Pope Leo IX
Pope Leo IX, born Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg, was Pope from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054. He was a powerful ruler of central Italy while holding the papacy, he is regarded as a saint by the Catholic Church, his feast day celebrated on 19 April. Leo IX is considered the most significant German Pope of the Middle Ages, he was a native of Egisheim, Upper Alsace. His family was of noble rank, his father, Count Hugh, was a cousin of Emperor Conrad II, he was educated at Toul. In the latter capacity he rendered important political services to his relative Conrad II, afterwards to Emperor Henry III, he became known as an earnest and reforming ecclesiastic by the zeal he showed in spreading the rule of the order of Cluny. On the death of Pope Damasus II in 1048, Bruno was selected as his successor by an assembly at Worms in December. Both the Emperor and the Roman delegates concurred. However, Bruno favored a canonical election and stipulated as a condition of his acceptance that he should first proceed to Rome and be elected by the voice of the clergy and people of Rome.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he met with abbot Hugh of Cluny at Besançon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII. Leo IX favored traditional morality in his reformation of the Catholic Church. One of his first public acts was to hold the well-known Easter synod of 1049, at which celibacy of the clergy was required anew; the Easter synod was where the Pope at least succeeded in making clear his own convictions against every kind of simony. The greater part of the year that followed was occupied in one of those progresses through Italy and France which form a marked feature in Leo IX's pontificate. After presiding over a synod at Pavia, he joined Henry III in Saxony and accompanied him to Cologne and Aachen, he summoned a meeting of the higher clergy in Reims in which several important reforming decrees were passed. At Mainz he held a council at which the Italian and French as well as the German clergy were represented, ambassadors of the Greek emperor were present.
Here too and the marriage of the clergy were the principal matters dealt with. After his return to Rome he held another Easter synod on 29 April 1050, it was occupied with the controversy about the teachings of Berengar of Tours. In the same year he presided over provincial synods at Salerno and Vercelli, in September revisited his native Germany, returning to Rome in time for a third Easter synod, at which the question of the reordination of those, ordained by simonists was considered. In 1052 he joined the Emperor at Pressburg and vainly sought to secure the submission of the Hungarians. At Regensburg and Worms, the papal presence was celebrated with various ecclesiastical solemnities. In early 1053, Leo arbitrated a dispute between the archbishop of Carthage and the bishop of Gummi-Mahdia over ecclesiastical precedence. In constant fear of attack from the Normans in the south of Italy, the Byzantines turned in desperation to the Normans' own spiritual chief, Pope Leo IX, according to William of Apulia, begged him "to liberate Italy that now lacks its freedom and to force that wicked people, who are pressing Apulia under their yoke, to leave."
After a fourth Easter synod in 1053, Leo IX set out against the Normans in the south with an army of Italians and Swabian mercenaries. "As fervent Christians the Normans were reluctant to fight their spiritual leader and tried to sue for peace but the Swabians mocked them – battle was inevitable."Leo IX led the army himself, but his forces suffered total defeat at the Battle of Civitate on 15 June 1053. Nonetheless, on going out from the city to meet the victorious enemy he was received with every token of submission, pleas for forgiveness and oaths of fidelity and homage. From June 1053 to March 1054 the Pope was held hostage at Benevento, in honourable captivity, until he acknowledged the Normans conquests in Calabria and Apulia, he did not long survive his return to Rome, where he died on 19 April 1054. Michael Cærularius, through the metropolitan of Bulgaria wrote to the pope denouncing the use of unleavened bread and fasting days in the Latin church, and afterwards closed down the Latin rite churches of Constantinople and stopped remembrance for the Pope in the diptychs and wrote letters to the other patriarchs against the pope. to which he earned denouncement from the Patriarch of Antioch, Peter III for trying to incite schism within the church.
Leo IX sent a letter to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1054, that cited a large portion of the Donation of Constantine, believing it genuine. The official status of this letter is acknowledged in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 5, entry on Donation of Constantine, page 120: "The first pope who used it in an official act and relied upon it, was Leo IX.
Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy and the capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about 80 kilometres southeast of Florence at an elevation of 296 metres above sea level, it is 30 km west of Città di Castello. In 2013 the population was about 99,000. Described by Livy as one of the Capitae Etruriae, Arezzo is believed to have been one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities—the so-called Dodecapolis, part of the Etruscan League. Etruscan remains establish that the acropolis of San Cornelio, a small hill next to that of San Donatus, was occupied and fortified in the Etruscan period. There is other significant Etruscan evidence: parts of walls, an Etruscan necropolis on Poggio del Sole, most famously, the two bronzes, the "Chimera of Arezzo" and the "Minerva" which were discovered in the 16th century and taken to Florence. Increasing trade connections with Greece brought some elite goods to the Etruscan nobles of Arezzo: the krater painted by Euphronios c. 510 BC depicting a battle against Amazons is unsurpassed.
Conquered by the Romans in 311 BC, Arretium became a military station on the via Cassia, the road by which Rome expanded into the basin of the Po. Arretium sided with Marius in the Roman Civil War, the victorious Sulla planted a colony of his veterans in the half-demolished city, as Arretium Fidens; the old Etruscan aristocracy was not extinguished: Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, whose name is eponymous with "patron of the arts", was of the noble Aretine Etruscan stock. The city continued to flourish as Arretium Vetus, the third largest city in Italy in the Augustan period, well known in particular for its exported pottery manufactures, the characteristic moulded and glazed Arretine ware, bucchero-ware of dark clay and red-painted vases. Around 261 AD the town council of Arezzo dedicated an inscription to its patron L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus. See that article for discussion of the possible political/military significance of Volusianus's association with the city. In the 3rd to 4th century Arezzo became an episcopal seat: it is one of the few cities whose succession of bishops are known by name without interruption to the present day, in part because they were the feudal lords of the city in the Middle Ages.
The Roman city was demolished through the Gothic War and the invasion of the Lombards dismantled, as elsewhere throughout Europe, the stones reused for fortifications by the Aretines. Only the amphitheater remained; the commune of Arezzo threw off the control of its bishop in 1098 and was an independent city-state until 1384. Ghibelline in tendency, it opposed Guelph Florence. In 1252 the city founded the Studium. After the rout of the Battle of Campaldino, which saw the death of Bishop Guglielmino Ubertini, the fortunes of Ghibelline Arezzo started to ebb, apart from a brief period under the Tarlati family, chief among them Guido Tarlati, who became bishop in 1312 and maintained good relations with the Ghibelline party; the Tarlati sought support in an alliance with Forlì and its overlords, the Ordelaffi, but failed: Arezzo yielded to Florentine domination in 1384. During this period Piero della Francesca worked in the church of San Francesco di Arezzo producing the splendid frescoes restored, which are Arezzo's most famous works.
Afterwards the city began an economical and cultural decay, which ensured that its medieval centre was preserved. In the 18th century the neighbouring marshes of the Val di Chiana, south of Arezzo, were drained and the region became less malarial. At the end of the-century French troops led by Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Arezzo, but the city soon turned into a resistance base against the invaders with the "Viva Maria" movement, winning the city the role of provincial capital. In 1860 Arezzo became part of the Kingdom of Italy. City buildings suffered heavy damage during World War II; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Arezzo War Cemetery, where 1,266 men are buried, is located to the North West of the city. Pope Benedict XVI visited Arezzo and two other Italian municipalities on May 13, 2012. Arezzo is set on a steep hill rising from the floodplain of the River Arno. In the upper part of the town are the cathedral, the town hall and the Medici Fortress, from which the main streets branch off towards the lower part as far as the gates.
The upper part of the town maintains its medieval appearance despite the addition of structures. Arezzo's city proper is near the high risk areas for earthquakes, but located in a transitional area where the risk for severe earthquakes is much lower than in nearby Umbria and Abruzzo, albeit it is more vulnerable than Florence. Notable earthquakes are still a rare phenomenon in the province, with a 4.6 quake 25 kilometres to its north-east that claimed no lives on 26 November 2001 the exception. Under the Köppen climate classification Arezzo is either a humid subtropical climate or an oceanic climate, having traditionally leaned towards the latter, it has uncharacteristically hot summer days for a maritime climate, with the lows moderating the average temps and bringing it to sit right on the border with subtropical. The Piazza Grande is
Kingdom of Germany
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries. East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective; the initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies, who chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy. Like medieval England and medieval France, medieval Germany consolidated from a conglomerate of smaller tribes, nations or polities by the High Middle Ages; the term rex teutonicorum first came into use in Italy around the year 1000. It was popularized by the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy as a political tool against Emperor Henry IV. In the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election.
Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts and chanceries dropped from use. After the Imperial Reform and Reformation settlement, the German part of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Reichskreise, which defined Germany against imperial territories outside the Imperial Circles: imperial Italy, the Bohemian Kingdom, the Old Swiss Confederacy. There are few references to a German realm distinct from the Holy Roman Empire; the eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis: the Kingdom of the Eastern Franks or East Francia. It was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum; the "east Franks" themselves were the people of Franconia, settled by Franks. The other peoples of East Francia were Saxons, Frisians and the like, referred to as Teutonici and sometimes as Franks as ethnic identities changed over the course of the ninth century. An entry in the Annales Iuvavenses for the year 919 contemporary but surviving only in a twelfth-century copy, records that Baiuarii sponte se reddiderunt Arnolfo duci et regnare ei fecerunt in regno teutonicorum, i.e. that "Arnulf, Duke of the Bavarians, was elected to reign in the Kingdom of the Germans".
Historians disagree on. Beginning in the late eleventh century, during the Investiture Controversy, the Papal curia began to use the term regnum teutonicorum to refer to the realm of Henry IV in an effort to reduce him to the level of the other kings of Europe, while he himself began to use the title rex Romanorum or King of the Romans to emphasise his divine right to the imperium Romanum; this title was employed most by the German kings themselves, though they did deign to employ "Teutonic" titles when it was diplomatic, such as Frederick Barbarossa's letter to the Pope referring to his receiving the coronam Theutonici regni. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae and règne or royaume d'Allemagne; the terms imperium/imperator or empire/emperor were employed for the German kingdom and its rulers, which indicates a recognition of their imperial stature but combined with "Teutonic" and "Alemannic" references a denial of their Romanitas and universal rule.
The term regnum Germaniae begins to appear in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans, his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a "more conceived German kingdom" found no real consolidation; the title of "king of the Romans" became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome. The reign was dated to begin either on the day of the coronation; the election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund. Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval: after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus; that is, he was "emperor elect": a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet emperor, but only that he was emperor by virtue of the election rather than papal coronation.
At the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperor's lifetime resumed. For this reason, the title "king of the Romans" came to mean heir-apparent, the successor elected while the emperor was still alive; the Archbishop
Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Ostrogoths, ruler of Italy, regent of the Visigoths, a patrician of the Roman Empire. As ruler of the combined Gothic realms, Theoderic controlled an empire stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Adriatic Sea, he kept good relations between Ostrogoths and Romans, maintained a Roman legal administration and oversaw a flourishing scholarly culture and the largest building program in Italy in 100 years. Theoderic was born in Pannonia in 454 as the son of king Theodemir, a Germanic Amali nobleman, his concubine Ereleuva. From 461 to 471, Theoderic grew up as a hostage in Constantinople, received a privileged education under imperial direction, succeeded his father as leader of the Pannonian Ostrogoths in 473. Settling his people in lower Moesia, Theoderic came into conflict with Thracian Ostrogoths led by Theodoric Strabo, whom he supplanted, uniting the peoples in 484. Emperor Zeno subsequently gave him the title of Patrician, Vir gloriosus, the office of magister militum, appointed him as consul.
Seeking further gains, Theoderic ravaged the provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire threatening Constantinople itself. In 488, Emperor Zeno ordered Theoderic to overthrow the Germanic foederatus and King of Italy, Odoacer. After a victorious four-year war, Theoderic killed Odoacer with his own hands while they shared a meal, settled his 200,000 to 250,000 people in Italy, founded an Ostrogothic Kingdom based in Ravenna. Theoderic extended his hegemony over the Vandal Kingdoms through marriage alliances. In 511, the Visigothic Kingdom was brought under Theoderic's direct control, forming a Gothic empire that extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Adriatic Sea. Theoderic's achievements began to unravel in his years; the Burgundians and Vandals threw off Ostrogothic hegemony by 523, Theoderic's presumptive heir to both Gothic realms and son-in-law Eutharic died in 522, throwing his succession into doubt. Theoderic's good relations with the Roman Senate deteriorated due to a presumed senatorial conspiracy in 522, and, in 523, Theoderic had the philosopher and court official Boethius and Boethius' father-in-law Symmachus executed on charges of treason related to the alleged plot.
Theoderic died in Ravenna on 30 August 526, was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric, with Theoderic's daughter Amalasuntha serving as regent. The Visigothic Kingdom re-acquired its independence on Theoderic's death. Seeking to restore the glory of ancient Rome, he ruled Italy in its most peaceful and prosperous period since Valentinian I. Memories of his reign made him a hero of German legends, as Dietrich von Bern; the man who would rule under the name of Theoderic was born in AD 454, on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum. This was just a year, his Gothic name, reconstructed by linguists as *Þiudareiks, translates into "people-king" or "ruler of the people". The son of King Theodemir and Ereleuva, Theoderic went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Byzantine Emperor Leo the Thracian, he was Leo's hostage at the Great Palace of Constantinople from 461 to 471 and was well-educated by Constantinople's best teachers.
Theoderic was treated with favor by Zeno. He settled his people in Epirus in 479 with the help of his relative Sidimund. Theoderic became magister militum in 483, one year he became consul in a ceremony in the presence of Emperor Zeno. Afterwards, he returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was 31 years old and became their king in 488; the legend that he was illiterate arose from the fact that he used a stamp to affix his approval of laws. At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati of the Romans, but were becoming restless and difficult for Zeno to manage. Not long after Theoderic became king, the two men worked out an arrangement beneficial to both sides; the Ostrogoths needed a place to live, Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer, the King of Italy who had come to power in 476. Ostensibly a viceroy for Zeno, Odoacer was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. At Zeno's encouragement, Theoderic invaded Odoacer's kingdom.
In this endeavor he received the support of the Rugian king Frideric, the son of Theoderic's cousin Giso. Theoderic moved with his people towards Italy in the autumn of 488. On the way he was opposed by the Gepids, whom he defeated at Sirmium in August 489. Arriving in Italy, Theoderic won the battles of Isonzo and Verona in 489, he was defeated by Odoacer at Faenza in 490, but regained the upper hand after securing victory in the Battle of the Adda River on August 11, 490. In 493 he took Ravenna. On February 2, 493, Theoderic and Odoacer signed a treaty that assured both parties would rule over Italy. A banquet was organised on 15 March 493. At this banquet, after making a toast, killed Odoacer. Theoderic struck him on the collarbone. Like Odoacer, Theoderic was ostensibly only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, dealings between the empero
Bishops of Regensburg
The Bishops of Regensburg are bishops of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg, Germany. The seat of the bishops is Regensburg Cathedral; the diocese was founded in 739. The bishops were Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, ruling a territory known as the Prince-Bishopric of Regensburg, they were not among the most powerful Prince-Bishops, due to the existence of other reichsfrei authorities in Regensburg that prevented them from consolidating a major territorial base. With the dissolution of the Archbishopric of Mainz on that territory's annexation by France in 1802, the Bishopric of Regensburg was elevated to the Archbishopric of Regensburg, it was part of the Principality of Regensburg, ruled by the Prince-Primate Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg. The end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and its aftermath saw the end of the territorial claim of the bishops. With the death of Dalberg in 1817, the archdiocese was downgraded to being a suffragan of the Archbishops of Munich and Freising. Itinerant bishops before the foundation of the diocese: Saint Emmeram Saint Rupert Saint Erhard Bishops since the foundation of the diocese of Regensburg in 739: Gaubald Sigerich Simpert or Sindbert Adalwin Baturich Erchanfried Ambricho Aspert Tuto Isangrim Gunther Michael Saint Wolfgang Gebhard I of Swabia Gebhard II of Hohenwart Gebhard III of Hohenlohe Otto of Riedenburg Gebhard IV of Gosham Hartwig I of Spanheim Konrad I Heinrich I of Wolfratshausen Hartwig II of Ortenburg Eberhard the Swabian Konrad II of Raitenbuch Konrad III of Laichling Konrad IV of Frontenhausen Siegfried Albert I of Pietengau Saint Albertus Magnus Leo Thundorfer Heinrich II von Rotteneck Konrad V von Luppurg Nikolaus von Ybbs Friedrich von Zollern-Nürnberg Heinrich III von Stein Konrad VI von Haimberg Theoderich von Abensberg Johann von Moosburg Albert III von Stauf Johann II von Streitberg Konrad VII von Soest Friedrich II von Parsberg Friedrich III von Plankenfels Rupert I Heinrich IV von Absberg Regiomontanus Rupert II John III of the Palatinate Pankraz von Sinzenhofen Georg von Pappenheim Vitus von Fraunberg David Kölderer von Burgstall Philipp von Bayern Sigmund von Fugger Wolfgang II von Hausen Albert IV von Toerring-Stein Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg Johann Georg von Herberstein Adam Lorenz von Toerring-Stein Guidobald von Thun Albrecht Sigismund von Bayern Joseph Clemens of Bavaria Clemens August I of Bavaria Johann Theodor of Bavaria Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony Anton Ignaz von Fugger-Glött Maximilian Prokop von Toerring-Jettenbach Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, Archbishop of Regensburg sede vacante 1817–1821 Johann Nepomuk Wolf Johann Michael Sailer Georg Michael Wittmann Franz Xaver Schwäbl Valentin Riedel Ignatius von Senestrey Dr. Anton von Henle Dr. Michael Buchberger Dr. Rudolf Graber Manfred Müller Gerhard Ludwig Müller Rudolf Voderholzer Ulrich Aumayer, O.
F. M. Johann Ludwig von Windsheim, O. S. A. Johann Schlecht, O. S. A. Peter Krafft Johann Kluspeck, C. R. S. A. Johann Zolner Georg Waldeisen Georg Riedl Johann Deublinger Johann Baptist Pichlmair Stephan Nebelmair Otto Heinrich Pachmair Sebastian Denick Franz Weinhart Albert Ernst von Wartenberg Gottfried Langwerth von Simmern Franz Joachim Schmid von Altenstadt Johann Georg von Stinglheim Johann Anton von Wolframsdorf Adam Ernst Joseph Bernclau von Schönreith Valentin Anton von Schneid Johann Nepomuk von Wolf Appointed, Bishop of Regensberg Karl Josef Jerome von Kolborn Georg Michael Wittmann Bonifaz Kaspar von Urban Sigismund Felix von Ow-Felldorf Johann Baptist Hierl Johannes Baptist Höcht Josef Hiltl Karl Borromäus Flügel Vinzenz Guggenberger Wilhelm Schraml Reinhard Pappenberger Josef Graf
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The Salian dynasty was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The dynasty provided four German Kings. After the death of the last Saxon of the Ottonian Dynasty in 1024, the elective titles of King of the Germans and three years Holy Roman Emperor both passed to the first monarch of the Salian dynasty in the person of Conrad II, the only son of Count Henry of Speyer and Adelheid of Alsace, he was elected German King in 1024 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 26 March 1027. The four Salian kings of the dynasty—Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, Henry V—ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 to 1125, established their monarchy as a major European power, they achieved the development of a permanent administrative system based on a class of public officials answerable to the crown. Werner of Worms and his son Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine, who died in 955, founded the ancestral dynasty. Conrad the Red married Liutgarde, a daughter of Emperor Otto I, their son Otto I, Duke of Carinthia ruled Carinthia from 978 to 1004.
Duke Otto had three sons: Bruno, who became Pope Gregory V. Henry was the father of the first Salian Emperor Conrad II. Pope Leo IX had family ties to the dynasty, since his grandfather Hugo III was the brother of Adelheid, the grandmother of Henry III. After the death of the last Saxon Emperor Henry II the first Salian regent Conrad II was elected by the majority of the Prince-electors and was crowned German king in Mainz on 8 September 1024. Early in 1026 Conrad went to Milan, where archbishop of Milan, crowned him king of Italy; when Rudolph III, King of Burgundy died 1032, Conrad II claimed this kingship on the basis of an inheritance Henry II had extorted from the former in 1006. Despite some opposition, the Burgundian and Provençal nobles paid homage to Conrad in Zürich in 1034; this Kingdom of Burgundy would become known as the Kingdom of Arles under Conrad's successors. In 1028 Conrad II had his son Henry III elected and anointed king of Germany. Henry's tenure led to an overstatement of unknown sacral kingship.
So during this reign Speyer Cathedral was expanded to be the largest church in Western Christendom. Henry's conception of a legitimate power of royal disposition in the duchies was successful against the dukes, thus secured royal control. However, in Lorraine, this led from which Henry emerged as the winner, but in southern Germany a powerful opposition group was formed in the years 1052–1055. 1046 Henry ended the papal schism, freed the Papacy from dependence on the Roman nobility, laid the basis for its universal applicability. His early death in 1056 was long regarded as a disaster for the Empire; the early Salians owed much of their success to their alliance with the Church, a policy begun by Otto I, which gave them the material support they needed to subdue rebellious dukes. In time, the Church came to regret this close relationship; the alliance broke down in 1075 during what came to be known as the Investiture Controversy, a struggle in which the reformist Pope, Gregory VII, demanded that Emperor Henry IV renounce his rights over the Church in Germany.
The pope attacked the concept of monarchy by divine right and gained the support of significant elements of the German nobility interested in limiting imperial absolutism. More important, the pope forbade ecclesiastical officials under pain of excommunication to support Henry as they had so done in the past. In the end, Henry IV journeyed to Canossa in northern Italy in 1077 to do penance and to receive absolution from the pope. However, he resumed the practice of lay investiture and arranged the election of an antipope in 1080; the monarch's struggle with the papacy resulted in a war that ravaged through the Holy Roman Empire from 1077 until the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The reign of the last ruler of the Salian dynasty Henry V coincided with the final phase of the great Investiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, Henry V surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers; this agreement stipulated that the pope would appoint high church officials but gave the German king the right to veto the papal choices.
Imperial control of Italy was lost for a time, the imperial crown became dependent on the political support of competing aristocratic factions. Feudalism became more widespread as freemen sought protection by swearing allegiance to a lord; these powerful local rulers, having thereby acquired extensive territories and large military retinues, took over administration within their territories and organized it around an increasing number of castles. The most powerful of these local rulers came to be called princes rather than dukes. According to the laws of the feudal system of the Holy Roman Empire, the king had no claims on the vassals of the other princes, only on those living within his family's territory. Lacking the support of the independent vassals and weakened by the increasing hostility of the Church, the monarchy lost its pre-eminence, thus the Investiture Contest strengthened local power in the Holy Roman Empire – in contrast to the trend in France and England, where centralized royal power grew.
The Investiture Contest had an additional effect. The lon