Richard Read Sr.

Richard Read Sr. was a British-born artist, sent to Australia as a convict. He is known as Richard Read senior to differentiate him from another Richard Read, thought to be his son, who painted in Sydney at the same time. Little is known of Richard Read's early life. Richard Read is said to have been born in London circa 1765. Recent sources suggest that his middle name was Daniel and that his parents were Richard Read and Lydia, née Ames. London business directories for 1805 and 1808 show Read as an animal painter. In July 1812 he was sentenced to fourteen years’ transportation for knowingly possessing forged banknotes, he was transported to Sydney on the Earl Spencer, arriving in Sydney on 9 October 1813. Just eight weeks Read received his ticket of leave. Sarah and their daughter Elizabeth Lydia arrived on the ship Kangaroo in January 1814, his son named Richard and a noted painter himself, arrived in Sydney as a free settler in 1819. The younger Richard Read was estranged from his father, did not acknowledge their relationship.

Read established a drawing school at 37 Pitt Street, Sydney, in 1814. There he taught the art of drawing, sold his own drawings and paintings. Two Read paintings survive from this time: Portrait of John Buckland and Portrait of Elizabeth Isabella Broughton. Though Read claimed to have been taught by the noted British artist Sir Joshua Reynolds, no evidence has been found for this claim, he benefited from the patronage of New South Wales governor Lachlan Macquarie. Read advertised in the Sydney Gazette in 1823, saying that he had completed a number of portraits of Macquarie. A watercolour portrait of Macquarie acquired by the State Library of New South Wales is thought to be one of these. On the reverse, the portrait is labelled'Take notice that none are original pictures of Governor Macquarie but what has got the name of Read marked in Latin with the seal annext Governor Macquarie never sat to any artist in this colony but Read Snr.'Read continued to operate at several studios in Sydney before receiving an absolute pardon in July 1826.

Shortly thereafter, no further trace is found of Read. As he is not listed in the 1828 census of new South Wales, it is possible that he returned to England. Read painted portraits of notable Sydney identities including the Macquarie family, Barron Field and Elizabeth Marsden, wife of Samuel Marsden. These, along with several of Read's Sydney landscapes and paintings of birds and animals, are located at the State Library of New South Wales

Frederick Bakewell

Frederick Collier Bakewell was an English physicist who improved on the concept of the facsimile machine introduced by Alexander Bain in 1842 and demonstrated a working laboratory version at the 1851 World's Fair in London. Born in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, he moved to Hampstead, Middlesex where he lived until his death. Bakewell was married to Henrietta Darbyshire with whom he had two sons and Armitage. Bakewell's "image telegraph" had many of the features of modern facsimile machines, replaced the pendulums of Bain's system with synchronized rotating cylinders; the system involved drawing on a piece of metal foil with a special insulating ink. A metal stylus driven by a screw thread traveled across the surface of the cylinder as it turned, tracing out a path over the foil; each time the stylus crossed the insulating ink, the current through the foil to the stylus was interrupted. At the receiver, a similar pendulum-driven stylus marked chemically treated paper with an electric current as the receiving cylinder rotated.

The chief problems with Bakewell's machine were how to keep the two cylinders synchronized and to make sure that the transmitting and receiving styli started at the same point on the cylinder at the same time. Despite these problems, Bakewell's machine was capable of transmitting handwriting and simple line drawings along telegraph wires; the system, never became commercial. In 1861, the system was improved by an Italian priest, Giovanni Caselli, able to use it to send handwritten messages as well as photographs on his pantelegraph, he introduced the first commercial telefax service between Paris and Lyon eleven years before the invention of workable telephones. In addition to his work on facsimile transmission, he held patents for many other innovations. Bakewell wrote texts on physics and natural phenomena. Philosophical conversations – 1833 Electric science. Bakewell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Frederick Bakewell at Internet Archive