Port Moresby

Port Moresby referred to as Pom City or Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the south-western coast of the Papuan Peninsula of the island of New Guinea; the city emerged as a trade centre in the second half of the 19th century. During World War II it was a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43 as a staging point and air base to cut off Australia from Southeast Asia and the Americas. In 2000 it had a population of 254,158; as of 2011, it had a population of 364,145, giving it an annual growth rate of 2.1% over a nine-year period. The place where the city was founded has been inhabited by the Motu-Koitabu people for centuries; the first Briton to see it was Captain John Moresby in 1873. It was named in honour of Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. Although Port Moresby is surrounded by Central Province, of which it is the capital, it is not part of that province, but forms the National Capital District.

The traditional landowners, the Motu and Koitabu people, are represented by the Motu Koita Assembly. Port Moresby hosted the APEC summit in November 2018. However, there were concerns about security given the capital's reputation for violent crime; the Motuan people of the area now known as Port Moresby traded their pots for sago, other food and canoe logs, sailing from Hanuabada and other villages built on stilts above the waters of the bay. Their language, was the basis of Hiri Motu, an official language of Papua New Guinea, it has been in decline since the 1960s when Tok Pisin began to grow in popularity. The Hiri expeditions were large scale; as many as 20 multi-hulled canoes or lakatoi, crewed by some 600 men, carried about 20,000 clay pots on each journey. To the Motuans, the Hiri was an economic enterprise and it confirmed their tribal identity through its long and dangerous voyages. There was an important trade centre on the site of Port Moresby when the English Captain John Moresby of HMS Basilisk first visited it.

He sailed through the Coral Sea at the eastern end of New Guinea, saw three unknown islands, landed there. At 10 a.m. on 20 February 1873, he claimed the land for Britain and named it after his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. He called the other Port Moresby. In 1883 Queensland attempted to annex the south-eastern corner of the New Guinea Island, fearing that Germany would take control of the entire eastern half of the island. British authorities refused to approve the annexation following the German annexation of New Guinea in 1884, but four years it established a protectorate over Papua as British New Guinea. In 1905 the federated Australian government passed the Papua Act which came into effect in 1906; the act transferred Papua, with Port Moreseby as its capital. From until 1941 Port Moresby grew slowly; the main growth was on the peninsula, where port facilities and other services were improved. The first butcher's shop and grocery opened in 1909, electricity was introduced in 1925, piped water supply provided in 1941.

During World War II, some Papuan men enlisted in the Papua Infantry Battalion and others as carriers over trails and rough terrains as supply support to Allied and Japanese armies during long jungle marches. Historian William Manchester outlines in his biography of General Douglas MacArthur, American Caesar, that acting as porters was well down the natives' list of acceptable voluntary activities and that they would fade away without great inducements. Many Papuan residents of Port Moresby either returned to their family villages or were evacuated to camps when the threat of Japanese invasion loomed; the city became, by September 1942, home to an important Allied complex of bases and thousands of troops were stationed in the area or more staged through it, as it was the last Allied bastion on the island and, conversely, a key staging and jumping off point as the Allies began conducting offensive warfare themselves, pushing back the Japanese advances. In 1945, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea was formed when Papua and the former German New Guinea, administered by Australia since 1918, were amalgamated under a single Australian administration though several laws remained in two territories and remain so, which can be complicating with provinces sitting on two sides of the otherwise extinct boundary.

Port Moresby became the capital of the new combined territory and a focal point for the expansion of public services. In September 1975, Papua New Guinea became an independent country with Port Moresby as its capital city. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, represented the Queen of Papua New Guinea at the celebrations. New government and cultural buildings were constructed in the suburb of Waigani to supplement and replace those of downtown Port Moresby, they included those for government departments, including a National Parliament Building, opened in 1984 by Prince Charles and blends traditional design with modern building technology. The Papua New Guinea National Museum and National Library are in Waigani. A mansion was built in Port Moresby just west of the old legislative building but the last pre-independence chief minister and first prime minister of the sovereign state declared it not nearly grand enough.

Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis

Failure mode effects and criticality analysis is an extension of failure mode and effects analysis. FMEA is a bottom-up, inductive analytical method which may be performed at either the functional or piece-part level. FMECA extends FMEA by including a criticality analysis, used to chart the probability of failure modes against the severity of their consequences; the result highlights failure modes with high probability and severity of consequences, allowing remedial effort to be directed where it will produce the greatest value. FMECA tends to be preferred over FMEA in space and North Atlantic Treaty Organization military applications, while various forms of FMEA predominate in other industries. FMECA was developed in the 1940s by the U. S military, which published MIL–P–1629 in 1949. By the early 1960s, contractors for the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration were using variations of FMECA under a variety of names. In 1966 NASA released its FMECA procedure for use on the Apollo program.

FMECA was subsequently used on other NASA programs including Viking, Voyager and Galileo. Because MIL–P–1629 was replaced by MIL–STD–1629 in 1974, development of FMECA is sometimes incorrectly attributed to NASA. At the same time as the space program developments, use of FMEA and FMECA was spreading to civil aviation. In 1967 the Society for Automotive Engineers released the first civil publication to address FMECA; the civil aviation industry now tends to use a combination of FMEA and Fault Tree Analysis in accordance with SAE ARP4761 instead of FMECA, though some helicopter manufacturers continue to use FMECA for civil rotorcraft. Ford Motor Company began using FMEA in the 1970s after problems experienced with its Pinto model, by the 1980s FMEA was gaining broad use in the automotive industry. In Europe, the International Electrotechnical Commission published IEC 812 in 1985, addressing both FMEA and FMECA for general use; the British Standards Institute published BS 5760–5 in 1991 for the same purpose.

In 1980, MIL–STD–1629A replaced both MIL–STD–1629 and the 1977 aeronautical FMECA standard MIL–STD–2070. MIL–STD–1629A was canceled without replacement in 1998, but nonetheless remains in wide use for military and space applications today. Slight differences are found between the various FMECA standards. By RAC CRTA–FMECA, the FMECA analysis procedure consists of the following logical steps: Define the system Define ground rules and assumptions in order to help drive the design Construct system block diagrams Identify failure modes Analyze failure effects/causes Feed results back into design process Classify the failure effects by severity Perform criticality calculations Rank failure mode criticality Determine critical items Feed results back into design process Identify the means of failure detection and compensation Perform maintainability analysis Document the analysis, summarize uncorrectable design areas, identify special controls necessary to reduce failure risk Make recommendations Follow up on corrective action implementation/effectivenessFMECA may be performed at the functional or piece-part level.

Functional FMECA considers the effects of failure at the functional block level, such as a power supply or an amplifier. Piece-part FMECA considers the effects of individual component failures, such as resistors, microcircuits, or valves. A piece-part FMECA requires far more effort, but provides the benefit of better estimates of probabilities of occurrence. However, Functional FMEAs can be performed much earlier, may help to better structure the complete risk assessment and provide other type of insight in mitigation options; the analyses are complementary. The criticality analysis may be quantitative or qualitative, depending on the availability of supporting part failure data. In this step, the major system to be analyzed is defined and partitioned into an indented hierarchy such as systems, subsystems or equipment, units or subassemblies, piece-parts. Functional descriptions are created for the systems and allocated to the subsystems, covering all operational modes and mission phases. Before detailed analysis takes place, ground rules and assumptions are defined and agreed to.

This might include, for example: Standardized mission profile with specific fixed duration mission phases Sources for failure rate and failure mode data Fault detection coverage that system built-in test will realize Whether the analysis will be functional or piece-part Criteria to be considered System for uniquely identifying parts or functions Severity category definitions Next, the systems and subsystems are depicted in functional block diagrams. Reliability block diagrams or fault trees are constructed at the same time; these diagrams are used to trace information flow at different levels of system hierarchy, identify critical paths and interfaces, identify the higher level effects of lower level failures. For each piece-part or each function covered by the analysis, a complete list of failure modes is developed. For functional FMECA, typical failure modes include: Untimely operation Failure to operate when required Loss of output Intermittent output Erroneous output Invalid output For piece-part FMECA, failure mode data may be obtained from databases such as RAC FMD–91 or RAC FMD–97.

These databases provide not only the failure modes, but the failure mode ratios. For example: Each function or piece-part is listed in matrix form with one row for each failure mode; because FMECA involves large data sets, a unique identifier must be assigned to each item (function or piece-part

Brain Injury (journal)

Brain Injury is a monthly, peer-reviewed, medical journal published by Taylor & Francis. Furthermore, it is the official journal of the International Brain Injury Association; the chief editors are Nathan Zasler. This journal was published quarterly, beginning in July, 1987 to 1995. From 1996 to at least 2003 it was published monthly; the current frequency of publication is 14 times per year. This journal covers all topics of research and clinical practice, pertaining to brain damage in adult and pediatric populations. More the range of coverage includes fundamental research, clinical studies, brain injury translational medicine, as well as emergency room practices, acute medical delivery, rehabilitation through various phases, family issues, vocational concerns, long term support. Disorders that are psychological, communicative, or neurological are covered from the perspective of assessment and intervention; this journal is indexed in the following databases: BIOSIS previews CSA Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts CINAHL Current Contents / Clinical Medicine EBSCO Excerpta Medica / EMBASE Index Medicus / MEDLINE Neuroscience Citation Index PsycINFO Research Alert Science Citation Index Scopus Sociological AbstractsAccording to Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, it is indexed in Scopus, MEDLINE, PubMed, Biological Abstracts, PsycINFO, other indexing and abstracting services.

According to the 2010 Journal Citation Reports the 2014 impact factor is 1.808, the ranking for this journal is 181 of 230 in the Neurosciences. Official website International Brain Injury Association