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Pope Urban V

Pope Urban V, born Guillaume de Grimoard, was Pope from 28 September 1362 until his death in 1370 and was a member of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was the sixth Avignon Pope, the only Avignon pope to be beatified. After his election as pontiff, he continued to follow the Benedictine Rule and modestly, his habits did not always gain him supporters who were used to lives of affluence. Urban V pressed for reform throughout his pontificate and oversaw the restoration and construction of churches and monasteries. One of the goals he set himself upon his election to the Papacy was the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches, he came as close as some of his predecessors and successors, but did not succeed. Guillaume de Grimoard was born in 1310 in the Castle of Grizac in the French region of Languedoc, the second son of Guillaume de Grimoard, Lord of Bellegarde, of Amphélise de Montferrand, he had two brothers, Étienne and Anglic the future cardinal, a sister Delphine. In 1327, Guillaume Grimoard became a Benedictine monk in the small Priory of Chirac, near his home, a dependency of the ancient Abbey of St. Victor near Marseille.

He was sent to St. Victor for his novitiate. After his profession of monastic vows, he was ordained a priest in his own monastery in Chirac in 1334, he studied literature and law at Montpellier, he moved to the University of Toulouse, where he studied law for four years. He earned a doctorate in Canon Law on 31 October 1342, he was appointed Prior of Nôtre-Dame du Pré in the diocese of Auxerre by Pope Clement VI, which he held until his promotion to Saint-Germain en Auxerre in 1352. He began both disciplinary and financial reforms, his new bishop, Jean d'Auxois, however, in concert with the Archbishop of Sens, Guillaume de Melun, made heavy demands on their hospitality, when the latter attempted to impose new exactions, which were resisted by Grimoard, the Archbishop physically abused the Prior, who nonetheless would not submit. Prior Grimoard became Procurator-General for the Order of St. Benedict at the Papal Curia, he became a noted canonist, teaching at Montpellier and Avignon. He was appointed by the Bishop of Clermont, Pierre de Aigrefeuille, to be his Vicar General, which meant in effect that he ruled the diocese on behalf of the bishop.

When Bishop Pierre was transferred to Uzès, Guillaume Grimond became Vicar General of Uzès. Guillaume was named abbot of the monastery of Saint-Germain en Auxerre on 13 February 1352 by Pope Clement VI. In 1359 the town and abbey were captured by the English and subjected to heavy imposts. In the summer of 1352 Pope Clement VI summoned Abbot Guillaume for an assignment. Northern Italy had been in a chaotic state for some time, thanks to the ambitions of the Visconti of Milan, led by Archbishop Giovanni Visconti, he had conquered much of Lombardy, seized the Papal city of Bologna, was invading the borders of Florentine territory. In order to keep a hold on the territory for the Church, the Pope had hit on the scheme of making Archbishop Visconti his Vicar of Bologna for the present, he drew up an agreement on 27 April 1352, which absolved the Visconti of all their transgressions and signed away much of northern Italy. The Pope made the first payment on the subsidy which he was going to provide them.

The Visconti, on their part, had no intention of observing the terms of the pact, one of, the return of the Legation of Bologna to the Papacy, despite the fine words and promises they made in Avignon. On 26 July, Abbot Grimoard and Msgr. Azzo Manzi da Reggio, the Dean of the Cathedral of Aquileia, were presented with written instructions by Pope Clement to go to northern Italy as Apostolic nuncios to deal with the situation. Guillaume was to receive the city of Bologna from the Visconti, who were illegal occupiers, hand it over to Giovanni Visconti as the Papal Vicar, to threaten with ecclesiastical censures any parties who did not adhere to the treaty; this he did on 2 October 1352. Guillaume was allotted 8 gold florins a day for his expenses, his associate Anzo only 4 florins. While he was in Milan he was able to get the Archbishop to renew the treaty, expiring with the King and Queen of Sicily, he was back in Avignon in November 1352. In 1354 Abbot Grimoard was sent to Italy again, this time to Rome, where there was business that needed to be transacted for the Apostolic Camera.

There were serious disorders in the Basilica of St. Peter which needed to be sorted out. In August 1361, he was elected the abbot of the Abbey of Saint-Victor in Marseille. Despite the appointment, he continued to teach as a professor, at least for the next academic year. Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz had been sent to Italy in 1353, to bring under control the notorious Giovanni di Vico of Viterbo, as well as the Malatesta of Rimini and the Ordelaffi family of Forlì. In 1360 Abbot Guillaume was sent to assist him by dealing with Archbishop Visconti's nephew and successor, Bernabò Visconti, their confrontation was so hostile and threatening that the Abbot left and reported back to Pope Innocent the treachery of his vassal. The Pope sent him back to Italy but the utter defeat of Visconti's army, besieging Bologna by Cardinal Albornoz eased the situation considerably. Nonetheless after he was elected pope, Grimoard excommunicated Bernabò Visconti, he returned to France, retired to his castle of Auriol, where he was found on 10 June 1362.

The reason for his retirement to Auriol is not far to seek. The plague was raging in southern France again in 1361 and 1362. Cardinal Pierre des Près died on 16 May 13

List of United States Representatives from Illinois

The following is an alphabetical list of members of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Illinois. For chronological tables of members of both houses of the United States Congress from the state, see United States Congressional Delegations from Illinois; the list of names should be complete as of January 3, 2019. Illinois became the 21st state on December 3, 1818. Illinois's 1st district: Bobby Rush Illinois's 2nd district: Robin Kelly Illinois's 3rd district: Dan Lipinski Illinois's 4th district: Jesús "Chuy" García Illinois's 5th district: Michael Quigley Illinois's 6th district: Sean Casten Illinois's 7th district: Danny K. Davis Illinois's 8th district: Raja Krishnamoorthi Illinois's 9th district: Jan Schakowsky Illinois's 10th district: Brad Schneider Illinois's 11th district: Bill Foster Illinois's 12th district: Mike Bost Illinois's 13th district: Rodney L. Davis Illinois's 14th district: Lauren Underwood Illinois's 15th district: John Shimkus Illinois's 16th district: Adam Kinzinger Illinois's 17th district: Cheri Bustos Illinois's 18th district: Darin LaHood As of February 2020, there are thirty-eight living former members of the House.

The most recent representative to die was Gale Schisler on February 2, 2020. The most serving representatives to die were Henry Hyde on November 29, 2007 and Lane Evans on November 5, 2014. List of United States Senators from Illinois House of Representatives List of Members

Carrollite

Carrollite, CuCo2S4, is a sulfide of copper and cobalt with substantial substitution of nickel for the metal ions, a member of the linnaeite group. It is named after the type locality in Carroll County, Maryland, US, at the Patapsco mine, Sykesville. Space group: Fd3m. Unit cell parameters = a = 9.48 Å, Z = 8. Unit cell volume: V = 851.97 Å3. The linnaeite group is a group of sulfides and selenides with the general formula AB2X4 in which X is sulfur or selenium, A is divalent Fe, Ni, Co or Cu and B is trivalent Co, Ni or, for daubréelite, Cr; the minerals are isometric, space group Fd3m and isostructural with each other and with minerals of the spinel group. The structure of the linnaeite group consists of a cubic close packed array of X. Within the array of Xs there are two types of interstices, one type tetrahedrally co-ordinated and one type octahedrally co-ordinated. One eighth of the tetrahedal sites A are occupied by 2+ cations, half of the octahedral sites B by 3+ cations. Charnock et al. confirmed.

Thus, the ideal formula one would expect for a spinel like carrollite is Cu2+Co3+2S2−4, but as in the case of copper sulfides in general the oxidation state of the copper atom is 1+, not 2+. An assignment of valences as Cu+Co3+2S1.75−4 is more appropriate. The one missing electron per four sulfur atoms is delocalized, leading to metallic conductivity and superconductivity at low temperatures, combined with a complicated magnetic behavior. A solid solution results when one cation can substitute for another across an appreciable composition range. In carrollite Co2+ can substitute for Cu+ at the A sites, when the substitution is complete the mineral formed is called linnaeite, Co2+Co3+2S4; this means that there is a solid solution series between linnaeite. Ni substitutes for both Co and Cu in the carrollite structure, giving a solid solution from carrollite to cuprian siegenite. Siegenite, Co2+Ni3+2S4, is itself a member of the solid solution series between linnaeite and polydymite, Ni2+Ni3+2S4..

Carrollite occurs in hydrothermal vein deposits associated with tetrahedrite, bornite, djurleite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, gersdorffite, cobaltoan calcite, with linnaeite group members linnaeite and polydymite. Phase relations in the Cu-Co-S system have been investigated. At temperatures around 900 °C a chalcocite-digenite solid solution coexists with cobalt sulfides. With decreasing temperature, at 880 °C a carrollite-linnaeite solid solution develops, becoming more copper-rich on cooling, with the carrollite composition at about 500 °C. Below 507 °C covellite is coexists with copper-bearing cattierite. Low chalcocite appears at 103 °C, djurleite appears at 93 °C, digenite disappears and anilite appears around 70 °C. There is some evidence for supergene replacement of an intermediate member of the linnaeite-carrollite series by djurleite. Carrollite is found worldwide.