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Pope Symmachus

Pope Symmachus was Pope from 22 November 498 to his death in 514. His tenure was marked by a serious schism over, legitimately elected pope by the citizens of Rome, he was born on the Mediterranean island of the son of Fortunatus. Symmachus was baptized in Rome, where he became Archdeacon of the Roman Church under Pope Anastasius II. Symmachus was elected pope on 22 November 498 in the Constantinian basilica; the archpriest of Santa Prassede, was elected pope on the same day at the Basilica Saint Mariae by a dissenting faction with Byzantine sympathies, who were supported by Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius. Both factions agreed to allow the Gothic King Theodoric the Great to arbitrate, he ruled that the one, elected first and whose supporters were the most numerous should be recognized as pope. This was a purely political decision. An investigation favored his election was recognized as proper. However, an early document known as the "Laurentian Fragment" claims that Symmachus obtained the decision by paying bribes, while deacon Magnus Felix Ennodius of Milan wrote that 400 solidi were distributed amongst influential personages, whom it would be indiscreet to name.

Symmachus proceeded to call a synod, to be held at Rome on 1 March 499, attended by 72 bishops and all of the Roman clergy. Laurentius attended. Afterwards he was assigned the diocesis of Nuceria in Campania. According to the account in the Liber Pontificalis, Symmachus bestowed the See on Laurentius "guided by sympathy", but the "Laurentian Fragment" states that Laurentius "was threatened and cajoled, forcibly despatched" to Nuceria; the synod ordained that any cleric who sought to gain votes for a successor to the papacy during the lifetime of the pope, or who called conferences and held consultations for that purpose, should be deposed and excommunicated. In 501, the Senator Rufius Postumius Festus, a supporter of Laurentius, accused Symmachus of various crimes; the initial charge was. The king Theodoric summoned him to Ariminum to respond to the charge; the pope arrived only to discover a number of other charges, including unchastity and the misuse of church property, would be brought against him.

Symmachus panicked. His flight proved to be a miscalculation. Laurentius was brought back to Rome by his supporters, but a sizeable group of the clergy, including most of the most senior clerics, withdrew from communion with him. A visiting bishop, Peter of Altinum, was appointed by Theodoric to celebrate Easter 502 and assume the administration of the See, pending the decision of a synod to be convened following Easter. Presided over by the other Italian metropolitans, Peter II of Ravenna, Laurentius of Milan, Marcellianus of Aquileia, the Synod opened in the Basilica of Santa Maria, it proved tumultuous. The session deadlocked over the presence of a visiting bishop, Peter of Altina, sent by Theoderic as Apostolic Visitor, at the request of Senators Festus and Probinus, the opponents of Symmachus. Symmachus argued that the presence of a visiting bishop implied the See of Rome was vacant, the See could only be vacant if he were guilty—which meant the case had been decided before the evidence could be heard.

Although the majority of the assembled bishops agreed with this, the Apostolic Visitor could not be made to withdraw without Theodoric's permission. In response to this deadlock, rioting by the citizens of Rome increased, causing a number of bishops to flee Rome and the rest to petition Theodoric to move the synod to Ravenna. King Theodoric refused their request to move the Synod, ordering them instead to reconvene on 1 September. On 27 August the King wrote to the Bishops that he was sending two of the Majores Domus nostrae and Bedeulphus, to see to it that the Synod assembled in safety and without fear. Upon reconvening, matters were no less acrimonious. First the accusers introduced a document which included a clause stating that the king knew Symmachus was guilty, thus the Synod should assume guilt, hear the evidence pass sentence. More momentous was an attack by a mob on Pope Symmachus' party as he set out to make his appearance at the Synod: many of his supporters were injured and several—including the priests Gordianus and Dignissimus—killed.

Symmachus retreated to St. Peter's and refused to come out, despite the urgings of deputations from the Synod; the "Life of Symmachus", presents these killings as part of the street-fighting between the supporters of Senators Festus and Probinus on the one side, Senator Faustus on the other. The attacks were directed against clerics, including Dignissimus a priest of S. Pietro in Vinculis and Gordianus a priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, though the rhetoric of the passage extends the violence to anyone, a supporter of Symmachus, man or woman, cleric or layperson, it was unsafe for a cleric to walk about in Rome at night! At this point, the synod petitioned king Theodoric once again, asking permission to dissolve the meeting and return home. Theodoric replied, in a letter dated 1 October. So the bishops assembled once again on 23 October 502 at a place known as Palma, after reviewing the events of the previous

Lao Che (band)

Lao Che is a Polish rock band formed in 1999 in Płock by former members of the band Koli. Lao Che's musical genre is a crossover of various styles such as ska and folk; the band's popularity grew after their Powstanie Warszawskie concept album, which received many prestigious nominations and awards. Current membersMariusz "Denat" Denst – sampler Hubert "Spięty" Dobaczewski – guitars, vocals Michał "Dimon" Jastrzębski – drums Filip "Wieża" Różański – keyboards Rafał "Żubr" Borycki – bass Maciek "Trocki" Dzierżanowski – percussionFormer membersJakub "Krojc" Pokorski – guitars Michał "Warz" Warzycki - guitars Official website

Masterpiss of Pain

Masterpiss of Pain is the debut studio album of the Norwegian black metal band Khold. It was recorded in the early part of 2001 and released in December of that year, through Moonfog Productions, the record label run by Satyricon leader Sigurd Wongraven. All lyrics are written by Hilde "Hildr" Nymoen. Sverre "Gard" Stokland – vocals, guitar Geir "Rinn" Kildahl – guitar Lars Eikindbass guitar Thomas "Sarke" Berglie – drums, percussion Galder – guitar on "Rovnatt"

Lowry Bill

The Lowry Bill known as the Lowry Act and the Lowry Normal School Bill, was a bill introduced in 1910 in the Ohio state legislature which called for the establishment of two state normal schools in northern Ohio, one in the northeast and one in the northwest. It was named after its main sponsor, John Hamilton Lowry, a representative from northwest Ohio's Henry County, it was approved and signed into law by Ohio Governor Judson Harmon on May 19, 1910. Following its approval, the Commission on Normal School Sites was established and search committees were formed to determine the sites of the two schools with nearly forty communities applying. On November 25, 1910, the Commission announced that the villages of Kent in the northeast and Bowling Green in the northwest had been selected as the sites of the new schools; these schools would evolve into what are today Kent State University and Bowling Green State University. Lowry Hall, one of the oldest buildings at Kent State University, was named for John Hamilton Lowry.

Ohio did not have schools of education at its public universities until 1902 when they were established at Ohio University in Athens and Miami University in Oxford, followed by The Ohio State University in Columbus in 1907. All three schools were located in the southern half of the state while the majority of the growth and need for teachers were in northern Ohio; the Lowry bill was the first successful action to establish teacher training schools in northern Ohio after several failed attempts

Bo Ramsey

Bo Ramsey is an American singer, songwriter and recording producer. He made his debut in Williamsburg, Iowa in 1973, fronted the Mother Blues Band, rose to prominence as a soloist when he opened for Lucinda Williams on her 1994 tour, he has produced or played guitar on several of her albums, including Essence, nominated for a Grammy Award, appeared in her band in performances on The Late Show With David Letterman, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Late Night With Conan O’Brien and in Wim Wenders’ "Soul Of A Man" segment for the Blues series of Martin Scorsese. He has produced recordings for Joan Baez, David Zollo, Pieta Brown, Iris DeMent, Ani DiFranco, Kevin Gordon, with whom he co-fronted a band, worked as a guitarist with the above and with Elvis Costello, he has produced and worked extensively with Greg Brown, including an appearance in 1999 on A Prairie Home Companion, has been inducted to the Iowa Rock'n Roll Hall of Fame, Iowa Blues Hall of Fame. 1982: Brand New Love 1983: Feelin's Gettin' Stronger with the Sliders 1986: Northwind 1988: Either Way 1991: Down To Bastrop 1995: Bo Ramsey And The Backsliders 1997: In The Weeds 2007: Stranger Blues 2008: Fragile 2016: Wildwood Calling 1989: One Big Town 1990: Down in There 1992: Dream Café 1994: The Poet Game 1996: Further In 1997: Slant 6 Mind 2003: If I Had Known: Essential Recordings, 1980-96 2004: Honey in the Lion's Head 2006: The Evening Call 2011: Freak Flag 2002: Pieta Brown 2005: In The Cool 2007: Remember the Sun 2009: Shimmer 2010: One and All 2011: Mercury 2014: Paradise Outlaw 2017: Postcards 2004: The Pines 2007: Sparrows In The Bell 2009: Tremolo 2012: Dark So Gold 2016: Above The Prairie 1998: Car Wheels on a Gravel Road 2001: Essence 1993: High And Lonesome - Alackaday 1998: David Zollo - Uneasy Street 1999: Dave Moore - Breaking Down To 3 1999: Teddy Morgan - Lost Love & Highways 2003: Joan Baez - Dark Chords on a Big Guitar 2010: Charlie Parr - When The Devil Goes Blind 2010: Ernie Hendrickson - Walking With Angels 2011: Kelly Pardekooper - Yonder 2012: Iris DeMent - Sing The Delta 2012: Mike Mangione & the Union - Red-Winged Blackbird Man 2013: Mason Jennings - Always Been 2015: Jeffrey Foucault - Salt as Wolves 1997: R.

B. Morris -... Take That Ride... 1998: Kate Campbell - Visions of Plenty 1999: Mark Stuart - Songs from a Corner Stage 2000: Ani DiFranco - Swing Set EP 2000: Ben Weaver - Living In The Ground 2000: Bejae Fleming - Navigating Limbo 2000: Larry Long - Well May The World Go 2000: Kelly Pardekooper - Johnson County Snow 2002: David Zollo - The Big Night 2004: Brother Trucker - Something Simple 2004: Iris DeMent - Lifeline 2005: Faby - Finally 2005: Kevin Gordon - O Come Look at the Burning 2005: Johnny Hickman - Palmhenge 2006: Jeffrey Foucault - Ghost Repeater 2008: Becky Schlegel - For All the World to See 2008: Calexico - Carried to Dust 2015: Iris DeMent - The Trackless Woods 2001: various artists- Labour of Love: The Music of Nick Lowe - track 5, "Where's My Everything?" with Greg Brown Bo Ramsey website Bo Ramsey at AllMusic Bo Ramsey discography at Discogs

ARTE (Thermal Exchange)

Advanced Research for passive Thermal Exchange is a project intended to create "Thermal Exchange", an experiment for the International Space Station. It is a heat pipe technology demonstrator. Thermal Exchange has been designed by Argotec in collaboration the Italian Space Agency. Polytechnic University of Turin participated in the project with the development of a prototype of the electronics and software. On April 4, 2016, the experiment was conducted nominally on board the International Space Station by the American astronaut Timothy Kopra. In 2012 Argotec started research in the field of passive heat transfer for the internal development of a device called a heat pipe; this technology is known in the scientific field, but at the moment in Europe there are few producers and Italy is limited to the purchase of foreign products. Argotec developed a numerical model in order to design a device that can maximize the performance thanks to the optimal combination of external geometry and internal geometry.

On board the International Space Station, heat transfer is performed by active systems. Regarding heat removal, internal loops have been installed that collect heat generated by crew and equipment, they transport the heat to external loops, which transfer the heat to surface from which it is radiated towards deep space. The active systems are able to work across a range of operating powers because the application parameters can be changed during the operations by a controller. On the other hand, they have complexity that in space is reflected in a greater involvement of resources and in a higher probability of malfunction; the goal is to design a competitive system in terms of performance, as simple as possible. Therefore, the ARTE project was born in order to realize a new payload: Thermal Exchange; the goal is to test heat pipes on board the ISS. The fluids selected are low toxicity fluids: this is the reason why these fluids can be used inside the Internal Space Station in which astronauts work.

At the moment, some heat pipes are used on the ISS but they are installed externally because they contain ammonia. If this fluid were used for internal devices, in the event of a leak it would create a catastrophic hazard to the astronauts. Additionally, a leak could cause a permanent loss of one or more ISS modules. On March 23, 2016, Thermal Exchange arrived on board the International Space Station delivered by the Cygnus CRS OA–6, an Orbital/ATK vehicle; the experiment was conducted by the American astronaut Timothy Kopra on April 4, 2016. The same as ISSpresso, the Argotec team supported operations from their Mission Control Centre. Thermal Exchange was utilized again by the Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli during his VITA mission started on July 28, 2017. On September 14, 2016 at 11.30, Italian hour, the Italian astronaut conducted this experiment onboard the International Space Station. During extensive research lasting 4 years, Argotec developed an internal numerical model able to identify the best geometry for heat pipe internal grooves provided the thermal operating range.

The model has been validated both with a campaign of analysis and tests on Earth, with the experiment conducted on board the Station. Thanks to the tests done on board the International Space Station, proprietary heat pipes have been qualified for use in Space. A long term objective is the design of a system of heat pipes containing fluids of low toxicity more efficient than an active system, used on the ISS, it is not only space that benefits from research conducted on heat pipes: thanks to ARTE two patents were filed for technologies used on Earth and they have started new heat exchange projects, one of them is called "HEAT" project. After the selection of the optimal geometry for the heat pipes, the most appropriate fluids for the particular conditions on the Station, the engineers worked on the design of a payload able to independently carry out an experiment on board the ISS; the availability of resources in terms of power on the International Space Station was important to the selection of the fluids.

In fact, the payload was installed inside the Microgravite Science Glovebox, a glove box containing a cooling plate used to collect the heat carried by the heat pipes during the experiment. As with every project for the ISS, the Thermal Exchange design has found applicable the requirements as defined by the NASA ISS program; the engineers conducted reviews with the ISS Payload Safety Review Panel to demonstrate the payload met the safety requirements with respect to the astronauts and the ISS systems. A sequence of tests has been performed to demonstrate the compatibility with the MSG at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama; the data collected during the tests performed inside the MSG mockup represent part of the Baseline Data Collection that the team created to define heat pipe performance. The analysis of the data obtained on board increases the knowledge of the behaviour of heat pipes, it has resulted in articles for scientific publication; some publications have been presented to the International Astronautical Congress and AIDAA conferences