Portland, Oregon

Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2018, Portland had an estimated population of 653,115, making it the 25th most populated city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest after Seattle. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous in the United States. Its combined statistical area ranks 19th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.

After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks; as a result, Portland ranks in quality of life in the United States. Its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters; this climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century.

During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana. These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver.

This community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim. For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage equivalent to $27.7 million today.

By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast. Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas fir, western hemlock, red cedar, big leaf maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England.

In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and


Templemore is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is a civil parish in the historical barony of Eliogarty, it is part of the parish of Templemore and Killea in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly. The 2011 Census results show that the town's population decreased by 13.8% from 2,255 in 2006 to 1,943 in 2011. Templemore is the eighth largest town in County Tipperary; the N62 national route connects the town to the main Dublin-Limerick motorway and Roscrea north of the parish. Travelling south, the route connects to Thurles and the main Dublin-Cork motorway; the N62 originates in Athlone. To the east, the R433 connects the town to the M8 at a more northerly point via the villages of Clonmore and the town of Rathdowney in County Laois. Alternatively, the motorway may be accessed via the village of Templetuohy. To the west, the R501, tracking the Devil's Bit mountain range, goes to Borrisoleigh. Templemore railway station is on the Dublin-Cork railway line operated by Iarnród Éireann.

There are direct trains to and from stations like Dublin Heuston railway station, Thurles Cork and Limerick daily The ancient territory of Éile obtained its name from pre-historic inhabitants called the Eli, about whom little is known beyond what may be gathered from legends and traditions. The extent of Éile varied throughout the centuries with the rise and fall of the tribes in occupation. Before the 5th century AD the details of its history which can be gleaned from surviving records and literature are exceedingly meagre and confusing. During this century however Éile appears to have reached its greatest extent, stretching from Croghan Bri Eli to just south of Cashel; the southern part of this territory embraced the baronies of Eliogarty and Ikerrin, a great part of the modern barony of Middle Third, the territory of Ileagh and a portion of the present barony of Kilnamanagh Upper. By the 8th century, the territory of Ancient Éile had broken up into a number of petty kingdoms: the O'Carroll occupied the northern portion, the O'Spillanes held Ileagh, the Eóganacht Chaisil had annexed Middle Third.

The ancient name of the district on which the town now stands was Tuatha Corca Teine. Teine was supposed to have been the son of the King of Connacht, arriving in the district shortly after Saint Patrick. Monastic settlements were located at the site of Teine's fort,'Land of the Monks'. A holy man named Silean is reputed to have accompanied St Patrick and to have established a monastery in the area. There is no townland called Templemore; the townland on which the town is built is Kiltillane. With the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, a powerful Norman family – the Butlers – became the new overlords. Early in the 14th century, they were raised to the Earldom of Ormond; as the holders of the County Palatine of Tipperary, they were entitled to appoint sheriffs and judges, to gather certain classes of revenue that would have been due to the Crown. This privilege was withdrawn in 1715; the family donated a small piece of land to the Abbey of St Thomas in Dublin, about 1200 a large Abbey was built with a moated graveyard, the remains of which are still to be seen in Templemore Demesne known as the "Town Park".

The Blackcastle, as it is locally known, was built in the Town Park in 1450 by James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond. This building and its manor lands were occupied by the Butlers and were leased to the families of Purcell of Loughmore and Morris of Knockagh; the O′Fogarty clan held what is now the barony of Eliogarty, while to the north of them, at least some time were O'Meaghers of Ikerrin. The River Nore, at its position between Roscrea and Templemore, although just a small stream at this point, is taken as the southern limit of Ely O'Carroll territory. Around 1695 the Butlers sold extensive lands to an English family called Carden from Cheshire, who settled in the area and located at Barnane and Fishmoyne. Over the next 200 years, this family was to play a significant part in the development of the town and district which has the nickname of "Carden's Wild Demesne", after the popular 19th century poem. Templemore owes its improved state to the liberality and exertions of the John C. Carden, Bart. under whose auspices the public buildings were erected, by whom the ground on which the town stands was granted at a nominal annual rent.

Following the burning of the Blackcastle, Carden built a new estate. He built a mansion known as the Priory on the edge of the town; the architecture of the Priory was in the style of the Elizabethan era. The Priory was surrounded by a demesne which had a formal garden with paved paths around an artificial lake. Quoting from a contemporary newspaper commentary of 1861, when the Priory was still under construction:The noble Gothic pile of finely chiselled limestone, with its battlements, turrets and extensive façade, spacious arched doorway. There were extensive gardens and a lot of money was spent on them: The house itself consists of sixty rooms, the sum of, we understand £20,000 in round numbers, has been expended so far upon the building, – Upon entering the grand hall, through the massive oaken doorway, replete with medieval decorations, the visitor finds that ‘The Priory’ has been erected in a style of magnificence not g

List of ancient kingdoms of Anatolia

Below is a list of ancient kingdoms in Anatolia. Anatolia was the home of many ancient kingdoms; this list does not include the earliest kingdoms, which were city states, except those that profoundly affected history. It excludes foreign invaders. Notes:Before Achaemenid conquest The first column shows the name of the kingdom or the state, the second column shows the name of the capital, the third column shows the life span of the state. However, there are uncertainties both in the third columns. In particular, the first dates are approximate. Notes: After Partition of Babylon In the table it can be seen that there are no new local kingdoms between the 9th and 3rd centuries BC; this era corresponds to foreign rule History of Anatolia Medieval states in Anatolia a. Andreas Schachner 2011, Hattuscha: the oldest settlement is of 6000 BC. Hattum is the Akkadian name for Hattus, the Hattian name is Ha-at-ti, so the same as the name of the land.. The Hattians lived in several kingdoms in the Kizirl bassin of the Bronze Age