Theodulus, the order in which their names are given in historical documents. List of Catholic saints List of popes Benedict XIV; the Roman Martyrology. Gardners Books, 2007. ISBN 978-0-548-13374-3. Chapman, John. Studies on the Early Papacy. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1971. ISBN 978-1-901157-60-4. Fortescue and Scott M. P. Reid; the Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451. Southampton: Saint Austin Press, 1997. ISBN 978-1-901157-60-4. Jowett, George F; the Drama of the Lost Disciples. London: Covenant Pub. Co, 1968. OCLC 7181392 Loomis, Louise Ropes; the Book of Popes. Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8Pope St. Alexander IEncyclopædia Britannica: Saint Alexander I
Jean François Paul de Gondi
Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz was a French churchman, writer of memoirs, agitator in the Fronde. The Florentine banking family of the Gondi had been introduced into France by Catherine de' Medici; the Gondi acquired great estates in Brittany and became connected with the noblest houses of the kingdom. Jean-François de Gondi was born in the Brie region of northern France, he was the third son in his family, according to Tallemant des Réaux was made a knight of Malta on the day of his birth. The death of his second brother, destined him for a closer connection with the Church; the Retz side of his family had much church influence, though young Jean-François was not much attracted to the clergy, his family insisted that he join it. They said he lacked the appearance of a soldier, being short, near-sighted and awkward, he was educated at the Sorbonne. When he was eighteen, he wrote Conjuration de Fiesque, a little historical essay, influenced by the Italian of Agostino Mascardi, audaciously insinuating revolutionary principles.
The district of Retz or Rais is in southern Brittany, has been under the control of several different families. Retz always spelled the word "Rais." The barony of Retz first belonged to the House of Retz to the Chabot family and the Laval family. Gilles de Rais, a Laval and comrade in arms of Joan of Arc, was executed without an heir, so the barony passed successively to the families of Tournemine and Gondi. In 1581, it became a duchy, with Albert de Gondi its first duke, his brother Pierre de Gondi became bishop of Paris in 1570 and cardinal in 1587. Pierre was succeeded by his nephews Henri de Gondi and Jean-François de Gondi, for whom the episcopal see of Paris was erected into an archbishopric in 1622. Jean François was succeeded by Pierre's great-nephew Jean François Paul de Gondi. Retz received no preferment of importance during Cardinal Richelieu's life. After the minister's death, though he was presented to Louis XIII and well received, he found difficulty in attaining the co-adjutorship with reversion of the archbishopric of Paris.
But immediately after the king's death, Anne of Austria appointed him to the coveted post on All Saints Eve, 1643. Retz, who had, according to some accounts plotted against Richelieu, set himself to work to make the utmost political capital out of his position, his uncle had lived in great seclusion. This influence he turned against Cardinal Mazarin, which helped lead to the outbreak of the Fronde in October 1648. Of the two parties who joined the Fronde, Retz could only depend on the bourgeoisie of Paris, he had some speculative tendencies in favour of popular liberties, perhaps of republicanism, but represented no real political principle, which weakened his position. When the breakup of the Fronde came he was left in the lurch, having more than once been in no small danger from his own party. However, because of a misapprehension on the part of Pope Innocent X, he had been made cardinal. In 1652, he was arrested and imprisoned, first at Vincennes at Nantes, he went to Rome more than once, helped elect Pope Alexander VII.
In 1662, Louis XIV received him back into favor, asked him to formally serve as envoy to Rome several times. In order for this reconciliation to occur, he resigned his claims to the archbishopric of Paris, he was appointed abbot of St-Denis, restored to his other benefices with the payment of arrears. The last seventeen years of Retz's life were passed in his diplomatic duties in Paris at his estate of Cornmercy, but at St. Mihiel in Lorraine, his debts were enormous, in 1675 he made over to his creditors all his income except twenty thousand livres, and, as he said, to "live for" them. He did not succeed in living long, for he died at Paris on 24 August 1679. During these last years he corresponded with Madame de Sévigné, a relative by marriage. During the last ten years of his life, Retz wrote his Memoirs, which go up to the year 1655, they are addressed in the form of narrative to a lady, not known, though guesses have been made at her identity, some suggesting Madame de Sévigné herself. In the beginning there are some gaps.
They are known for the verbal portraits of their characters. Alexandre Dumas, père drew on the Memoirs for Vingt ans après. Besides these memoirs and the youthful essay of the Conjuration de Fiesque, Retz has left diplomatic papers, sermons and correspondence. Retz and François de La Rochefoucauld, the greatest of the Frondeurs in literary genius, were personal and political enemies, each left a portrait of the other. De la Rochefoucauld wrote of Retz: "Il a suscité les plus grands désordres dans l'état sans avoir un dessein formé de s'en prévaloir.". The Memoirs of the cardinal de Retz were first published in a imperfect condition in 1717; the first satisfactory edition appeared in the twenty-fourth volume of the collection of Joseph François Michaud and Jean Joseph François Poujoulat. In 1870 a complete edition of the works of Retz was begun by Alphonse Feille
Early centers of Christianity
Early Christianity spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. This progression was connected to established Jewish centers in the Holy Land and the Jewish diaspora; the first followers of Christianity were Jews or proselytes referred to as Jewish Christians and God-fearers. The Apostolic sees claim to have been founded by one or more of the apostles of Jesus, who are said to have dispersed from Jerusalem sometime after the crucifixion of Jesus, c. 26–36 following the Great Commission. Early Christians gathered in small private homes, known as house churches, but a city's whole Christian community would be called a church – the Greek noun ἐκκλησία means assembly, gathering, or congregation but is translated as church in most English translations of the New Testament. Many of these Early Christians were merchants and others who had practical reasons for traveling to northern Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and other places. Over 40 such communities were established by the year 100, many in Anatolia known as Asia Minor, such as the Seven churches of Asia.
By the end of the first century, Christianity had spread to Rome and major cities in Armenia and Syria, serving as foundations for the expansive spread of Christianity throughout the world. Jerusalem was the first center of the church, according to the Book of Acts, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the location of "the first Christian church"; the apostles taught there for some time after Pentecost. James, the brother of Jesus was a leader in the church, his other kinsmen held leadership positions in the surrounding area after the destruction of the city until its rebuilding as Aelia Capitolina, c. 130, when all Jews were banished from the city. In about 50, Barnabas and Paul went to Jerusalem to meet with the "pillars of the church", James and John. Called the Council of Jerusalem, this meeting, among other things, confirmed the legitimacy of the mission of Barnabas and Paul to the gentiles, the gentile converts' freedom from most Mosaic law circumcision, repulsive to the Hellenic mind.
Thus, the Apostolic Decree may be a major act of differentiation of the Church from its Jewish roots although the decree may parallel Jewish Noahide Law and thus be a commonality rather than a differential. In the same time period Rabbinic Judaism made their circumcision requirement of Jewish boys stricter; when Peter left Jerusalem after Herod Agrippa I tried to kill him, James appears as the principal authority. Clement of Alexandria called him Bishop of Jerusalem. A second-century church historian, wrote that the Sanhedrin martyred him in 62. In 66, the Jews revolted against Rome. Rome besieged Jerusalem for four years, the city fell in 70; the city, including the Temple, was destroyed and the population was killed or removed. According to a tradition recorded by Eusebius and Epiphanius of Salamis, the Jerusalem church fled to Pella at the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt. According to Epiphanius of Salamis, the Cenacle survived at least to Hadrian's visit in 130. A scattered population survived.
The Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia. Prophecies of the Second Temple's destruction are found in the synoptics in the Olivet Discourse. In the 2nd century, Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina, erecting statues of Jupiter and himself on the site of the former Jewish Temple, the Temple Mount. Bar Cochba led an unsuccessful revolt as a Messiah, but Christians refused to acknowledge him as such; when Bar Cochba was defeated, Hadrian barred Jews from the city, except for the day of Tisha B'Av, thus the subsequent Jerusalem bishops were gentiles for the first time. The general significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline during the Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, but resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena to the Holy Land c. 326–28. According to the church historian Socrates of Constantinople, Helena claimed to have found the cross of Christ, after removing a Temple to Venus, built over the site. Jerusalem had received special recognition in Canon VII of Nicaea in 325.
The traditional founding date for the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre is 313 which corresponds with the date of the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. Jerusalem was named as one of the Pentarchy, but this was never accepted by the church of Rome. See East–West Schism#Prospects for reconciliation. Antioch, a major center of Hellenistic Greece, the third-most important city of the Roman Empire part of Syria Province, today a ruin near Antakya, was where Christians were first called Christians and the location of the Incident at Antioch, it was the site of an early church, traditionally said to be founded by Peter, considered the first bishop. The Gospel of Matthew and the Apostolic Constitutions may have been written there; the church father Ignatius of Antioch was its third bishop. The School of Antioch, founded in 270, was one of two major centers of early church learning; the Curetonian Gospels and the Syriac Sinaiticus are two early New Testament text types associated with Syriac Christianity.
It was one of the three whose bishops were recognized at the First Council of Nicaea as exercising jur
The Annuario Pontificio is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church. It lists all officials of the Holy See's departments, it gives complete lists with contact information of the cardinals and Catholic bishops throughout the world, the dioceses, the departments of the Roman Curia, the Holy See's diplomatic missions abroad, the embassies accredited to the Holy See, the headquarters of religious institutes, certain academic institutions, other similar information. The index includes, along with all the names in the body of the book, those of all priests who have been granted the title of "Monsignor"; as the title suggests, the red-covered yearbook, compiled by the Central Statistics Office of the Church and published by Libreria Editrice Vaticana, is in Italian. The 2015 edition had more than 2,400 pages and cost €78. According to the Pontifical Yearbook of 2017, the number of Catholics in the world increased to 1,284,810,000 at the end of 2015. A yearbook of the Catholic Church was published, with some interruptions, from 1716 to 1859 by the Cracas printing firm in Rome, under the title Information for the Year...
From 1851, a department of the Holy See began producing a different publication called Hierarchy of the Holy Catholic Apostolic Church Worldwide and in Every Rite, with historical notes, which took the title Annuario Pontificio in 1860, but ceased publication in 1870. This was the first yearbook published by the Holy See itself, but its compilation was entrusted to the newspaper Giornale di Roma; the publishers "Fratelli Monaldi" began in 1872 to produce their own yearbook entitled The Catholic Hierarchy and the Papal Household for the Year... with an appendix of other information concerning the Holy See. The Vatican Press took this over in 1885, it bore the indication "official publication" from 1899 to 1904, but this ceased when, giving the word "official" a more restricted sense, the Acta Sanctae Sedis, forerunner of the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, was declared the only "official" publication of the Holy See. In 1912, it resumed the title Annuario Pontificio. From 1912 to 1924, it included not only lists of names, but brief illustrative notes on departments of the Roman Curia and on certain posts within the papal court, a practice to which it returned in 1940.
For some years, beginning in 1898, the Maison de la Bonne Presse publishing house of Paris produced a similar yearbook in French called Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, not compiled by the Holy See. This contained much additional information, such as detailed historical articles on the Swiss Guards and the Papal Palace at the Vatican. According to the Annuario Pontificio 2012 the statistical data given in the yearbook regarding archdioceses and dioceses are furnished by the diocesan curias concerned and reflect the diocesan situation on 31 December of the year prior to the date on the yearbook, unless there is another indication; the data recorded are shown in the following order next to these abbreviations: Su – area in square kilometers of the diocesan territory pp – population of the diocese ct – number of Catholics pr – parishes and quasi-parishes ch – churches or mission stations sd – secular priests resident in the diocese dn – diocesan priests ordained during the year sr – religious priests resident in the diocese rn – religious priests ordained during the year dp – permanent deacons sm – seminarians taking courses of philosophy and theology rm – members of men's religious institutes rf – members of women's religious institutes ie – educational institutes ib – charitable institutes ba – baptisms Catholic Church by country History of the papacy Vatican Publishing House Martyrologium Romanum Editio Typica Altera Secretary of State, Annuario Pontificio 2018.
Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. ISBN 978-88-266-0127-4
Church History (Eusebius)
The Church History of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century. It was written in Koine Greek, survives in Latin and Armenian manuscripts; the result was the first full-length historical narrative written from a Christian point of view. In the early 5th century two advocates in Constantinople, Socrates Scholasticus and Sozomen, a bishop, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, wrote continuations of Eusebius' church history, establishing the convention of continuators that would determine to a great extent the way history was written for the next thousand years. Eusebius' Chronicle, which attempted to lay out a comparative timeline of pagan and Old Testament history, set the model for the other historiographical genre, the medieval chronicle or universal history. Eusebius had access to the Theological Library of Caesarea and made use of many ecclesiastical monuments and documents, acts of the martyrs, extracts from earlier Christian writings, lists of bishops, similar sources quoting the originals at great length so that his work contains materials not elsewhere preserved.
For example he wrote that Matthew composed the Gospel according to the Hebrews and his Church Catalogue suggests that it was the only Jewish gospel. It is therefore of historical value, though it pretends neither to completeness nor to the observance of due proportion in the treatment of the subject-matter. Nor does it present in a connected and systematic way the history of the early Christian Church, it is to no small extent a vindication of the Christian religion, though the author did not intend it as such. Eusebius has been accused of intentional falsification of the truth. Eusebius attempted according to his own declaration to present the history of the Church from the apostles to his own time, with special regard to the following points: the successions of bishops in the principal sees, he grouped his material according to the reigns of the emperors, presenting it as he found it in his sources. The contents are as follows: Book I: detailed introduction on Jesus Christ Book II: The history of the apostolic time to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus Book III: The following time to Trajan Books IV and V: the 2nd century Book VI: The time from Septimius Severus to Decius Book VII: extends to the outbreak of the persecution under Diocletian Book VIII: more of this persecution Book IX: history to Constantine's victory over Maxentius in the West and over Maximinus in the East Book X: The reestablishment of the churches and the rebellion and conquest of Licinius.
Andrew Louth has argued that the Church History was first published in 313 CE. In its present form, the work was brought to a conclusion before the death of Crispus, since book x is dedicated to Paulinus, Archbishop of Tyre, who died before 325, at the end of 323 or in 324; this work required the most comprehensive preparatory studies, it must have occupied him for years. His collection of martyrdoms of the older period may have been one of these preparatory studies. Eusebius blames the calamities which befell the Jewish nation on the Jews' role in the death of Jesus; this quote has been used to attack both Jews and Christians. … that from that time seditions and wars and mischievous plots followed each other in quick succession, never ceased in the city and in all Judea until the siege of Vespasian overwhelmed them. Thus the divine vengeance overtook the Jews for the crimes which they dared to commit against Christ; this is not anti-Semitism, however. Eusebius levels a similar charge against Christians, blaming a spirit of divisiveness for some of the most severe persecutions.
But when on account of the abundant freedom, we fell into laxity and sloth, envied and reviled each other, were as it were, taking up arms against one another, rulers assailing rulers with words like spears, people forming parties against people, monstrous hypocrisy and dissimulation rising to the greatest height of wickedness, the divine judgment with forbearance, as is its pleasure, while the multitudes yet continued to assemble and moderately harassed the episcopacy. He launches into a panegyric in the middle of Book x, he praises the Lord for his provisions and kindness to them for allowing them to rebuild their churches after they have been destroyed. The accuracy of Eusebius' account has been called into question. In the 5th century, the Christian historian Socrates Scholasticus described Eusebius as writing for “rhetorical finish” in his Vita of Constantine and for the “praises of the Emperor” rather than the “accurate statement of facts.” The methods of Eusebius were criticised by Edward Gibbon in the 18th century.
In the 19th century Jacob Burckhardt viewed Eusebius as'a liar', the “first dishonest historian of antiquity.” Ramsay MacMullen in the 20th century regarded Eusebius' work as representative of early Christian historical accounts in which “Hostile writings and discarded views were not recopied or passed on, or they were suppressed... matters discreditable to the faith were to be consigned to silence.” As a consequence this kind of methodology in MacMullen's view has distorted modern attempts, to describe how the Church grew in the early centuries. Arnaldo Momigliano wrote that in Eusebius' mind "chronology was something
The Sanctus is a hymn in Christian liturgy. It may be called the epinikios hymnos when referring to the Greek rendition. In Western Christianity, the Sanctus forms part of the Ordinary and is sung as the final words of the Preface of the Eucharistic Prayer, the prayer of consecration of the bread and wine; the preface, which alters according to the season concludes with words describing the praise of the worshippers joining with the angels, who are pictured as praising God with the words of the Sanctus. In Byzantine Rite and general Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the Sanctus is offered as a response by the choir during the Holy Anaphora. Tersanctus is rarer name for the Sanctus; the same name is sometimes used for the Trisagion. Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ· πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου, ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις. Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου. Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις. In the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom and the Liturgy of St. Basil: In the Liturgy of St. James: In the Roman Rite: In the Roman Rite, the Sanctus forms part of the solemn hymn of praise Te Deum laudamus, but with the addition of a reference to the "majesty" of the Lord's glory in the Pleni sunt verse.
The Benedictus is not included in the Te Deum, the Sanctus is therefore included as part of that hymn as follows: In the Mozarabic Rite: The Sanctus appears thus in the 1549 Book of Common Prayer: In the 1559 BCP it appears without the Benedictus: English version of some Lutherans: In 1973 the International Consultation on English Texts produced an ecumenical version that at that time was adopted by Catholics and others: Since 2011 the Roman Missal in English has: As Enrico Mazza writes: The Sanctus became part of the Roman Eucharistic Prayer only in the first half of the fifth century. There exist two fundamental types of Sanctus: the Antiochene; the Sanctus of the Roman Eucharist derives from the Antiochene liturgy and has two parts: the Sanctus true and proper, consisting of the acclamation from Isaiah 6:3. The Sanctus has been given a christological interpretation and a trinitarian interpretation, this in both the East and the West; these differing interpretations may be due to the presence, in the text of the Sanctus, of a theological section, the acclamation from Isaiah 6:3, a christological part, namely the acclamation from Matthew 21:9.
The text of the Sanctus passed from Jewish use to Christian use at a early time, since it cited in the Apocalypse of John and in the letter of Clement to the Corinthians. As can be read in the same source, in the Alexandrian tradition on the other hand: the Sanctus consisted of only the first part, the citation of Isaiah 6:3, lacked the Benedictus; this early state can be seen in the testimonies of Eusebius of Caesarea, the Mystagogical Catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem, above all, the Ritual used in the Church of Theodore of Mopsuestia. In the latter, that is, in the archaic stage of the Syrian liturgy, the Benedictus was unknown, the Sanctus consisted of the acclamation from Isaiah 6:3; the first part of the Sanctus, the adaptation from Isaiah 6:3, describes the prophet Isaiah's vision of the throne of God surrounded by six-winged, ministering seraphim. A similar representation is found in Revelation 4:8. In Jewish liturgy, the verse from Isaiah is uttered by the congregation during Kedusha, a prayer said during the cantor's repetition of the Amidah: The text of the second part, beginning with the word Benedictus is taken from Matthew 21:9, describes Jesus' Entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, in turn based on the first half of Psalm 118:26.
In its present liturgical context "it points to the expected presence of the Lord in the eucharistic gifts". Within Anglicanism, the 1552 Book of Common Prayer omitted it and, though it is now permitted, "the choice whether or not to use the Benedictus is still for some a matter of Eucharistic theology and churchmanship"; the Sanctus appears in the Sacramentary of Serapion of Thmuis, but may go as far back to Christian liturgy in North Africa in the year 200. The present form of the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, the primary liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church, reads the following text: The above differs from the Roman Rite Latin text in that the Latin adds to the word Dominus, the regular Latin translation of יהוה, the Deus, found in neither the Greek nor the Latin translations nor in the original text of Isaiah 6:3, but is found in Revelation 4:8: "Holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, is and is to come!" in that the Latin has the plural caeli, the Greek the singular οὐρανός for the mention of "heaven", which appears in neither the Latin nor the Greek translation of Isaiah 6:3. in that the Greek gives two different forms of the phrase corresponding to Hosanna in excelsis, the second one including an ὁ article.
The article is not found in Matthew 21:9. The form of the hymn without the article is used in the Greek Liturgy of Saint James, in modern settings and contexts; the Liturgy of Saint Basil of the Eastern Orthodox Church has the same form of the Sanctus as the Liturgy of Sa