Jefferson Parish, Louisiana
Jefferson Parish is a parish in the state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 432,552; the parish seat is Gretna. Jefferson Parish is included in LA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Jefferson Parish was less affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and has rebounded at a more rapid pace than neighboring Orleans Parish. Jefferson Parish was named in honor of US President Thomas Jefferson of Virginia when the parish was established by the Louisiana Legislature on February 11, 1825, a year before Jefferson died. A bronze statue of Jefferson stands at the entrance of the General Government Complex on Derbigny Street in Gretna; the parish seat was in the city of Lafayette, until that area was annexed by New Orleans in 1852. In that year the parish government moved to Carrollton; this parish was larger than it is today, running from Felicity Street in New Orleans to the St. Charles Parish line. However, as New Orleans grew, it absorbed the cities of Lafayette, Jefferson City and several unincorporated areas.
These became part of Orleans Parish. The present borders between Jefferson Parish and Orleans Parish were set in 1874; the Jefferson Parish seat was moved to Gretna at the same time. NOTE: The historic city of Lafayette in Jefferson Parish, as it was recorded in U. S. Census should not be confused with Lafayette, Louisiana, in Lafayette Parish. From the 1940s to the 1970s, Jefferson's population swelled with an influx of middle-class white families from Orleans Parish; the parish's population doubled in size from 1940 to 1950 and again from 1950 to 1960 as the parents behind the post–World War II baby boom, profiting from rising living standards and dissatisfied with their old neighborhoods, chose relocation to new neighborhoods of detached single-family housing. By the 1960s, rising racial tensions in New Orleans complicated the impetus behind the migration, as many new arrivals sought not only more living space but residence in a political jurisdiction independent from New Orleans proper; the earliest postwar subdivisions were developed on the Eastbank of Jefferson Parish along the pre-existing Jefferson Highway and Airline Highway routes relatively far-removed from the New Orleans city line, as land prices were lower further away from New Orleans and land assembly was easier.
The completion of Veterans Highway in the late 1950s, following a route parallel to Airline but further north, stimulated more development. The arrival of I-10 in the early 1960s resulted in the demolition of some homes in the Old Metairie neighborhood, where development began in the 1920s, but resulted in easier access to suburban East Jefferson. In the portion of Jefferson Parish on the Westbank of the Mississippi River, large-scale suburban development commenced with the completion, in 1958, of the Greater New Orleans Bridge crossing the Mississippi River at downtown New Orleans. Terrytown, within the city limits of Gretna, was the first large subdivision to be developed. Subsequent development has been extensive, taking place within Harvey, Marrero and Avondale. Similar to the development trajectory observed by other U. S. suburban areas, Jefferson began to enjoy a significant employment base by the 1970s and 1980s, shedding its earlier role as a simple bedroom community. In East Jefferson, the Causeway Boulevard corridor grew into a commercial office node, while the Elmwood neighborhood developed as a center for light manufacturing and distribution.
By the mid-1990s, Jefferson Parish was exhibiting some of the symptoms presented by inner-ring suburbs throughout the United States. Median household income growth slowed trailing income growth rates in New Orleans proper, such that the inner city began to narrow the gap in median household income, a gap at its widest at the time of the 1980 Census. St. Tammany Parish and, to a lesser extent, St. Charles Parish began to attract migrants from New Orleans, even from Jefferson Parish itself; these trends were catalyzed by Hurricane Katrina, which destroyed much of New Orleans' low-income housing and propelled further numbers of lower-income individuals into Jefferson Parish. Despite these challenges, Jefferson Parish still contains the largest number of middle class residents in metropolitan New Orleans and acts as the retail hub for the entire metro area. Though Jefferson Parish was affected by Hurricane Katrina, it has rebounded more than Orleans Parish, since the devastation was not as severe.
The parish has a current population of 432,000, 15,000 fewer people than was recorded by the 2000 U. S. Census. New Orleans' Katrina-provoked population loss has resulted in Jefferson Parish becoming the second most populous parish behind East Baton Rouge Parish, center of the Baton Rouge metropolitan area. With the landfall of Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005, Jefferson Parish took a hard hit. On the East Bank, widespread flooding occurred in the eastern part of the parish, as well as much wind damage. Schools were reported to have been damaged. On the West Bank, there was little to no flooding; as a result, the Jefferson Parish Council temporarily moved the parish government to Baton Rouge. Evacuees of Jefferson Parish were told that they could expect to be able to go back to their homes starting Monday, September 5, 2005 between the hours of 6 a.m. CDT and 6 p.m. CDT, but would have to return to their places of evacuation because life in the area was not sustai
St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana
St. Bernard Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,897; the parish seat and largest community is Chalmette. The parish was formed in 1807. St. Bernard Parish is part of the New Orleans -- LA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the parish is located southeast of New Orleans and comprises the Chandeleur Islands and Chandeleur Sound in the east. It has been ranked the fastest-growing county in the United States from 2007 to 2008 by the U. S. Census Bureau, but it is only half as populated as it was in 2005. In 2009, because of evacuation and emigration due to destruction by Hurricane Katrina, its population was estimated to be 33,439. St. Bernard Parish contains a large community of Spanish descent. Sometimes referred to informally as "Spanish Cajuns", the Isleños are descended from Canary Islanders; this linguistically isolated group developed its own dialect. The Isleños settled along Bayou Terre aux Boeufs, a relict distributary bayou of the Mississippi River.
According to Dumont de Montigny, in Louisiana from 1719 to 1738, Terre aux Boeufs was named in that period due to the presence of domestic or feral cattle there, not because of bison. This settlement was called La Concepcion and Nueva Gálvez by Spanish officials, but was called Tierra de Bueyes for "land of oxen." Saint Bernard, the patron saint of colonial governor Bernardo de Gálvez, was used in documents to identify the area. St. Bernard Parish is home to the earliest Filipino community in the United States, Saint Malo, Louisiana; the chief historical attraction in St. Bernard Parish is the Chalmette National Historical Park, at which the Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815, during the War of 1812. Many street names near the battlefield bear the names of the chief participants, or take a pirate theme, since the pirate Jean Lafitte was considered to be a hero in the battle. A high school elementary and now a middle school, was named in honor of Andrew Jackson, the commanding officer in charge of defending New Orleans against the British invasion.
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln mentioned St. Bernard Parish in the Emancipation Proclamation as an area not in rebellion against the Union during the Civil War. From 1919 to 1969, the parish was ruled as part of the fiefdom of Leander Perez, a local Democratic official in neighboring Plaquemines Parish. In 1868, St. Bernard Parish was home to one of the deadliest massacres in Louisiana history; the St. Bernard Parish massacre occurred during the Reconstruction era, days before the Presidential election of 1868; as black men gained the right to vote, white Democrats of the parish feared losing their majority. Armed groups mobilized to violently silence these emancipated voters to win the election in favor of Democrat Horatio Seymour over Republican Ulysses S. Grant. A Seymour victory meant the end of Reconstruction over the South and the return of Louisiana to home rule. Many freedmen were murdered. Others fled to the cane fields to hide from the perpetrators; the use of violence to suppress Republican votes was successful.
Grant only received one vote despite having a Republican majority. The reported number of freedmen killed varies from 35 to 135. During the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, New Orleans city and state leaders used dynamite to breach a levee at Caernarvon, thirteen miles below Canal Street, to save the city of New Orleans from flooding. At the time, it was thought by New Orleans residents that the dynamiting saved the city, but historians now believe that the dynamiting was unnecessary due to major upstream levee breaks that relieved pressure on the New Orleans levees; the levee breach caused flooding and widespread destruction in most of Eastern St. Bernard Parish and parts of Plaquemines Parish. Residents were never adequately compensated for their losses. On August 29, 2005, St. Bernard was devastated by Hurricane Katrina; the storm damaged every structure in the parish. The eye of Katrina passed over the eastern portion of the parish, pushing a 25-foot storm surge into the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.
This surge destroyed. The entire parish was flooded, with most areas left with between 5 and 15 feet of standing water; the water rose and violently, during a period which witnesses reported as no more than fifteen minutes. In many areas, houses were smashed or washed off their foundations by a storm surge higher than the roofs. For more than two months after the storm, much of the parish remained without proper services, including electricity and sewage. Parish President Henry "Junior" Rodriguez declared all of the parish's homes unlivable. Emergency Communities offered one reason for hope in the first year after Hurricane Katrina. In the parking lot of a destroyed off-track betting parlor, EC built the Made with Love Cafe and Grill, a free kitchen and community center serving 1500 meals per day. Made with Love, housed in a geodesic dome offered food and clothing distribution, supportive volunteers. Upon leaving, EC has offered logistical support for the founding of a new long-term Community Center of St Bernard As of late November 2005, it was estimated that the Parish had some 7,000 full-time residents, with some 20,000 commuting to spend the day working, cleaning up, or salvaging in the parish and spending their nights elsewhere.
Crescent City Connection
The Crescent City Connection the Greater New Orleans Bridge, refers to twin cantilever bridges that carry U. S. Highway 90 Business over the Mississippi River in New Orleans, United States, they are tied as the fifth-longest cantilever bridges in the world. Each span carries four general-use automobile lanes, it is the farthest downstream bridge on the Mississippi River. It is the widest and most traveled bridge on the lower Mississippi. What became known as the Crescent City Connection was the second bridge to span the Mississippi south of Baton Rouge, the first being the Huey P. Long Bridge, a few miles upriver from the city, it is the first bridge across the river in New Orleans itself; the Mississippi River Bridge Authority, known since 1989 as the Crescent City Connection Division, began construction of the first span in November 1954, which opened in April 1958 as the Greater New Orleans Bridge. At its opening, the bridge was the longest cantilever bridge in the world although in terms of main span length, it was third, after the Forth Bridge and the Quebec Bridge.
It carried two lanes of traffic in each direction and spurred growth in the suburban area known as the West Bank. Construction of the second span began in March 1981. Despite promises that it would be ready for the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition, it did not open to traffic until September 1988; the second span was designated as the Greater New Orleans Bridge No. 2. Both bridges were designed by Modjeski & Masters, Inc.. As soon as the new span was opened, the old span was temporarily closed in phases to replace the asphalt-on-steel deck with concrete. All the exits and entrances to the bridge were replaced as well. After the completion of the second span, a public contest was held in 1989 to rename the bridges, won by Jennifer Grodsky, of St. Clement of Rome School in Metairie, Louisiana, on March 17; the name was selected over the second-place finisher, the Greater New Orleans Superspan, as the name for the spans. Other names voted on for the naming of the spans included: the Crescent City Twins, the Delta Twins, the Crescent City Bridge, the New Orleans Metro Span, the Crescent City Gateway, the Crescent City Twin Span, the Crescent City River Bridge, The Big Easy and the Li'l Easy, the Jazz City Bridge, the Big East Twin Spans, The Pelican Bridge, the Fleur-de-Lis, the Greater Mississippi River Bridge, the Unity Bridge, the Mississippi River Twins, The Friendship Connection, The Pelican Pride, the Riverview Bridge, the Creole Crossing, the Jazz Gate Bridge, the Greater New Orleans Twin Bridges, the Crescent Bend Bridge.
Following this contest, the Louisiana Legislature designated the bridges as the Crescent City Connection. Beginning in 1989, it was maintained and policed as a toll bridge by the CCCD, a special division of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, although a 2013 vote removed the tolls, the crossing is now overseen by the Louisiana Department of Public Safety; this separate state police agency used elsewhere in the state, is required because of the high traffic volume and the fact that the two spans cross into Jefferson Parish and the city of Gretna, Louisiana. Since renaming of the twin bridges, some local residents refer to the bridge as "The GNO", in spite of the name change from decades past. Most people refer to it as the "CCC", whereas the proper name of "Crescent City Connection" is used in the media. Due to the Mississippi River's winding course through the New Orleans area, the bridge contains two wrong-way concurrencies, with the eastbound span carrying Business US 90 West, while the westbound span carries Business US 90 East.
The Crescent City Connection was the fifth most traveled toll bridge in the United States in 2006, with annual traffic exceeding 63 million vehicles. The bridge is the centerpiece of the Crescent Connection Road Race or Bridge Race as it is locally known, an annual event held on the first Saturday in September following Labor Day; the bridge remains open to vehicular traffic during the race. The CCRR was started as a fundraiser for the bridge's decorative lights; these lights line the top profile lines of both bridges. As Hurricane Katrina approached the city in August 2005, the CCCD halted toll collections on August 26 to aid in speed of evacuation of the Metro area. Two overhead signs were blown down on the older span. After the storm passed, much of the east bank of New Orleans flooded severely. With all other major and minor highways out of town flooded in both directions, the CCC was the only open highway into or out of the east bank of Orleans Parish.. Two days after the storm passed, the Gretna police set up a roadblock on the bridge, refusing passage to evacuees.
In the initial weeks following the storm, only emergency personnel and
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Intermodal freight transport
Intermodal freight transport involves the transportation of freight in an intermodal container or vehicle, using multiple modes of transportation, without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. The method reduces cargo handling, so improves security, reduces damage and loss, allows freight to be transported faster. Reduced costs over road trucking is the key benefit for inter-continental use; this may be offset by reduced timings for road transport over shorter distances. Intermodal transportation predates the railways; some of the earliest containers were those used for shipping coal on the Bridgewater Canal in England in the 1780s. Coal containers were soon deployed on the early canals and railways and were used for road/rail transfers. Wooden coal containers used on railways go back to the 1830s on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. In 1841, Isambard Kingdom Brunel introduced iron containers to move coal from the vale of Neath to Swansea Docks. By the outbreak of the First World War the Great Eastern Railway was using wooden containers to trans-ship passenger luggage between trains and sailings via the port of Harwich.
The early 1900s saw the first adoption of covered containers for the movement of furniture and intermodal freight between road and rail. A lack of standards limited the value of this service and this in turn drove standardisation. In the U. S. such containers, known as "lift vans", were in use from as early as 1911. In the United Kingdom containers were first standardised by the Railway Clearing House in the 1920s, allowing both railway owned and owned vehicles to be carried on standard container flats. By modern standards these containers were small, being 1.5 or 3.0 meters long wooden and with a curved roof and insufficient strength for stacking. From 1928 the London and Scottish Railway offered "door to door" intermodal road-rail services using these containers; this standard failed to become popular outside the United Kingdom. Pallets made their first major appearance during World War II, when the United States military assembled freight on pallets, allowing fast transfer between warehouses, trains and aircraft.
Because no freight handling was required, fewer personnel were needed and loading times were decreased. Truck trailers were first carried by railway before World War II, an arrangement called "piggyback", by the small Class I railroad, the Chicago Great Western in 1936; the Canadian Pacific Railway was a pioneer in piggyback transport, becoming the first major North American railway to introduce the service in 1952. In the United Kingdom, the big four railway companies offered services using standard RCH containers that could be craned on and off the back of trucks. Moving companies such as Pickfords offered private services in the same way. In 1933 in Europe, under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce, The International Container Bureau was established. In June 1933, Bureau International des Containers et du Transport Intermodal decided about obligatory parameters for container use in international traffic. Containers handled by means of lifting gear, such as cranes, overhead conveyors, etc. for traveling elevators, constructed after July 1, 1933.
Obligatory Regulations: Clause 1.—Containers are, as regards form, either of the closed or the open type, and, as regards capacity, either of the heavy or the light type. Clause 2.—The loading capacity of containers must be such that their total weight is: 5 metric tons for containers of the heavy type. In April 1935 BIC established a second standard for European containers: In the 1950s, a new standardized steel Intermodal container based on specifications from the United States Department of Defense began to revolutionize freight transportation; the International Organization for Standardization issued standards based upon the U. S. Department of Defense standards between 1968 and 1970; the White Pass and Yukon Route railway acquired the world's first container ship, the Clifford J. Rogers, built in 1955, introduced containers to its railway in 1956. In the United Kingdom, the modernisation plan and in turn the Beeching Report pushed containerization; the British Railways freightliner service was launched carrying 8-foot high pre-ISO containers.
The older wooden containers and the pre-ISO containers were replaced by 10-and-20-foot ISO standard containers, by 40-foot containers and larger. In the U. S. starting in the 1960s, the use of containers increased steadily. Rail intermodal traffic tripled between 1980 and 2002, according to the Association of American Railroads, from 3.1 million trailers and containers to 9.3 million. Large investments were made in intermodal freight projects. An example was the USD $740,000,000 Port of Oakland intermodal rail facility begun in the late 1980s. Since 1984, a mechanism for intermodal shipping known as double-stack rail transport has become common. Rising to the rate of nearly 70% of the United States' intermodal shipments, it transports more than one million containers per year; the double-stack rail cars design reduces damage in transit and provides greater cargo security by cradling the lower containers so their doors cannot be opened. A succession of large, domestic container sizes was introduced to increase shipping productivity.
New Orleans Public Belt Railroad
The New Orleans Public Belt Railroad is a Class III railroad, a subsidiary of the Port of New Orleans. It connects with six Class I railroads serving the city, provides switching and haulage service, it is estimated that one-third of the United States' east-west rail freight crosses the Mississippi on the Huey P. Long Bridge segment of the railroad; the impetus for the NOPB came at the start of the 20th century era when multiple railroads terminating locally created both congestion at the Port of New Orleans and safety problems on city streets. The railroad began operation in 1908 with the intention of giving the major railroads "uniform and impartial" access to the port; the railroad is managed by the Public Belt Railroad Commission, which owns and maintains the Huey P. Long Bridge. NOPB covers over 160 kilometers of track with ten locomotives. No funding is received from the city. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 caused an estimated $450 million in damage to NOPB equipment and track. At least 70 percent of the railroad’s lines and interchanges were back in operation by September 2005, 90 percent by March 2006.
The New Orleans Public Belt Railroad operates a fleet of EMD and Motive Power Industries built Locomotives. They own EMD SW1200s, SW1000s, SW1500s, GP40-2s, GP16s, a single GP40, GE C40-8s along with MPI MP1500Ds and MP2000Ds all on their active roster. Connections and interchanges are made with the following railroads: BNSF Railway CSX Transportation Canadian National/Illinois Central Kansas City Southern Norfolk Southern Union Pacific Amtrak Official website
The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull, with the thickness of the hull included. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a boat can safely navigate; the draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft; the density of the water and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts; the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow; the mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular. The trim of a ship is the difference between the aft draft.
When the aft draft is greater the vessel is deemed to have a negative trim, it has a positive trim when the forward draft is the greater. In such a case it is referred to as being down-by-the-head. In commercial ship operations, the ship will quote the mean draft as the vessel's draft; however in navigational situations, the maximum draft the aft draft, will be known on the bridge and will be shared with the pilot. The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement: Variation by trim Variation by list Variation by water level change Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa Heat variation in navigating shallow waters Variation as a result of a ship moving in shallow waters, or squat The drafts are measured with a "banded" scale, from bow and to stern, for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is used; the scale may use metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet and markings are 6 inches high.
In metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo; the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity. It is true, that a "light" ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, depending upon the manner by which the ship is loaded; the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways for large vessels; this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes.
Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a draft limit but are limited by beam, or sometimes length overall, for fitting into locks. However, ships can be longer and higher in the Suez Canal, the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is draft; some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or laden, but not when laden. Canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship, is the deepest draft able to transit the busy but shallow Strait of Malacca; the Strait only allows ships to have.4 m more draft than the Suez Canal. Capesize, Ultra Large Crude Carriers and a few Chinamax carriers, are some of the ships that have too deep a draft when laden, for either the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water; this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and to'beach' the boat. A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind.
For example: Ballasts placed low in the keel of a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1.20 m for a length of 8.90 m. A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. For submarines, which can submerge to different depths at sea, a term called keel depth is used, specifying the current distance from the water surface to the bottom of the submarine's keel, it is used in navigation to avoid underwater obstacles and hitting the ocean floor, as a standard point on the submarine for depth measurements. Submarines also have a specified draft used while operating on the surface, for navigating in harbors and at docks. Air draft Hull Naval architecture Waterline Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Prress. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X