click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Portcullis House

Portcullis House is an office building in Westminster, London, UK, commissioned in 1992 and opened in 2001 to provide offices for 213 members of parliament and their staff. The public entrance is on the Embankment. Part of the Parliamentary Estate, the building augments limited space in the Palace of Westminster and surroundings; the architects, Michael Hopkins and Partners, published their design in 1993 and the existing buildings on the site were demolished in 1994. At the same time, the London Underground was building the Jubilee Line Extension, including a new interchange station at Westminster tube station which occupies the same area. Construction began with works to the existing District line station at sub-basement level; the track had to be lowered and underpinned to allow the extensive excavation to the Jubilee line many feet below. The building above ground began to rise in 1998 and opened in 2001, it is located at the corner of Bridge Street and Victoria Embankment – overlooking the River Thames – and adjacent to the Norman Shaw South Building, which overlooks the river.

The building is named after the chained portcullis used to symbolize the Houses of Parliament on letterheads and official documents. Portcullis House accommodates about one third of members of parliament; the first floor of Portcullis House is open to members of the public to allow attendance at Committee sessions. Throughout the rest of the building, as with the rest of the Parliamentary Estate, members of the public must remain with a passholder; the entrance is guarded by police, all visitors must submit their bags and coats for X-raying, as well as passing through a metal detector and undergoing a body check. There is a Post Office branch within Portcullis House, not open to the public; the building was designed by Michael Hopkins and Partners and incorporates Westminster tube station below it. A thick slab of concrete separates Portcullis House from the station to defend against any underground bomb attacks; the load is borne without interior posts. The corners of the building are hung from the roof using massive steel beams.

The design life of 120 years meant that aluminium bronze was chosen for exposed metal on the roof and walls. The structure includes Devonian granite and was the last consignment to be excavated at Merrivale Quarry on Dartmoor; the columns between the windows are constructed of Birchover Gritstone. The building's curious profile, with its rows of tall chimneys, is intended to recall the Victorian Gothic design of the Palace of Westminster and to fit in with the chimneys of the Norman Shaw Building next door. Portcullis House's chimneys are not used to expel fumes but are part of an unpowered air conditioning system, designed to draw air through the building by exploiting natural convection flows, it is based on the system used in 1996 in the Eastgate Centre, Zimbabwe. The building itself was designed to feel like a ship inside. All the offices and passages are made up with light oak finishing; each floor looks identical to the others except the ground floor which houses the main courtyard with ship-like metallic sails suspended overhead.

The courtyard is decorated with two shallow baths of water. The offices at Portcullis House are in sets of two sharing a common bay in the centre; each floor is unofficially allocated to a different political party so that MPs with similar politics are kept together. The first floor houses a number of conference suites and committee rooms, which are named after famous politicians Betty Boothroyd, Harold Macmillan, Margaret Thatcher, Clement Attlee, Harold Wilson, Jo Grimond; these Committee rooms are accessible to the public and are fitted with television cameras and microphones, to broadcast the proceedings via BBC Parliament and via parliamentlive.tv. All rooms in the building are fitted with annunciators. Division bells are installed throughout the building, which alert MPs to the calling of a division in the Chamber of the House of Commons. Along with this, visual aids are displayed on television sets and computer desktops in MPs' offices when the Division bell sounds. On the ground floor are a range of services including a waiter-service restaurant, informal cafeteria and a coffee shop, available only to pass holders and their guests.

There is a post office and an e-library, an enquiry point where Members and staff can use networked computers, run by the House of Commons Library. There is an underground passage into the Palace of Westminster and a connection to the 1 Parliament Street building and to the Norman Shaw Buildings. For security reasons this is now the main route of access for Parliament; when commissioned in 1992 the cost of Portcullis House was to be £165m. After building cost inflation and delays, the price increased to £235m. Costs included £150,000 for decorative fig trees, £2m for electric blinds and, for each MP, a reclining chair at £440. A parliamentary inquiry into the over-spend was carried by Sir Thomas Legg. Although completed in 2000, the report was never published. By April 2012 the fig trees, which were rented, had cost £400,000. Parliament of the United Kingdom Portcullis House, Michael Hopkins 2001, galinsky

Mama June: From Not to Hot

Mama June: From Not to Hot is an American reality television series that aired on WEtv. The show premiered on February 24, 2017, is a spin-off of the TLC reality series' Here Comes Honey Boo Boo; the show documents June "Mama June" Shannon's weight loss transformation from 460 to 160 pounds. After three seasons, continued production of the show has not been confirmed, as June and her boyfriend, Eugene'Geno' Doak, were arrested on March 13, 2019, at a gas station in Alabama; the two were both arrested and charged with felony possession of drugs and drug paraphernalia, with Geno facing an additional charge of domestic violence. Reports allege that June was in possession of crack cocaine and that the drug paraphernalia in question included a crack pipe and hypodermic needles; the couple's first court appearance was in October 2019. On February 28, 2020, it was announced that the fourth season titled Mama June: Family Crisis will premiere on March 27, 2020. June'Mama June' Shannon Alana'Honey Boo Boo' Thompson, June's daughter Lauryn'Pumpkin' Efird, June's daughter Mike'Sugar Bear' Thompson, June's ex and Alana's father Jennifer Lamb, Mike's new wife and June's rival Eugene'Geno' Doak, June's boyfriend Joshua'Josh' Efird, Lauryn's husband and Ella's father Ella Grace Efird and Joshua's daughter and June's granddaughter Jo "Doe Doe" Shannon, June's sister Amber Busby, June's niece Natasha Fett, June's fitness trainer Deborah Tyra, June's rival in the Mother-Daughter Pageant Hannah Stark, Alana's rival in the Mother-Daughter Pageant Mama June: From Not to Hot on IMDb

Marchand Ennery

Marchand Ennery was a French rabbi. He went to Paris, became teacher in the family of a wealthy coreligionist, in 1819 was appointed director of the new Jewish school at Nancy. At this time he published the first of its kind to appear in France. In 1829 he became chief rabbi of Paris, he was succeeded as chief rabbi by Salomon Ulmann. Dictionnaire hébreu-français, Colbo, 1981 Dictionnaire de la Bible hébraïque, Colbo, 1996, ISBN 2-85332-178-9 Lexique hébreu-français, Paris, 1949 Histoire des Juifs en France, under the direction of Bernhard Blumenkranz, Privat, 1972 Dictionnaire biographique des rabbins et autres ministres du culte israélite; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Ennery, Marchand". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls

Anglo-French War (1627–1629)

The Anglo-French War was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England between 1627 and 1629. It involved actions at sea; the centerpiece of the conflict was the Siege of La Rochelle, in which the English crown supported the French Huguenots in their fight against the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France. La Rochelle had become the stronghold of the French Huguenots, under its own governance, it was the centre of Huguenot seapower, the strongest centre of resistance against the central government. The English launched a campaign against France's new colony in North America which led to much of the territory including Quebec being seized; the conflict followed the failure of the Anglo-French alliance of 1624, in which England had tried to find an ally in France against the power of the House of Habsburg. French politics evolved otherwise however as Cardinal Richelieu came to power in 1624. In 1625, Richelieu used English warships to vanquish the Huguenots at the Recovery of Ré island, triggering outrage in England.

In 1626, France concluded a secret peace with Spain, disputes arose around Henrietta Maria's household. Furthermore, France was building the power of its Navy, leading the English to be convinced that France must be opposed "for reasons of state". In June 1626, Walter Montagu was sent to France to contact dissident noblemen, from March 1627 started to organize a French rebellion; the plan was to send an English fleet to encourage rebellion, as a new Huguenot revolt by Henri, Duke of Rohan and his brother Soubise was being triggered. Charles I sent his favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham with a fleet of 80 ships. In June 1627 Buckingham organised a landing on the nearby island of Île de Ré with 6,000 men in order to help the Huguenots. Although a Protestant stronghold, Île de Ré had not directly joined the rebellion against the king. On Île de Ré, the English under Buckingham tried to take the fortified city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré in the 1625 Recovery of Ré island, but were repulsed after three months.

Small French Royal boats managed to supply St Martin in spite of the English blockade. Buckingham ran out of money and support, his army was weakened by diseases. After a last attack on Saint-Martin they were repulsed with heavy casualties, left with their ships. England attempted to send two more fleets to relieve La Rochelle; the first one, led by William Feilding, Earl of Denbigh, left on April 1628, but returned without a fight to Portsmouth, as Denbigh "said that he had no commission to hazard the king's ship in a fight and returned shamefully to Portsmouth". A second fleet, organized by Buckingham just before his assassination, was dispatched under the Admiral of the Fleet, the Earl of Lindsey in August 1628, consisting of 29 warships and 31 merchantmen. In September 1628, the English fleet tried to relieve the city. After bombarding French positions and trying to force the sea wall in vain, the English fleet had to withdraw. Following this last disappointment, the city surrendered on October 28, 1628.

An English force led by David Kirke launched a campaign against New France in 1628 their target being the French colony of Quebec under the command of Samuel de Champlain. The force occupied Tadoussac and Cap Tourmente. Kirke promptly laid waste to the French settlements and blockaded the Saint Lawrence; the English succeeded in capturing a supply convoy bound for New France impairing that colony's ability to resist attack. Winter forced the Kirke brothers to return to England where King Charles I on hearing of the successes increased the number of Kirke's fleet to return in the Spring. Champlain whose residents were on the point of starvation was hoping for a relief fleet to arrive; this fleet however was captured by the English on their way upriver to Quebec. Kirke, now aware of the desperate conditions at Quebec demanded the surrender; the English occupied the colony with Kirke as Governor. With the Peace of Alès in April 1629 which settled concessions to the defeated Huguenots, Richelau's first step was to end hostilities with England in order to try and break the Hapsburg encirclement of France.

England and France were thus able to negotiate a peace at the Treaty of Susa which saw no benefits to each other, amounted to little more than a return to the'status quo ante bellum'. With regards to New France much of this side of the conflict had spilled over after the Susa treaty had been signed. In 1632 Charles I agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII agreeing to paying Charles' wife's dowry; these terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. A peace treaty was signed with Spain in 1630 - England's disengagement from European affairs dismayed Protestant forces on the continent. In England, internal conflict continued between the Monarchy and the Parliament, disputes which would lead to the English Civil Wars of the 1640s. France on the contrary continued to grow more powerful, its Navy becoming larger than that of England by 1630. BibliographyParker, Geoffrey.

The Thirty Years' War. Routledge. ISBN 9781134734054

Gary Talbot

Gary Talbot was a professional footballer in the 1960s with Chester, where he set a record as the second highest Football League goalscorer, Crewe Alexandra. He worked as a photographer. Talbot was signed by new Chester manager Peter Hauser in September 1963 as a 25-year-old, after the press photographer was spotted playing in a charity match. Within days he made his Football League debut against scoring in a 3-0 victory, he netted twice as Chester drew 2-2 at Barrow and he was comfortably the club's top scorer with 23 league goals to his name by the end of the season. The 1964–65 season saw Chester score 141 goals in Division Four, FA Cup and Football League Cup, with Talbot and fellow forwards Jimmy Humes, Mike Metcalf, Elfed Morris and Hugh Ryden all netting at least 20 goals. Talbot bagged 35 of them, including a hat-trick in two minutes and 57 seconds in the closing stages of an FA Cup 5-0 derby win over Crewe. Injuries limited Talbot's appearances and goal tally over the next two seasons, he was allowed to switch to Fourth Division rivals Crewe Alexandra in the summer of 1967.

He netted 20 times in 37 league appearances before returning to Chester in time for the 1968–69 campaign. Talbot once again broke the 20 goal barrier, with his tally of 22 leading him as the Division Four leading scorer. Talbot opted to retire from professional football, with his final game being a 2-0 win over Lincoln City in April 1969; this match marked the debuts of Nigel Edwards and Grenville Millington, with the pair going on to play more than 500 league matches for Chester between them. Talbot left as Chester's record Football League goalscorer with 83 goals, it was not until September 1992 that Stuart Rimmer would pass the total. Talbot had a spell playing for Irish side Drumcondra, he worked for many years as a photographer in the Chester area. With Crewe AlexandraFootball League Fourth Division fourth-place promotion: 1967–68

Tambura (instrument)

The tambura is a stringed instrument, played as a folk instrument in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia, Serbia. It is played with a plectrum, in the same manner as a mandolin; the Bulgarian tambura has 8 steel strings in 4 doubled courses. All the courses are tuned with no octaves, it is tuned D3 D3, G3 G3, B3 B3, E4 E4. It has a metal tailpiece; the instrument body is carved from a single block of wood. The Macedonian tambura has 4 steel strings in 2 doubled courses, it is tuned D D when playing melodies based on A tonic upon A drone. It may be tuned G G, D D when playing melodies based on G tonic upon G drone. Sometimes octave strings are used on the lower course, it has a metal tailpiece. The instrument body is more made from staves like a lute, it is played with a plectrum, playing short tones which are plucked from the top down, while playing long tones with fast tremolo. For solo playing or to accompany a singer, they are played in the traditional manner, to play a melody on the highest course whilst using the other course or courses as a drone.

The more modern way, more used in orchestras or other groups, is to play single line melodies using all courses. Both varieties of tambura have a narrow neck with 18 or 20 frets; the frets are nowadays always arranged in the normal Western 12 note scale, although in the past the Farkas system was used. The Bulgarian tambura's body is rather shallow and flat, whereas the Macedonian tambura has a much more rounded, bowl-like body. Instruments of the Tamburica orchestras The mandolin family The bouzouki Tambura The stringed instrument database Atlas of plucked instruments