Anti-Comintern Pact

The Anti-Comintern Pact the Agreement against the Communist International, was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936, was directed against the Communist International. It was signed by German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Japanese ambassador to Germany Kintomo Mushakoji. Italy and other countries joined it until November 1941; the Japanese signatories had hoped that the Anti-Comintern Pact would be an alliance against the Soviet Union, how the USSR perceived it. There was a secret additional protocol which specified a joint German-Japanese policy aimed against the Soviet Union. However, after the accession of Italy to the pact and the German-Soviet rapprochement after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, it gained an anti-western and anti-British identity as well. After August 1939, Japan distanced itself from Germany as a result of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact; the Anti-Comintern Pact was supplanted by the September 1940 Tripartite Pact, which identified the United States as the primary threat rather than the Soviet Union, as the principal document that united the interests of the Axis powers.

Afterwards, membership in the Anti-Comintern Pact became ceremonial, but the renewal in November 1941 saw the entry of several new members into the pact. The Anti-Komintern the Gesamtverband Deutscher antikommunistischer Vereinigungen, was a German agency established by Joseph Goebbels in 1933, its activities covered a wide range of operations designed to denounce communism in general and the Soviet Union in particular, push antisemitic propaganda and to garner domestic and international support for Nazi policy. It was placed under the leadership Dr. Adolf Ehrt. Under Ehrt's leadership, the Comintern was denounced as'godless' in reference to its atheism. Beginning in July 1936, the Spanish Civil War became a main focus for the Anti-Komintern's publications. One of the Anti-Komintern's most significant outputs was the 1936 international release Der Weltbolschewismus, in which it connected various anti-communist and anti-semitic conspiracy theories for the consumption of the international audience.

The book was not released in Germany itself to avoid conflict between the book's varied accounts with German state propaganda. On 18 June 1935, Anglo-German Naval Agreement was signed between the United Kingdom and Germany, which came as a surprise to the Japanese; this marked the beginning of a series of attempts by Adolf Hitler to improve relations between the two countries. In Hitler's mind, a positive relationship towards the United Kingdom would weaken Britain's allies France and Italy and contain the Soviet Union. Hitler would also send Ribbentrop to London with the specific task of securing British membership in the Anti-Comintern Pact during his 1936–1938 tenure as German ambassador to the United Kingdom, declaring British accession into the pact as his'greatest wish'. In Japan, the treaty was viewed with suspicion. Mushakoji on 4 July 1935 in an embassy meeting stated his opinion that it would be unwise for Japan to rush into an alliance with Germany, as he interpreted the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as a German attempt to ally the UK.

The United States and Britain had been hostile towards Japan since the Mukden Incident of 1931, Mushakoji feared that Japan might isolate itself if Germany ended up choosing a partnership with Britain over a partnership with Japan. The execution of German foreign policy was nominally left to Konstantin von Neurath's foreign ministry, but Joachim von Ribbentrop headed the semi-autonomous Dienststelle Ribbentrop, created in late 1934, where he could carry out Hitler's personal foreign policy requests independently from foreign ministry consent; this created a rivalry between the two services. While Hitler favored Ribbentrop as his personal foreign policy champion, he at least maintained Neurath's staff of career diplomats to maximize his government's diplomatic legitimacy abroad. Hiroshi Ōshima, Japanese military attaché in Berlin and the single most important individual on the Japanese side of the Anti-Comintern Pact's negotiations, interpreted the German foreign service structure as one where the power structure was such that "it was only Hitler and Ribbentrop who decided foreign policy, that it was therefore of no use to talk to their subordinates".

Ōshima thus attempted to get any important step of the negotiations to Ribbentrop's or Hitler's desks directly. While Ribbentrop was Hitler's personal diplomat of choice, his personal view on geostrategic diplomacy varied quite distinctly from Hitler's during the late 1930s: Whereas Hitler favored a friendly policy towards Britain to eliminate the Soviet Union, Ribbentrop saw the western allies as Germany's main enemy and designed much of German foreign policy, including the Anti-Comintern Pact, with the goal to contain the British Empire in mind; when it came to Japan, Ribbentrop believed that the Japanese focus on the Soviet Union as its main antagonist could be redirected towards the United Kingdom, thus enabling Japan to be a partner in Ribbentrop's anti-British coalition. German alignment with Japan, against the wishes of the traditionally sinophile German foreign service and German public at large, began at the end of 1933. During the time of the Weimar Republic, the German government had made major treaties with the USSR, including the 1922 Treaty of Rapallo and the 1926 Treaty of Berlin.

In a note on the day of the signing, 25 November

2016–17 Bristol Rovers F.C. season

The 2016–17 season was the 134th season in Bristol Rovers' history and their 89th in the English Football League. Following back-to-back promotions in 2014–15 and 2015–16, Rovers competed in the third tier of English football, League One. What was a steady season, Rovers played the likes of Coventry and Chelsea for the first time in decades. After a brief playoff push towards the end of the season, Rovers finished in a respectable 10th place with 66 points, their highest finish in the football league since the 1999–2000 season. Rovers manager Darrell Clarke was quick to make good on his promise to offer all out-of-contract senior players new contracts if the club was promoted, confirming that, with the exception of Rory Fallon, new deals were "in the post" just five days after the previous season had concluded. In addition to Lee Brown and Tom Lockyer, who's deals were signed before the season had ended, goalkeeper Steve Mildenhall and midfielder Jay Malpas were the first to sign a new deals on 17 May.

Toward the end of May, Clarke himself had agreed a new three-year contract, making him the highest paid manager in the club's history. This came after the club received a formal approach from Championship side Leeds United which Rovers rejected. June saw winger Billy Bodin sign new two-year contracts at Rovers. Goalkeeper Will Puddy, defenders James Clarke and Mark McChrystal, midfielders Lee Mansell Cristian Montaño, Jake Gosling, Ollie Clarke and Chris Lines and forward Ellis Harrison agreed a new deals of undisclosed duration. Tom Parkes meanwhile rejected the offer of a new deal and instead joined League Two side Leyton Orient. On 16 June, defender Peter Hartley became the club's first signing of the season on a free transfer from Plymouth Argyle followed a day by the signing of winger Byron Moore from Port Vale. Peterborough United forward Luke James became July's first signing, on a season long loan. Rovers' top goalscorer of the previous two seasons, Matty Taylor, signed a new contract in July, ending speculation linking him with a move away.

As of game played on 31 August 2016 Source:Numbers in parentheses denote appearances as substitute. Players with squad numbers marked left the club during the playing season. Players with names in italics and marked * were on loan from another club for the whole of their season with Bristol Rovers. Players listed with no appearances have been in the matchday squad but only as unused substitutes. Key to positions: GK – Goalkeeper; as part of a week-long training camp in Spain, Rovers will play CE Sabadell with whom the club have a connection due to both playing in blue and white quartered shirts. Further fixtures were announced once the previous season had concluded, with Rovers due to play Salisbury, Bath City, Mangotsfield United, Weston-super-Mare and Exeter City, all away, Cheltenham Town, Swansea City and Aston Villa at home. On 22 June 2016, the EFL announced the fixtures for the forthcoming season. Rovers started the season away to Scunthorpe United on 6 August, followed by their first home fixture on 14 August against fellow promoted side Oxford United.

The traditional boxing day fixture sees Rovers host Coventry City while the season will end with Millwall travelling to the Memorial Stadium. On 22 June 2016, the first round draw. Rovers were drawn at home to Championship side Cardiff City, managed by former Rovers boss Paul Trollope; the game was picked for live broadcast by Sky Sports. Rovers progressed to the second round thanks to a 115th-minute winner from Chris Lines to set up a trip to Premier League side Chelsea. On 27 July 2016, the group stage draw. Rovers were drawn in Southern Group A along with Reading Academy and Yeovil Town. 2016–17 in English football 2016–17 Football League One List of Bristol Rovers F. C. seasons Bristol Rovers F. C. Bristol Post BBC Sport Sky Sports Soccerbase: Results · Stats · Transfers