Disney Cruise Line
Disney Cruise Line is a cruise line operation that is a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. The company was incorporated in 1996 as Magical Cruise Company Limited and is domiciled in London, with their headquarters located in Celebration. Disney Cruise Line currently operates four ships, Disney Magic, Disney Wonder, Disney Dream, two as-yet-unnamed ships will join the fleet in 2021 and 2023. Disney Cruise Line owns Castaway Cay, an island in the Bahamas designed as an exclusive port of call for Disneys ships. Disney Cruise Line operates the Disney Cruise Line Terminal in Port Canaveral, in 2015, Disney Cruise Lines had 2. 8% share of the worldwide cruise market by passenger and 2. 4% by revenue, while in 2011, the company held a 1.95 market share. The line pioneered the rotational dining concept, in which guest would rotate with their wait staff through three different main dining rooms, in 1985, Premier Cruise Line became the licensed partner cruise line with Disney. This allowed Disney characters on their ships and combined cruise, hotel, in 1993, Premier ended the Disney character license for a license for Warner Brothers characters.
Premier continued to offer Disney land and sea packages while adding Universal Studios as an option, thus Disney approached both Carnival and Royal Caribbean cruise lines to replace Premier as an exclusive sea partner. When Disneys negotiations with two cruise lines and Royal Caribbean, did not produce results, Disney had cruise ship designs drawn up by February 1994. Meanwhile, Walt Disney Travel Company started signing up other cruise lines to offer packages that included Disney hotels, on May 3,1994, Disney announced that they intended to start its own cruise line with operations starting in 1998. Arthur Rodney was selected to serve as the first president of the cruise line tentatively called Disney Vacation Cruises, Disney Cruise Line in 1995 commissioned Disney Magic and Disney Wonder from Fincantieri in Italy. The cruise line was incorporated as Devonson Cruise Company, Limited on February 6,1996, in the United Kingdom, the cruise line cost as much as a theme park to start up. In 1996, Magical Cruise Company purchased Gorda Cay as the private island.
The company spent $25 million over 18 months on the island, the Disney Magics first cruise was postponed twice which was originally scheduled for March 1998 while the Disney Wonder was scheduled for December 1998. On July 30,1998, with the first voyage of Magic, also, a 10-year contract was signed with Port Canaveral for its home terminal. With the August 31,1999, resignation of Rodney as cruise line president, by 2002, the line added seven-day cruises and western Caribbean cruises. In June 2005, Disney Magic moved its port for the cruise season to the Port of Los Angeles. This was temporary for the companys 50th-anniversary celebration of Disneyland and as a test for California expansion, the transfer cruise sold out quicker than expected
Port of Seattle
The Port of Seattle is a port district that runs Seattles seaport and airport. Its creation was approved by the voters of King County, Washington, on September 5,1911 and it is run by an elected five-member commission. The commissioners terms run four years, in 2015, Sea-Tac Airport handled a record 42.3 million passengers and the seaport division handled over 3.5 million containers, making them combined the 3rd largest container gateway in North America. In 2015, over 898,000 cruise passengers passed through the ports facilities, the Port of Seattle employs just under 1,800 employees. The port has three operating divisions, as well as development and corporate divisions. The Port of Seattle controls recreational and commercial moorage facilities, the Port of Seattle celebrated its centennial in 2011. To mark the anniversary, the created a historical filled with photos and information about the ports. The work of the commission for the first six months was confined almost entirely to the preparation of projects which were approved by the people at a special election held on March 5,1912.
A Porsche 959 was stored for 13 years by the Customs Service at the Port of Seattle and Allen both helped pass the Show and Display law. In 1949 the U. S. Department of Commerce designated a zone in the port. Recent years have brought significant changes to the Port of Seattle, in 2007, Tay Yoshitani joined the organization as CEO. Just after his tenure began, two significant scandals occurred, the port police department uncovered a significant problem with racist and pornographic emails. The organization refused to pay and the claim was dropped, though the situation led to a recall of one commissioner. Finally, in December of that year, the State Auditors Office issued a report on the ports contracting practices. The audit report sparked an investigation by the Department of Justice, Yoshitani brought a heightened commitment to environmental practices. The port has many programs, including shore power for cruise ships. But increased container and cruise traffic have increased community concerns, just as the new runway did, in 2012, port commissioners began outreach on the Century Agenda, a strategic plan for the ports next 25 years.
In 2012, the Port became one of the most vocal opponents of the proposal to build a new arena in the Stadium District, in 2015, an agreement to berth Royal Dutch Shell semi-submersible offshore drilling rigs at the Ports Terminal 5 led to protests against Arctic drilling
Transportation in California
Californias transportation system is complex and dynamic. Although known for its car culture and extensive network of freeways and roads, the state has a vast array of rail, several subway, light rail, and commuter rail networks are found in many of the states largest population centers. In addition, with the location on the West Coast of the United States, several important ports in California handle freight shipments from the Pacific Rim. California is known for its car culture, by the end of 2010, the California Department of Motor Vehicles had 23,799,513 drivers licenses and a total of 31,987,821 registered vehicles on file. The states residents typically take to the roads for their commutes, California has some of the worst roads in the United States. The main north-south arteries are U. S and these cities, along with Modesto and Visalia, are passed by as I-5 veers west to avoid the congestion of the populated eastern side of the Central Valley as it connects Sacramento and Los Angeles.
The states freeway network has expanded ever since the Arroyo Seco Parkway, almost all California highways are non-toll roads, including several major non-toll bridges in Los Angeles and San Diego. However, there are four roads in Southern California. These toll facilities, along with several high-occupancy toll lanes, use the electronic toll collection system known as FasTrak. S. Route shield instead of the current design used in the other U. S. states, state highways in California range from one-lane rural roads to full urban freeways. Each state highway is assigned a Route number in the Streets, the state is currently relinquishing a number of non-freeway segments, especially in urban areas, and turning them over to local control. The standard California state route marker consists of a numeral on a green shield. The shield is shaped like a spade to honor the California Gold Rush. Each county route is prefixed with a letter, depending on the region of the state. Routes with letters A, B, and D are in the region of Northern California, letters E, G, and J are in Central California, and N, R, County routes can range from two-lane roads to the full expressways found in Santa Clara County.
The Capitol Corridor connects the San Francisco Bay Area to Sacramento, the Pacific Surfliner runs along the coast of Southern California from San Diego to San Luis Obispo. And the San Joaquin connects the cities of the Central Valley. Local bus lines are found in every county
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, some ports have an important military role. One of the worlds oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea, along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Guangzhou was an important port during the ancient times as far back as the Qin Dynasty, canopus was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. Athens port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet, lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 3700 BCE.
Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius, Ports often have cargo-handling equipment, such as cranes and forklifts for use in loading ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located nearby, some ports feature canals, which allow ships further movement inland. Access to intermodal transportation, such as railroads and highways, is critical to a port, so that passengers, Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Harbor pilots and tugboats may maneuver large ships in tight quarters when near docks, the terms port and seaport are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. An inland port is a port on a lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Duluth-Superior, a fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish.
It may be a facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the port that depends on an ocean product. In recent decades, regulations to save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, a dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime, because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. A seaport is further categorized as a port or a cargo port. Additionally, cruise ports are known as a home port or a port of call
Royal Caribbean International
Royal Caribbean International is a cruise line brand founded in Norway and based in Miami, United States. It is owned by Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd, as of March 2017, the line is operating 25 ships, has six additional ships on order, and controlls 21.9 percent of the cruise market worldwide. All ships under the Royal Caribbean International brand have names ending with of the Seas a practice which began in 1991, sister brands owned by Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. are Celebrity Cruises, Azamara Cruises, Pullmantur Cruises and CDF Croisières de France. Royal Caribbean International was founded as Royal Caribbean Cruise Line in 1968 by three Norwegian shipping companies, Anders Wilhelmsen & Company, I. M. Skaugen & Company, the newly created line put its first ship, the Song of Norway, into service two years later. A year later, the added the Nordic Prince to the fleet. In 1978, Song of Norway became Royal Caribbeans first passenger ship to be lengthened and this was accomplished via the insertion of an 85-foot section to the vessels severed center.
Following the success of work, Nordic Prince was stretched in 1980. During the stretching on both ships, their sterns were modified, however the Sun Viking wasnt stretched or modified and remained the same size and shape. Royal Caribbean received widespread global recognition when in 1982 it launched the Song of America, over twice the size of Sun Viking, in 1986, Royal Caribbean leased a coastal property in Haiti which it used as a private destination for its guests. This destination is now called Labadee, after a corporate restructuring in 1988, the line launched Sovereign of the Seas, the largest passenger vessel afloat at the time. Two years later, Nordic Empress and Viking Serenade were entered into their service line, in the same year, Royal Caribbean purchased a second private destination, Little Stirrup Cay, an island in the Bahamas, which they rechristened Coco Cay. Monarch of the Seas, the ship of the Sovereign class. The third ship of the Sovereign class, Majesty of the Seas, was delivered one year later, Royal Caribbean went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1993.
Over the next two years the company experienced growth, and it built a new corporate headquarters in Miami and replaced the Nordic Prince with a new vessel. Following these events, two new Vision-class vessels entered service, the Splendour of the Seas and Grandeur of the Seas, the company merged with the Greek cruise line Celebrity Cruises and changed its name from Royal Caribbean Cruise Line to Royal Caribbean International. The next year marked a transition to a strictly modern line. In 1998, Vision of the Seas came into service, the last of the Vision-class ships, in 1999, the Voyager of the Seas, the lines newest and worlds largest cruise ship entered service with much attention from the news media. In 2000, Royal Caribbean placed into service a series of land-and-sea based cruise tours in Alaska, featuring glass-domed train cars to destinations within the state
Acura is the luxury vehicle marque of Japanese automaker Honda. The brand was launched in the United States and Canada in March 1986, marketing luxury, performance and it was introduced to Hong Kong in 1991, Mexico in 2004, China in 2006, Russia in 2014 and Kuwait in 2015. Hondas plan to introduce Acura to the Japanese domestic market in 2008 was delayed, due to economic reasons, Acura holds the distinction of being the first Japanese automotive luxury brand. In its first few years of existence, Acura was among the luxury marques in the US. Though sales were down in the mid-to-late 1990s, the experienced a revival in the early 2000s, due to drastic redesigns. The 1993 Legend coupé featured Hondas first use of a manual transmission. In the late 1990s, Acura produced a Type R version of its compact Integra coupé, which featured a reduced weight, a stiffer and lower suspension. In the early 2000s, Acura introduced new models, including the companys first all-original SUV, the MDX, Type-S versions of the RSX, CL, and TL were added to the brands lineup during that decade.
Acuras 2005 RL flagship introduced SH-AWD, a torque-vectoring all-wheel drive system, the 2007 RDX, a crossover SUV, featured the first North American use of a turbocharged Honda engine. In the 2010s, Acura debuted more new models, including the ILX, TLX, and RLX, a second generation NSX was launched in 2015 and features a twin-turbocharged mid-engine, a nine-speed dual-clutch transmission, and Sport Hybrid SH-AWD. Following a decade of research, Honda opened 60 new dealerships in North America by 1986, Acura was the first Japanese luxury brand, introduced under the slogan, Acura. Its initial offering consisted of two models, the executive class Legend and the compact class Integra, available as a five-door and three-door hatchback, the Legend was the result of Project XX, a joint venture Honda entered into with the UKs Austin Rover Group. It was mechanically related to the Rover 800 series, while the Integra was an improvement of the Honda Quint hatchback, the success of these models, particularly the Legend, led to competing Japanese luxury brand ventures.
Toyota introduced the Lexus ES, Nissan introduced the Infiniti J30 and Ford utilized the Taurus platform and named their new sedan the Lincoln Continental. In 1987, Acuras first full year of sales, they sold 109,000 cars with the flagship Legend sedan accounting for 55,000 sales and the rest were of the smaller Integra. By 1990, Acura was selling 138,000 vehicles, including 54,000 Legends, compared to Mercedes-Benzs 78,000 cars and 64,000 each for BMW and Lexus. In 1990, five years after the debut of the Legend and Integra, Acura introduced the NSX, the NSX, an acronym for New Sports eXperimental, was billed as the first Japanese car capable of competing with Ferrari and Porsche. This vehicle served as a car for both the Honda and Acura brands, heralding the introduction of Hondas VTEC technology
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001, Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world behind General Motors, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, Nissan, and PSA Peugeot Citroën in 2011. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a luxury brand, Acura. Aside from their automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012. Honda has three joint-ventures in China, in 2013, Honda invested about 5. 7% of its revenues in research and development. Also in 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, throughout his life, Hondas founder, Soichiro Honda had an interest in automobiles.
He worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he tuned cars, in 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers. The relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company, with a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines. When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine and this was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound the engine made. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today, at about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, and Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Hondas technical bent.
The close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973, the first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a time to become the worlds largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964. The first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket. The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car and its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Hondas motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its line and expanded operations. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to ground in the luxury vehicle market
Holland America Line
Holland America Line is an American/British owned cruise line, a subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc. Originating in the Netherlands, the company is now based in Seattle, from 1873 to 1989, it was a Dutch shipping line, a passenger line, a cargo line and a cruise line operating primarily between the Netherlands and North America. As part of this legacy, it was instrumental in the transport of many hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Netherlands to North America. Holland America Line was founded in 1893 as the Nederlandsche-Amerikaansche Stoomvaart Maatschappij and it was headquartered in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and provided service to the Americas. The company was formed as a result of the reorganization of a company, Plate. The companys first ship was the original Rotterdam, which sailed its 15-day maiden voyage from the Netherlands to New York City on October 15,1872, other services were started to other new world ports, including Hoboken and South America. Cargo service to New York started in 1809, during the first 25 years the company carried 400,000 people from Europe to the Americas.
Other North American ports were added during the early 20th century, though transportation and shipping were the primary sources of revenue, in 1895 HAL offered its first vacation cruise. Its second vacation cruise, from New York to Palestine, was first offered in 1910. One notable ship was the elegant 36,000 gross ton SS Nieuw Amsterdam of 1937, it, at the start of the Second World War, HAL had 25 ships, nine remained at wars end. At the beginning of the war, the Westernland acquired from the Red Star Line in 1939, berthed at Falmouth, the Nieuw Amsterdam sailed half a million miles transporting 400,000 military personnel. After the war, the line was instrumental in transporting a massive wave of immigrants from the Netherlands to Canada. Another notable ship during the period was the SS Rotterdam of 1959, one of the first North Atlantic ships equipped for two-class transatlantic crossing. By the late 1960s, the era of transatlantic passenger ships had been ended by the introduction of air travel.
HAL ended transatlantic service during the early 1970s, leaving the North Atlantic passenger trade for Cunards RMS Queen Elizabeth 2, in 1973 it sold its cargo shipping division. It ceased operating as a Dutch line in 1989, when it was purchased by Carnival for 1.2 billion guilders, the proceeds were put into an investment company, the majority of which is owned by the van der Vorm family. This is the category of Holland America Line Ships that left service or sank before 1989, the ones that had left service after 1989 are at the bottom of the page at the other category. MS Prinsendam, 1973–80 — Sank off of the coast of Alaska, inactive after Regent Star went bankrupt
The Panama Canal is an artificial 48-mile waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for maritime trade. The original locks are 33.5 metres wide, a third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016. The expanded canal began operation on June 26,2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, Post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo, France began work on the canal in 1881 but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15,1914, Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The U. S. continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999 the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government and is now managed and operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority.
Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, by 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal. It takes six to eight hours to pass through the Panama Canal, the American Society of Civil Engineers has called the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world. Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese, during an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other links in the area were attempted over the years. The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up a trade route. Generally inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort, and it was abandoned in April 1700, another effort was made in 1843. They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal and it was a wholly British endeavor and it was expected to be completed in five years, but the plan was never carried out.
At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexicos Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan either. )In 1846 the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the U. S. and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1849, the discovery of gold in California created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Panama Railway was built by the United States to cross the isthmus and opened in 1855
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port located in San Diego County, California near the U. S. –Mexico border. The highly urbanized land adjacent to the bay includes the city of San Diego and four cities, including National City, Chula Vista, Imperial Beach. Considered to be one of the best natural harbors on the west coast of North America, San Diego Bays commercial port has two container ship facilities and a cruise ship terminal. A second cruise terminal opened in December 2010. The port handles more than 3 million metric tons of cargo yearly, San Diego International Airport is adjacent to the bay, across Harbor Drive from the Coast Guard Station. The bay is spanned by the San Diego–Coronado Bridge, built in 1969, the bridge curves and rises to a height of 200 feet above the water so that Navy ships can pass under it. The bridge was originally a bridge, toll collection was discontinued in 2002. Americas Cup Harbor has several boat yards and marinas for private sailing yachts, numerous resorts and the San Diego Convention Center are adjacent to the Bay.
Several parks and nature preserves are found at locations along the shoreline. Sightseeing boats depart from the downtown area, commercial sport fishing and whale watching tours depart from Shelter Island. Ten museum ships call San Diego Bay home and they include the USS Midway, an aircraft carrier museum, and the Star of India, the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship afloat and the worlds oldest active sailing ship. In the northern part of the bay there are two islands called Harbor Island and Shelter Island. They were built up from former sand bars and now hold hotels, restaurants and public parkland. Small boat sailing is extremely popular, and the bay is lined by dozens of marinas and nine yacht clubs, an inlet of the bay was renamed Americas Cup Harbor to commemorate that occasion. An annual fireworks display called the Big Bay Boom is held on the Fourth of July over the waters of the Bay, fireworks are launched simultaneously from four barges in the Bay as well as from a pier in Imperial Beach.
It is one of the largest annual fireworks displays in the United States and is viewed by half a million each year. The Parade of Lights is a parade of more than 80 small boats with holiday decorations, the parade has been held annually since 1972. The parade starts off Shelter Island and proceeds past Harbor Island and Downtown, a one-time special event was the Parade of Flight in February 2011, celebrating the 100th anniversary of naval aviation
Chula Vista, California
The population was 243,916 as of the 2010 census. Chula Vista is so named because of its location between the San Diego Bay and coastal mountain foothills. Founded in the early 19th century, fast population growth has recently observed in the city. In the year 3000 BCE, people speaking the Yuman language began movement into the region from the Lower Colorado River Valley, the Kumeyaay tribe came to populate the land, on which the city sits today, who lived in the area for hundreds of years. In the year 1542 CE, a fleet of three Spanish Empire ships commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailed into San Diego Harbor, early explorations by Spanish conquistadors, such as these, led to Spanish claims of the land. The historic land on which Chula Vista sits became part of the 1795 land grant known as Rancho del Rey or The Kings Ranch, the land eventually was renamed Rancho de la Nación. During the Mexican-American War, California was claimed by the United States, though California was now under the jurisdiction of the United States, land grants were allowed to continue in the form of private property.
The San Diego Land and Town Company developed lands of the Rancho de la Nación for new settlement, the town began as a five thousand acre development, with the first house being erected in 1887, by 1889, ten houses had been completed. Around this time, the lemon was introduced to the city, Chula Vista can be roughly translated from Spanish as beautiful view. The 1888 completion of the Sweetwater Dam allowed for irrigation of Chula Vista farming lands, Chula Vista eventually became the largest lemon-growing center in the world for a period of time. The citizens of Chula Vista voted to incorporate on October 17,1911, although the Great Depression affected Chula Vista significantly, agriculture still provided considerable income for the residents. In 1931, the lemon orchards produced $1 million in revenue, the relocation of Rohr Aircraft Corporation to Chula Vista in early 1941, just months before the attack on Pearl Harbor, changed Chula Vista. The land never returned to being orchard groves again, the population of post-World War II Chula Vista tripled from 5,000 residents in 1940 to more than 16,000 in 1950.
After the war, many of the workers and thousands of servicemen stayed in the area resulting in the huge growth in population. The last of the groves and produce fields disappeared as Chula Vista became one of the largest communities in San Diego County. From 1960 to 2013, the South Bay Power Plant, a 700 megawatt four boiler plant, in 1944, the state of California attempted to seize land in Chula Vista owned by Kajiro Oyama, a legal Japanese resident who was interned in Utah. Oyama was correctly charged with putting the property in his son Freds name with the intent to evade the Alien Land Law because Fred was a native-born citizen. The case went to the U. S. Supreme Court as Oyama v. California where the court found that Kajiros equal protection rights had been violated, in January 1986, Chula Vista annexed the unincorporated community of Montgomery, which had previously rejected annexation in 1979 and 1982