Pope Lucius III
Pope Lucius III, born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185. A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born c.1100 as Ubaldo and he is commonly referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven. He had close ties to the Cistercians, but it seems that he never joined the order and he was named cardinal by Pope Innocent II in December 1138, initially as cardinal-deacon of San Adriano, as cardinal-priest of Santa Prassede. Pope Adrian IV promoted him to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and he was dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and one of the most influential cardinals under his predecessor Pope Alexander III. He disputed with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I over the disposal of the territories of the late Countess Matilda of Tuscany, during the conflict between Frederick I and the papacy, the problem of heresy required a political solution. In November 1184 Lucius held a synod at Verona which condemned the Cathars, Paterines and Arnoldists, contrary to what is often said, he did not institute the Inquisition, which was not created until the reign of Pope Gregory IX in 1234.
In 1185 preparations began for the Third Crusade in answer to the appeals of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, before they were completed, Lucius III died in Verona. Philippe Levillain, John W. OMalley, The Papacy, an Encyclopedia,2002 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Lucius. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Samuel Macauley. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge and New York and Wagnalls
Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. The practice of papal appointment during this period would give rise to the jus exclusivae. Furthermore, the frequent requirement of approval of elected popes significantly lengthened periods of sede vacante. There is no consensus on when and on what terms Saint Peter arrived in Rome. Moreover, Peter was never referred to as a pope or even a bishop. This anecdote makes clear that the choice of bishop was the concern for the entire Christian community of Rome. Fabian can reliably be regarded as a victim of the persecution of Emperor Decius, the next available evidence comes from the schism between Novatian and Cornelius, both elected bishop by their own factions, and both writing to Cyprian, bishop of Carthage for support. Mark was the first to designate the bishop of Ostia as the first among the consecrators of the new bishop of Rome, even with this new title, the method of selection of the bishop of Rome remained much the same.
Both the clergy and the laity continued to participate in the selection, other trends can be observed, as well, such as father-to-son succession between Pope Anastasius I and Pope Innocent I. Emperor Honorius stepped in to resolve the schism between Eulalius and Pope Boniface I, siding with Eulalius first and Boniface I. The Roman Senate disliked the lack of election and denounced Felix, affirming a decree of Pope Anastasius II, Boniface II was supported only by a minority of the clergy, with the larger share supporting Dioscorus, with only Dioscoruss death halting the schism. In fact, Athalaric himself was able to engineer the election of Pope Silverius, upon his invasion of Italy, Justinian I forced Silverius to abdicate and in his place installed Pope Vigilius, a former papal legate to Constantinople. Justinian next appointed Pope Pelagius I, holding only an election to replace Vigilius. Afterwards, Justinian was content with power of approval of the pope, justinians successors continued this practice for over a century.
The continuing power of appointment of the Byzantine emperor can be seen in the legend of Pope Gregory I writing to Constantinople and this abated factionalism for the next four successions, each resulting in quick elections and imperial approval. However, Pope Severinus was forced to wait 20 months for approval in 640. So Pope Martin I refused to wait, insisting on being consecrated only days after his election and this resulted in his abduction by Constans II to Constantinople in 653, where he was tried and sentenced to exile
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I, known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and he became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Two years later, the term sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire and he was formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule, Barbarossa means red beard in Italian, in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia. He was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, Frederick therefore descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empires prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empires greatest medieval emperors, in 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia, and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade.
The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself, when Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdoms princely electors designated him as the next German king and he was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days later, on 9 March 1152. Fredericks father was from the Hohenstaufen family, and his mother was from the Welf family, the Hohenstaufens were often called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia, the Welfs, in a similar Italianization, were called Guelfs. The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, for a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was largely a nominal title with no real power. The king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, the royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown.
When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in abeyance for over twenty-five years. The only real claim to lay in the rich cities of northern Italy. The Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125, one of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany. When Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, the Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, would not be appeased, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy. Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, the Germany that Frederick tried to unite was a patchwork of more than 1600 individual states, each with its own prince. A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large, many were too small to pinpoint on a map. The titles afforded to the German king were Caesar, Augustus, by the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan
The Archdiocese of Milan is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza and Varese. It has long maintained its own Latin liturgical rite, the Ambrosian rite, among its past archbishops, the better known are Saint Ambrose, Saint Charles Borromeo, Pope Pius XI and blessed Pope Paul VI. Milans Archdiocese is the largest in Europe, according to the legend, the Gospel was brought to Milan by St. Barnabas, and the first Bishop of Milan, St. Anathalon, was a disciple of that apostle. The persecutions ended in 313 when the Emperors Constantine I and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan which proclaimed the religious toleration in the Roman Empire, historically the Milanese church has been in full communion with the Papacy. Among its bishops should be named Eustorgius I and Dionysius, who firmly opposed apostasy imposed by the Roman Emperor Constantius II, dionysus was exiled to Cappadocia, while the Romans put Auxentius on the episcopal throne of Milan. At the death of Auxentius, the great Saint Ambrose was elected bishop by the people of Milan, among his successors, Simplicianus and Dacius, who lived almost always in exile at Constantinople on account of the Gothic War.
During the Lombards invasion many things happened to the church in Milan, the Schism of the Three Chapters guaranteed autonomy of the Milanese Church for 38 years, since the Lombards were enemies of the Byzantines. At the siege of Milan by the Lombard Alboin, the Bishop Honoratus sought refuge in Genoa, with a number of his clergy. In the 10th-century the archbishops of Milan became feudatory of the Emperor extending his jurisdiction to all North-West Italy, the most distinguished of these was Ariberto da Intimiano. His pastoral efforts were followed by his successors, such as Federico Borromeo, the church of Milan was governed from 1979 to 2002 by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S. J. who had been a favorite of the Catholic left. Cardinal Scola had succeeded the retiring Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, who had been in office since 2002 and had been a possible papabile, Cardinal Scola is assisted by a Vicar General, the Auxiliary Bishop Mario Delpini, and two other Auxiliary Bishops, Erminio De Scalzi and Luigi Stucchi.
The Seminary of the archdiocese has the see in Venegono Inferiore. The minor seminary were located in Seveso, a list of the bishops and archbishops of Milan is engraved in plaque in the South nave of the Cathedral of Milan, but such list contains some historical errors. The data here below follow the work of Eugenio Cazzani and they are divided between the Province of Bergamo, the Province of Como, the Province of Lecco, the Province of Milan, the Province of Pavia, and the Province of Varese. Ambrosian chant Ambrosian Rite Cathedral of Milan Angelo Scola Catholic Hierarchy Profile of the Archdiocese of Milan Herbermann, List of archbishops, part one List of archbishops, part two News from the Archdiocese of Milan
Kingdom of Sicily
The Kingdom of Sicily was a state that existed in the south of the Apennine peninsula from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816. It was a state of the County of Sicily, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula. Until 1282 the Kingdom covered not only the island of Sicily, but the whole Mezzogiorno region of the southern Apennines, the island was divided into three regions, Val di Mazara, Val Demone and Val di Noto, val being the Arabic word meaning district. In 1282, a revolt against Angevin rule, known as the Sicilian Vespers, the island became a separate kingdom under the Crown of Aragon. After 1302 the island kingdom was called the Kingdom of Trinacria. Often the kingship was vested in another such as the King of Aragon. In 1816 the island Kingdom of Sicily merged with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1860 the Two Sicilies were amalgamated with Sardinia and several northern city-states and duchies to form the Kingdom of Sardinia which in 1861 renamed itself the Kingdom of Italy, after taking Apulia and Calabria, Roger occupied Messina with an army of 700 knights.
In 1068, Roger I of Sicily and his men defeated the Muslims at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily being completely under Norman control by 1091. The Norman Kingdom was created on Christmas Day,1130, by Roger II of Sicily, with the agreement of Pope Innocent II, Roger threw his support behind the Antipope Anacletus II, who enthroned him as King of Sicily on Christmas Day 1130. In 1136, the rival of Anacletus, Pope Innocent II, convinced Lothair III, Two main armies, one led by Lothair, the other by Duke of Bavaria Henry the Proud, invaded Sicily. On the river Tronto, William of Loritello surrendered to Lothair and this was followed by Count Hugh II of Molise. The two armies were united at Bari, from where in 1137 they continued their campaign, Roger offered to give Apulia as a fief to the Empire, which Lothair refused after being pressured by Innocent. At the same period the army of Lothair revolted, who had hoped for the complete conquest of Sicily, gave Capua and Apulia from the Kingdom of Sicily to Rogers enemies.
Innocent protested, claiming that Apulia fell under papal claims, Lothair turned north, but died while crossing the Alps on December 4,1137. At the Second Council of the Lateran in April 1139, Innocent excommunicated Roger for maintaining a schismatic attitude, on March 22,1139, at Galluccio, Rogers son Roger III, Duke of Apulia ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured the pope. On March 25,1139, Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and it was through his admiral George of Antioch that Roger proceeded to conquer the Mahdia in Africa, taking the unofficial title King of Africa. At the same time Rogers fleet attacked the Byzantine Empire, making Sicily the leading power in the Mediterranean Sea for almost a century
The word excommunication means putting a specific individual or group out of communion. In some religions, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the member or group, Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the religion, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. 1 Corinthians 5, 1-8 directs the church at Corinth to excommunicate a man for sexual immorality, in 2 Corinthians 2, 5-11, the man, having repented and suffered the punishment by the majority is restored to the church. In Romans 16,17, Paul writes to mark those who cause divisions contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned and avoid them. Also, in 2 John 1, 10-11, the writer advises believers that whosoever transgresseth and he that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed, within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
Excommunication can be either latae sententiae or ferendae sententiae, according to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but simply forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities. g. A thus excommunicated bishop cannot validly invest a priest as pastor of a vacant parish and they are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life. These are the effects for those who have incurred a latae sententiae excommunication. Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure, in many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary and these can delegate a priest to act on their behalf.
Such ceremonies are not held today, and instead are simply announced by the bishop, interdict is a censure similar to excommunication. It too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, in the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between minor and major excommunication and those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can even be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there, the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. They are to be removed from participation in the Divine Liturgy, and they are deprived of the right to vote or to be elected. Minor excommunication is roughly equivalent to the interdict in Western law, under current law, an excommunicate is never vitandus.
Persons belonging to an Eastern Catholic Church are never subject to a latae sententiae punishment, according to the Code of Canon Law of 1917, the excommunications reserved to the Apostolic See were grouped in three categories, those reserved 1
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy, the metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. Three of Shakespeares plays are set in Verona and Juliet, The Two Gentlemen of Verona and it is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy at all, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities many times over. The city has been awarded World Heritage Site status by UNESCO because of its structure and architecture. According to a theory that considers the geographical position of the city, Verona is short for Versus Romae which means In the direction of Rome because as italian people say All roads lead to Rome. The exclamation Vae Romae if understood in Latin means Alas Rome, in fact, to express distress or denounce a disgrace ancient Romans used the Latin interjection vae.
So, you explain the famous poem by William Shakespeare There is no world without Verona walls, But purgatory, torture. Hence-banished is banishd from the world, And worlds exile is death, the writer would express a Roman concept through its character named Romeo, a name that invokes Rome, according to which the city of Verona was a boundary between the Roman world and barbaric one. Verona was a place of passage and to horses, for those who wanted to go and had walked the Via Claudia Augusta. So the expression Vae Romae Alas Rome would indicate spirit of the place, another theory is that it is connected to the river. Vera was a name of the river Adige before the adoption of the current name, as in many similar instances in Europe the name of the town is formed with the addition of suffix -ona which means settlement over. The city was sometimes known as Welsch-Bern in German. The precise details of Veronas early history remain a mystery, one theory is it was a city of the Euganei, who were obliged to give it up to the Cenomani.
With the conquest of the Valley of the Po the Veronese territory became Roman, Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC, and a municipium in 49 BC when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important because it was at the intersection of several roads, stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there. It remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a day in 541. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city, in 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when they were fully overthrown that the Goths surrendered it
Matilda of Tuscany
Between 6 and 11 May 1111 she was crowned Imperial Vicar and Vice-Queen of Italy by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor at the Castle of Bianello. Matildas mother, Beatrice of Lorraine, was the Emperors first cousin, renowned for her learning, Matilda was literate in Latin, as well as reputed to speak German and French. The extent of Matildas education in military matters is debated and it has been asserted that she was taught strategy, tactics and wielding weapons, but recent scholarship finds these claims contentious. Following the death of their father in 1052, Matildas brother, inherited the family lands, Matildas sister, died the next year, making Matilda heir presumptive to Fredericks personal holdings. Fredericks rather suspicious death soon thereafter made Matilda the last member of the House of Canossa and daughter were taken to Germany, but Godfrey successfully avoided capture. Unable to defeat him, Henry sought a rapproachment, the Emperors death in October 1056, which brought to throne the underage Henry IV, seems to have accelerated the negotiations.
Godfrey was reconciled with the crown and recognized as Margrave of Tuscany in December, while Beatrice and Matilda were released. By the time she and her returned to Italy, in the company of Pope Victor II. Matildas mother and stepfather became heavily involved in the series of disputed papal elections during their regency, Godfreys brother Frederick became Pope Stephen IX, while both of the following two popes, Nicholas II and Alexander II, had been Tuscan bishops. Matilda made her first journey to Rome with her family in the entourage of Nicholas in 1059, Godfrey and Beatrice actively assisted them in dealing with antipopes, while the adolescent Matildas role remains unclear. In 1069, Godfrey the Bearded lay dying in Verdun and Matilda hastened to reach Lorraine, anxious to ensure a smooth transition of power. The marriage proved a failure, the death of their child shortly after birth in August 1071. By the end of 1071, Matilda had left her husband, Matildas bold decision to repudiate her husband came at a cost, but ensured her independence.
Beatrice started preparing Matilda for rule by holding court jointly with her and, Godfrey fiercely protested the separation and demanded that Matilda come back to him, which she repeatedly refused. The Duke descended into Italy in 1072, determined to save the marriage and he sought the help of both Matildas mother and her ally, the newly elected Pope Gregory VII, promising military aid to the latter. Matildas resolution was unshakable, and Godfrey returned to Lorraine alone and he had lost all hope by 1074. Rather than supporting the Pope as promised, Godfrey turned his attention to imperial affairs, the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy was brewing between Gregory and Henry, with both men claiming the right to appoint bishops and abbots within the Empire. Matilda and Godfrey soon found themselves on opposing sides of the dispute, German chroniclers, writing of the synod held at Worms in January 1076, even suggested that Godfrey inspired Henrys allegation of a licentious affair between Gregory and Matilda
Bologna is the largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of an area of about one million. The first settlements back to at least 1000 BC. The city has been a centre, first under the Etruscans. Home to the oldest university in the world, University of Bologna, founded in 1088, Bologna is an important transportation crossroad for the roads and trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical and nutritional industries have their headquarters. According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index of 2009, Bologna is the first Italian city, Bologna is home to numerous prestigious cultural and political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 it was declared European capital of culture and in 2006, the city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 together with 45 other cities from around the world.
Bologna is one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country, after a long decline, Bologna was reborn in the 5th century under Bishop Petronius. According to legend, St. Petronius built the church of S. Stefano. After the fall of Rome, Bologna was a stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king Liutprand, the Germanic conquerors formed a district called addizione longobarda near the complex of S. Stefano. Charlemagne stayed in this district in 786, traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna is widely considered to be the first university. The university originated as a centre of study of medieval Roman law under major glossators. It numbered Dante and Petrarca among its students, the medical school is especially famous. In the 12th century, the families engaged in continual internecine fighting. Troops of Pope Julius II besieged Bologna and sacked the artistic treasures of his palace, in 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII.
Then a plague at the end of the 16th century reduced the population from 72,000 to 59,000, the population recovered to a stable 60, 000–65,000. However, there was great progress during this era, in 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio, the centre of the University
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
Constance, Queen of Sicily
Constance was the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily and the wife of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. She was Queen of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her husband from 1194 to 1197, Constance was the posthumous daughter of Roger II by his third wife Beatrice of Rethel. Rather strange for a princess Constance was not betrothed until she was thirty which gave rise to stories that she had become a nun, boccaccio related in his De mulieribus claris that a prediction that her marriage would destroy Sicily led to her remain celibate. Her betrothal to Henry was announced 29 Oct 1184 at the Augsburg episcopal palace, in 1185 Constance traveled to Milan to celebrate the wedding accompanied by a grand procession of princes and barons. Henry accompanied her to Salerno but had to return to Germany for the funeral of his mother and they were married on 27 January 1186 at Milan. The papacy, an enemy of the emperors, did not want to see the kingdom of southern Italy in German hands, but Henry pressed Pope Celestine III to baptize and crown his son, the Pope put him off.
Nevertheless, after his death in 1189 his cousin, seized the throne. Tancred was illegitimate but he had the support of most of the men of the kingdom such as Vice-Chancellor Matthew of Ajello. On the other hand Archbishop Walter of the Mill, and most of the aristocracy, eventually however, Matthew was able to induce Walter, along with other barons, to support Tancred. While Constances father-in-law Frederick Barbarossa was on a crusade Henry and Constance were forced to stay in Germany, Emperor Frederick died in 1190 and the following year Henry and Constance were crowned Emperor and Empress. Constance accompanied her husband at the head of a imperial army to forcefully take the Sicilian throne from Tancred with the support of the loyal Pisa fleet. The northern towns of Sicily opened their gates to Henry, including the earliest Norman strongholds Capua and Aversa. At Naples Henry met the first resistance of the whole campaign, as a result the imperial army was forced to withdraw from Sicily altogether.
Constance remained in Salerno with a garrison as a sign that Henry would soon return. Nicholas of Ajello, son of Matthew and former Archbishop of Salerno, thus the populace of Salerno saw an opportunity to win some favour with Tancred, so they besieged the defenseless Constance at Castel Terracena. Constance locked herself in her room, locked the windows, and prayed to God for help, after a rapid negotiation with Elia di Gesualdo, a distant relative of Tancred, Constance voluntarily went out under the condition that her German garrison were to be allowed to leave unharmed. She was arrested by Elia and delivered to Tancred in Messina by Admiral Margaritus of Brindisi, on a bireme galley or dromon with 200 rowers. She was in her attire as empress, wearing a dress quilted with gold and decorated with roses, a covered with precious jewels