Parco Papa Giovanni Paolo II, best known by its historic name Basilicas Park is a city park of Milan, located in Zone 1. It owes its name to the fact that it connects two major basilicas, the Basilica of San Lorenzo and the Basilica of SantEustorgio. The park has an area of 40.700 m2, bisected by Via Molino delle Armi. In 1925, the authorities of Milan started a project for the area surrounding the Basilica of San Lorenzo. At the time, the area had marshes of polluted water produced by the tanneries located in the adjacent Piazza della Vetra, the area was cleared in 1934, but it was only after World War II that it was actually redesigned as a green public space. In the last decades of the 20th century, security issues were reported, including vandalisms, drug trafficking, excessive noise. On the same occasion, the area was partially redesigned
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments, most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian architecture, tympana usually contain religious imagery, a tympanum over a doorway is very often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. These shapes naturally influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum, bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is often supported by a pillar called a trumeau. Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
Porta Sempione is a city gate of Milan, Italy. The name Porta Sempione is used both to refer to the proper and to the surrounding district, a part of the Zone 1 division. The gate is marked by a triumphal arch called Arco della Pace, dating back to the 19th century. A gate that roughly corresponds to modern Porta Sempione was already part of Roman walls of Milan and it was called Porta Giovia and was located at the end of modern Via San Giovanni sul Muro. At the time, the gate was meant to control an important road leading to what is now Castelseprio, in the Middle Ages, part of the Roman walls in the Porta Sempione area were adapted as part of the new walls. The gate itself was moved north, in a place that is now occupied by the Sforza Castle, the Castle itself was completed in the 15th Century, under Duke Filippo Maria Visconti, and the gate itself became part of the Castle. In 1807, under the Napoleonic rule, the Arch of Peace was built by architect Luigi Cagnola and this new gate marked the place where the new Strada del Sempione entered Milan.
This road, which is still in use today, connects Milan to Paris through the Simplon Pass crossing the Alps, at the time, the gate was still called Porta Giovia. When the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy fell and Milan was conquered by the Austrian Empire, the gate was not yet completed, and the construction was abandoned for a while. The construction of the Arch was resumed, again by Cagnola, in 1826, for Emperor Francis II, when Cagnola died in 1833, his project was taken over by Francesco Londonio and Francesco Peverelli, who brought it to completion in 1838. The gate was the scene of prominent events in the Milanese history of the 19th century. On 22 March 1848, the Austrian army led by marshal Josef Radetzky escaped from Milan through Porta Giovia after being defeated in the Five Days of Milan rebellion. On 8 June 1859, four days after the Battle of Magenta, Napoleon III, the Simplon Gate is located at the center of a wide round square known as Piazza Sempione. It is adjacent to the Simplon Park, the city park of Milan.
It is neoclassical triumphal arch,25 m high and 24 m wide, decorated with a number of bas-reliefs, bas-reliefs and statues are made of a variety of materials, including marble, bronze and stucco. Other decorations have classical mythology subjects such as Mars, Minerva, there are a group of statues that are allegories of major rivers in North Italy such as the Po, the Adige and the Ticino. At the sides of the Arch of Peace there are two rectangular buildings that used to be the customs office. The area surrounding Porta Sempione is a prominent historic district of Milan, the district includes part of Corso Sempione, a large avenue leading to Porta Sempione from the northwest
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art
Marchese Luigi Cagnola was an Italian architect. He was sent at the age of fourteen to the Clementine College at Rome and his designs were commended, but were not selected on account of the expense their adoption would have involved. From that time Cagnola devoted himself entirely to architecture, after the death of his father he spent two years in Verona and Venice, studying the architectural structures of these cities. In 1806 he was called upon to erect a triumphal arch for the marriage of Eugene Beauharnais with the princess of Bavaria, the arch was of wood, but was of such beauty that it was resolved to carry it out in marble. The result was the magnificent Arco della Pace at Porta Sempione in Milan, among other works executed by Cagnola are the Porta Ticinese and the chapel of Santa Marcellina in Milan, and the church tower in Urgnano. He died in Inverigo in 1833, five years before the Arco della Pace was completed, outside of the town of Inverigo, he built a villa for himself, named Villa La Rotonda, completed by one of his pupils.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Cagnola, Luigi
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
Porta Nuova (Milan)
Porta Nuova is the main business district of Milan, Italy. It is named after the well-preserved Napoleonic gate built in 1810–13 on this site, the gates of Porta Nuova were built in 1810–1813 from a design of the poet Giuseppe Zanoia. Stylistically, it is a Neoclassic triumphal arch of Corinthian influence and it was built in friable sandstone, and as a consequence its decorations have decayed over time. After a long period of decay, the Porta Nuova district is now undergoing a massive renewal. The project, which has been under construction since the late 2000s, includes several high rise buildings, cultural centres. This project effects areas from the neighborhoods of Isola, construction started in 2009, with completion planned in 2014. The project involves the work of noted architects such as Cesar Pelli, Stefano Boeri, the redevelopment area extends from Porta Garibaldi station to piazza della Repubblica and from Porta Nuova gate to Palazzo Lombardia
Provinces of Italy
In Italy, a province is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality and a region. There are currently 107 provinces in Italy, a further 4 such cities were added later. The reorganization of the Italian provinces became operative by January 2015, a province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities. Usually several provinces together form a region, the region of Aosta Valley is the sole exception – it is not subdivided into provinces, the three main functions devolved to provinces are, local planning and zoning, provision of local police and fire services, transportation regulation. The number of provinces in Italy has been growing in recent years. Usually, the name is the same as that of its capital city. According to the 2014 reform, each province is headed by a President assisted by a body, the Provincial Council, and an executive body. President and members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province, the Executive is chaired by the President who appoint others members, called assessori.
Since 2015 the President and others members of the Council will not receive a salary, in each province there is a Prefect, a representative of the central government who heads an agency called prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo. The Questor is the head of States Police in the province, there is a provinces police force depending from local government, called provincial police. Sardinia - following the outcome of the referendums of 2012 it was decreed that such institutions should be reformed or abolished by March 2013. In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared unconstitutional the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, sicily - provinces were replaced by Free Communal Consortia in 2013. In 1861, at the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, however, at that time the national territory was smaller than the current one, regions of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige and Lazio were not included in the kingdom. In 1866, following the Third Independence War, territories of Veneto, there were therefore nine more provinces, Mantua, Rovigo, Venice, Verona and Udine, all previously part of the Austrian Empire.
Eventually, in 1870, following the annexion of Rome and its province from the Papal States, after the First World War, new territories were annexed to Italy. The Province of Trento was created in 1920, Provinces of La Spezia and Ionio in 1923. In 1924 the new provinces of Fiume and Zara were created, in 1927, following a Royal charter, a general province rearrangement took place. 17 new provinces were created and the province of Caserta was suppressed, in the same year the institution of circondari, sub-provincial wards created before the unification, was abolished