1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Gresham is a city located in Multnomah County, Oregon, in the United States east of Portland. Though it began as a settlement in the mid-1800s, it was not incorporated as a city until 1905; the city's early economy was sustained by farming, by the mid-20th century the city experienced a population boom, growing from 4,000 residents to over 10,000 between 1960 and 1970. The population was 105,594 at the 2010 census; the area now known as Gresham was first settled in 1851 by brothers Jackson and James Powell, who claimed land under the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850. They were soon joined by other pioneer families, the area came to be known as Powell's Valley. In 1884, a local merchant petitioned the United States Post Office Department for a post office in his store, offered to name it after Postmaster General Walter Q. Gresham if his request was granted. At the same time, other members of the community secured a post office called "Campground", another name for the area, referencing the religious camp meeting ground located there and the valley's usefulness as a stop-off for travelers on their way to Portland.
Once the Post Office Department realized its mistake, it revoked the Campground post office. Gresham was incorporated in 1905, the year of the Clark Centennial Exposition. Lewis Shattuck, son of a pioneer family, was the first mayor; the town's economy was fueled by farming, including berries and vegetables. At the time, trains ran between Portland on an hourly basis. Gresham's early settlers would go on to form the outlying communities of Boring, Sandy and Estacada. Gresham's city library, which began as a small book collection in the town's general store, was established as the Gresham Branch Public Library in 1913 with a grant from the Andrew Carnegie library fund. Gresham General Hospital opened in 1959 in downtown Gresham. In 1984, the hospital became Mount Hood Medical Center. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.43 square miles, of which 23.20 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water. The total area includes parts of Johnson Creek. Gresham is located twelve miles from downtown Portland.
Gresham's north and south borders are divided along U. S. Route 26 known as the Mount Hood Highway, which begins on its western border along Powell Boulevard continues on Burnside Street before returning to the Mount Hood Highway in east Gresham; the city is located seventy miles east of the Oregon Coast. Though much of Gresham is flat, it is characterized by a hill on its eastern border. Northeast Gresham is hilly where the city meets Troutdale toward the Columbia River, its elevation is 325 feet. Johnson Creek, which begins at the foothills of the Cascade Mountains, runs westward through Gresham, with 23 percent of the creek's watershed running through the city. Climate type by Köppen classification: Csa; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $43,442, the mean income for a family was $51,126. Males had a median income of $37,701 versus $27,744 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,588. About 8.4% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under the age of 18 and 6.7% of those 65 and older.
2005-2007 American Community Survey Estimates83.9% - White 18.3% - Hispanic or Latino 5.1% - Asian 5.1% - Some other race 4.7% - American Indian or Alaska Native 3.7% - African American or Black 0.3% - Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander As of the census of 2010, there were 105,594 people, 38,704 households, 25,835 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,551.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 41,015 housing units at an average density of 1,767.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.0% White, 3.5% African American, 1.3% Native American, 4.3% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 9.8% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.9% of the population. There were 38,704 households of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.2% were non-families.
25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.22. The median age in the city was 33.6 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. The City of Gresham operates under the council-manager form of government; the mayor and city council are elected to be the policy-making body for the city. The council appoints a city manager, responsible for the daily operations of the city; the city manager of Gresham is Erik Kvarsten, appointed to the position on August 1, 2004. The city council consists of six councilors, all of whom serve four-year terms. Elections are held in November of even-numbered years. In election years divisible by four, three councilors are elected. In
Hillsboro is the fifth-largest city in the State of Oregon and is the county seat of Washington County. Lying in the Tualatin Valley on the west side of the Portland metropolitan area, the city hosts many high-technology companies, such as Intel, that comprise what has become known as the Silicon Forest. At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 91,611. For thousands of years before the arrival of European-American settlers, the Atfalati tribe of the Kalapuya lived in the Tualatin Valley near the site of Hillsboro; the climate, moderated by the Pacific Ocean, helped make the region suitable for fishing, food gathering, agriculture. Settlers founded a community here in 1842 named after David Hill, an Oregon politician. Transportation by riverboat on the Tualatin River was part of Hillsboro's settler economy. A railroad reached the area in the early 1870s and an interurban electric railway about four decades later; these railways, as well as highways, aided the slow growth of the city to about 2,000 people by 1910 and about 5,000 by 1950, before the arrival of high-tech companies in the 1980s.
Hillsboro has a council–manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. In addition to high-tech industry, sectors important to Hillsboro's economy are health care, retail sales, agriculture, including grapes and wineries; the city operates more than twenty parks and the mixed-use Hillsboro Stadium, ten sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Modes of transportation include private vehicles, public buses and light rail, aircraft using the Hillsboro Airport; the city is home to Pacific University's Health Professions Campus. Notable residents include two Oregon governors; the first people of the Tualatin Valley were the Atfalati or Tualaty tribe of the Kalapuya, who inhabited the region for up to 10,000 years before white settlers arrived. The valley consisted of open grassland maintained through annual burning by the Atfalati, with scattered groves of trees along the streams; the Kalapuya moved from place to place in good weather to fish and hunt and to gather nuts, seeds and berries.
Important foods included camas and wapato, the Atfalati traded for salmon from Chinookan tribes near Willamette Falls on the Willamette River. During the winter, they lived in longhouses in settled villages, some near what became Hillsboro and Beaverton, their population was reduced after contact in the late 18th century with Europeans, who carried smallpox and malaria. Of the original population of 1,000 to 2,000 Atfalati reported in 1780, only 65 remained in 1851. In 1855, the U. S. government sent the survivors to the Grande Ronde reservation further west. The European-American community was founded by David Hill, Isaiah Kelsey, Richard Williams, who arrived in the Tualatin Valley in 1841, followed by six more pioneers in 1842; the locality went by two other names—East Tualatin Plains and Columbia—before it was named "Hillsborough" in February 1850 in honor of Hill, when he sold part of his land claim to the county. On February 5, 1850, commissioners chosen by the territorial legislature selected the community to be the seat of the county government.
Hill was to be paid $200 for his land after plots had been sold for the town site, but he died before this occurred, his widow Lucinda received the funds. The town's name was simplified to Hillsboro. A log cabin was built in 1853 to serve as the community's first school, which opened in October 1854. Riverboats provided transportation to Hillsboro as early as 1867 when the side-wheel steamer Yamhill worked on the Tualatin River. In 1871, the Oregon and California Railroad line was extended to the area, but it ran just south of town because the city did not want to give the railroad land in exchange for the rail connection. Hillsboro was incorporated as the Town of Hillsboro on October 1876, by the Oregon Legislature; the first mayor was A. Luelling, who took office on December 8, 1876, served a one-year term. Notable mayors included Congressman Thomas H. Tongue and state senator William D. Hare. In 1923, the city altered its charter and adopted a council-manager government with a six-person city council, a part-time mayor who determined major policies, a city manager who ran day-to-day operations.
On September 30, 1908, 5,000 people gathered as the Oregon Electric Railway opened a connection between the city and Portland with an interurban electric rail line, the first to reach the community. In January 1914, the Southern Pacific Railroad introduced its own interurban service, known as the Red Electric, on a separate line and serving different communities between Hillsboro and Portland. SP discontinued its Hillsboro service on July 28, 1929, while the Oregon Electric Railway's passenger service to Hillsboro lasted until July 1932. A brick building was constructed in 1852 to house the county government, followed by a brick courthouse in 1873. In 1891, the courthouse was remodeled and a clock tower was added, the building was expanded with an annex in 1912. A new courthouse replaced the brick structure in 1928; the last major remodel of the 1928 structure occurred in 1972, when the Justice Services Building was built and incorporated into the existing building. The city's first fire department was a hook and ladder company organized in 1880 by the board of trustees.
A drinking water and electricity distribution system added in 1892–93 gave the town three fire hydrants and minimal street lighting. Hillsboro built its first sewer system in 1911, but sewage treatment was not added until 1936. In 1913, the city built its own water system, the first library, Carnegie City Library, opened in December 1914. From 1921 to 1952, the world's second-tall
Clackamas County, Oregon
Clackamas County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 375,992, its county seat is Oregon City. The county was named after the Native Americans living in the area, the Clackamas Indians, who were part of the Chinookan people. Clackamas County is part of the OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is in the Willamette Valley. Named Clackamas District, it was one of the four original Oregon districts created by Oregon's Provisional Legislature on July 5, 1843 along with Twality and Yamhill; the four districts were redesignated as counties in 1845. At the time of its creation, Clackamas County covered portions of four present-day U. S. states and a Canadian province. The Columbia River became the northern boundary of the county in 1844. Soon after John McLoughlin staked a land claim in Oregon City and built a house that in 2003 became a unit of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. Oregon City was the site of the only federal court west of the Rockies in 1849, when San Francisco, California was platted.
The plat was filed in 1850 in the first plat book of the first office of records in the West Coast and is still in Oregon City. In 1902, the Willamette Meteorite was recovered from a field just outside present-day West Linn. In contrast with the more liberal and cosmopolitan Multnomah County to the north, the more corporate Washington County to the west, some citizens of Clackamas county have espoused a blue-collar, yet conservative political outlook of the backlash mold described by Thomas Frank, it is the headquarters of Lon Mabon, whose Oregon Citizens Alliance has worked to pass a number of anti-homosexual initiatives, where Bill Sizemore, who has championed various anti-government initiatives for most of the 1990s, had his base before he moved to Klamath Falls. However, it is a mixed area overall, narrowly voting for Republican George W. Bush over Democrat John Kerry in 2004, but moderately voting for Democrat Barack Obama over Republican John McCain in 2008; as of August 2005, Clackamas is the first county in Oregon to have four models of governance for its communities.
Like the rest of Oregon, it has rural communities. After completion of a process that began late in 1999, the county adopted an ordinance on August 11, 2005 which defined hamlets and villages. By the November 30, 2005 deadline, three communities had submitted petitions to start the process of becoming one. Boring petitioned to become a village, but the application was rejected in a town hall referendum in August 2006; the communities along US 26 near Mount Hood from Brightwood to Rhododendron petitioned to become "The Villages at Mount Hood", it was approved by residents in May 2006. Beavercreek petitioned to become a hamlet, was recognized as such in September 2006. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,883 square miles, of which 1,870 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water; the county includes parts of two national forests: Mount Hood National Forest and Willamette National Forest. Multnomah County - north Hood River County - northeast Wasco County - east Marion County - south Yamhill County - west Washington County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 338,391 people, 128,201 households, 91,663 families residing in the county.
The population density was 181 people per square mile. There were 136,954 housing units at an average density of 73 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.27% White, 2.45% Asian, 0.71% Native American, 0.66% Black or African American, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 2.28% from other races, 2.46% from two or more races. 4.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.7% were of German, 11.6% English, 9.1% Irish and 7.5% American ancestry. There were 128,201 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.50% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 11.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $52,080, the median income for a family was $60,791. Males had a median income of $43,462 versus $30,891 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,973. About 4.60% of families and 6.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.60% of those under age 18 and 5.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 375,992 people, 145,790 households, 100,866 families residing in the county; the population density was 201.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 156,945 housing units at an average density of 83.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.2% white, 3.7% Asian, 0.8% American Indian, 0.8% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 3.1% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 24.9% were German, 14.5% were English, 13.3% were Irish, 5.0% were Norwegian, 4.9% were A
Beaverton is a city in Washington County, in the U. S. state of Oregon. The city center is 7 miles west of downtown Portland in the Tualatin River Valley; as of the 2010 census, the population is 89,803. This makes it the second-largest city in Oregon's sixth-largest city. Fire protection are provided through Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue, EMS services are provided by Metro West AmbulanceIn 2010, Beaverton was named by Money magazine as one of the 100 "best places to live", among smaller cities in the country. Along with Hillsboro, Beaverton is one of the economic centers for Washington County, home to numerous corporations in a variety of industries such as Nike. According to Oregon Geographic Names, Beaverton's name is derived from the settlement's proximity to a large body of water resulting from beaver dams; the area of Tualatin Valley that became Beaverton was the home of a Native American tribe known as the Atfalati, which settlers mispronounced as Tualatin. The Atfalati population dwindled in the latter part of the 18th century, the prosperous tribe was no longer dominant in the area by the 19th century when settlers arrived.
The natives had a village called Chakeipi, meaning Place of the Beaver, early settlers referred to it as "Beaverdam". Early settlers include the Hall Family from Kentucky, the Denneys who lived on their claim near present-day Scholls Ferry Road and Hall Blvd, Orin S. Allen, from western New York. Lawrence Hall purchased 640 acres in Beaverdam in 1847 and built a grist mill with his brother near present-day Walker Road, his was the first land claim in the area. He was soon followed by Thomas Denney in 1848, who built its first sawmill. In 1860, a toll plank road from Portland to Beaverton was completed over a trail called Canyon Road. After the American Civil War, numerous other settlers, including Joshua Welch, George Betts, Charles Angel, W. P. Watson, John Henry, laid out what is now known as Beaverton hoping they could bring a railroad to an area once described as, "mostly swamps & marshes connected by beaver dams to create what looked like a huge lake." In 1872, Beaverton's first post office opened in a general store operated by Betts, who served as the first postmaster of the community.
Betts Street, where the current post office now stands, is named in honor of him. In 1893, which by that time had a population of 400, was incorporated. Alonzo Cady, a local businessman, served as the first mayor. Many major roads in Beaverton are named for these early settlers. Beaverton was an early home to automobile dealerships. A Ford Motor Company dealership was established there in 1915. There are still several dealerships near the intersection of Canyon Roads. In the early 1920s, Beaverton was home to Premium Picture Productions, a movie studio which produced about fifteen films; the studio site was converted into Watt's Field and associated aircraft manufacturing facilities. A second Beaverton airport, Bernard's Airport, was developed farther north, at the present location of the Cedar Hills Crossing mall; the town's first library opened in 1925. On the second floor of the Cady building, it has moved repeatedly. A branch location was opened for the first time in June 2010, when the Murray-Scholls location opened near the Murrayhill neighborhood.
The Beaverton libraries and 15 other local libraries participate in the Washington County Cooperative Library Services. In the 1940s, Tualatin Valley Stages, a division of Portland Stages, Inc. provided limited bus transit service connecting the city with downtown Portland, operating as a separate company, Tualatin Valley Buses, Inc. through the 1960s. This was one of four owned bus companies serving the Portland metropolitan area which became collectively known as the "Blue Bus" lines. All four companies were replaced in 1970 by TriMet, a then-new regional transit authority, which expanded bus service to cover more areas of Beaverton. In the late 1970s, a light rail system was proposed to connect Beaverton to downtown Portland, as part of Metro's plans for the region's transportation. In 1990, voters approved funding for Westside MAX. Construction of the line began in 1993 and was completed in 1998. Six stations are located within the city of Beaverton: Elmonica/SW 170th Avenue, Merlo Road/SW 158th, Beaverton Creek, Millikan Way, Beaverton Central, the Beaverton Transit Center.
All but the last of these are located along right-of-way owned by Burlington Northern Railroad and by the Oregon Electric Railway, which provided interurban service through Beaverton until 1933. The present-day light rail service is operated by TriMet, which continues to operate several bus routes serving Beaverton and the surrounding communities. Since early 2009, Beaverton has been served by commuter rail service, TriMet's Westside Express Service, running south to Wilsonville via Tigard and Tualatin. In December 2004, the city and Washington County announced an "interim plan" which would lead to Beaverton becoming the second-largest city in Oregon, second only to Portland; the "interim" plan covered a period of more than ten years. The city of Beaverton attempted to annex certain businesses, including Nike, which responded with a legal and lobbying effort to resist the annexation; the lobbying effort succeeded with the Oregon Legislative Assembly enacting Sena
Japanese Americans are Americans who are or of Japanese descent those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century. According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272,528, Hawaii with 185,502, New York with 37,780, Washington with 35,008, Illinois with 17,542, Ohio with 16,995. Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. People from Japan began migrating to the US in significant numbers following the political and social changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Large numbers went to Hawaii and the West Coast. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the US ended immigration of Japanese unskilled workers, but permitted the immigration of businessmen and spouses of Japanese immigrants in the US.
The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese. The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, their US-born children to the Nisei Japanese American generation; the Issei comprised those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US; this generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized United States citizenship to "free white persons", which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States and Korematsu v. United States; the Korematsu case originated the "strict scrutiny" standard, applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe; the numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. During World War II, an estimated 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals or citizens residing on the West Coast of the United States were forcibly interned in ten different camps across the western interior of the country.
The internments were based on the ancestry rather than activities of the interned. Families, including children, were interned together. Four decades the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 acknowledged the "fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights" of the internment. Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. Webster's New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, "A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined." The nomenclature for each of their generations who are citizens or long-term residents of countries other than Japan, used by Japanese Americans and other nationals of Japanese descent are explained here. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei, which describe the first and third generations of immigrants.
The fourth generation is called Yonsei, the fifth is called Gosei. The term Nikkei encompasses Japanese immigrants of all generations; the kanreki, a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei. Rituals are enactments of shared meanings and values. Issei and many nisei speak Japanese in addition to English as a second language. In general generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nikkei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities, it is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists, Japanese characters are provided on place signs, public transportation, civic facilities; the Hawaii media market h
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta