Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal who share a common Portuguese culture and language. Their predominant religion is Christianity Roman Catholicism, though large segments of the population the younger generations, have no religious affiliation; the Portuguese people's heritage derives from the pre-Celts and Celts, who were Romanized after the conquest of the region by the ancient Romans. A number of Portuguese can trace minor descent from Germanic tribes who arrived after the Roman period as ruling elites, namely the Suebi and Visigoths, who ruled for circa three hundred years; the Moorish occupation left a genetic contribution in the Iberian Peninsula in western and southern regions. The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B. C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the Portuguese language stems from Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people began an Age of Exploration which started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and culminated in an empire with territories that are now part of over 50 countries. The Portuguese Empire lasted nearly 600 years, seeing its end when Macau was returned to China in 1999; the discovery of several lands unknown to Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, forged the Portuguese Empire described as the first global empire in history paving the way for the domination of Western civilisation by other neighbouring European nations. The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe; the earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a proportion of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized a Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype; this haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, in some regions 96%; the Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were followed by others that can be identified as Celts; these two processes defined Iberia's, Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. The Northwest-Southeast cultural shift shows in genetic differences: Based on Salas et al. findings on the Haplogroup H, a cluster, nested within haplogroup R category, is more prevalent along the Atlantic façade, including the Cantabrian coast and Portugal. It displays the highest frequency in Galicia; the frequency of haplogroup H shows a decreasing trend from the Atlantic façade towards the Mediterranean regions. This finding adds strong evidence where Galicia and Northern Portugal was found to be a cul-de-sac population, a kind of European edge for a major ancient central European migration. Therefore, there is an interesting pattern of genetic continuity existing along the Cantabria coast and Portugal, a pattern, observed when minor sub-clades of the mtDNA phylogeny were examined.
Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is a mixture of pre-Celts, para-Celts such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, Celtic peoples such as Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of Alentejo and the Algarve. The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture. After the Romans, Germanic peoples namely the Visigoths ruled for several centuries; some of the Vandals and Alans remained. Northern and central Portugal along with Galicia and Catalonia are the regions with the highest ratios of Germanic Y-DNA in Iberia today; the Moors occupied from the 8
Valda Rose Aveling OBE was an Australian pianist and clavichordist. Her repertoire was wide, including composers as diverse as William Byrd, Jan Sweelinck, Sergei Rachmaninoff and Béla Bartók. Valda Aveling was born in Sydney, the youngest of four girls and a boy, showed great talent at an early age. At 16 she received teaching and performing diplomas from the NSW Conservatorium of Music, performed in the Sydney Eisteddfod in 1935 where she won the Sydney Eisteddfod Australian Women's Weekly 100 pound pianoforte scholarship for the most talented juvenile pianist, she left for Britain to study harpsichord and clavichord with Violet Gordon-Woodhouse. She returned in 1938 to make her piano debut at the Sydney Town Hall. In one concert in Manila, she played Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1, Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2 and Beethoven's Emperor Concerto. She came to dislike Beethoven's music, saying there was "nothing light in it". In 1947 she toured Australia for the Australian Broadcasting Commission, but returned to Britain by the early 1950s.
For the next 30 years she appeared at major British festivals such as the Proms, throughout the Far East and North America. She was active as a harpsichordist before the emergence of the early music movement, commissioned works for the instrument from living composers, she was the first to give amplified recitals on the clavichord. She taught at Trinity College of Music and made numerous recordings. Among her notable pupils was pianist Howard Brown. Among the artists with whom she collaborated were Benjamin Britten, Dame Joan Sutherland, Richard Bonynge, Evelyn Rothwell, Luciano Pavarotti, Leontyne Price, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa and Renata Tebaldi, she played Bach concertos for two, three or four keyboards, with players such as George Malcolm, Simon Preston, Eileen Joyce and Geoffrey Parsons, conductors such as Yehudi Menuhin. She gave a number such as new works by Stephen Dodgson and Dame Elizabeth Maconchy. In 1982, she was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. Valda Aveling never married.
She lived the last ten years of her life being cared for by friends, tending her garden, which contained a large eucalyptus tree imported from Australia. She died at the age of 87. Obituary, The Age, 27 December 2007, p. 18
Preben Maegaard, is a Danish renewable energy pioneer and expert. Since the oil crisis in 1974 he has worked for the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. Preben Maegaard is co-founder of the Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, established in 1983, its director 1984 till 2013. Preben Maegaard works locally and internationally at the organisational and technological levels within broad spectrum of renewable energy technologies. From 1979 to 1984 Preben Maegaard was chairman of the Danish Renewable Energy Association, since 1991, vice-president of Eurosolar and in 2006, appointed senior vice-president. Since 1992 he has been co-ordinator of the European Solar Prize in Denmark and member of the European Solar Prize Jury. In 1995 he became Member of Havana. In 1996 and the following years, Preben Maegaard was member of the board of EUROSUN, an intergroup set up by the European Parliament. Since 1999, he has been a board member of the European Renewable Energies Federation and Renewable Energy Adviser to the President of Mali, Alpha Konare, leading to the establishment of the Mali Folkecenter.
In 2001, he became a chairperson of the Committee of the World Council for Renewable Energy. When the World Wind Energy Association was founded in 2001, he became its first president, a position he held till 2005. In May 2006, the World Wind Energy Institute was initiated in Kingston, involving seven institutes from China, Cuba, Russia and Denmark. Preben Maegaard was appointed the first president of the WWEI, he was co-founder of the SolarSuperState Association when it was founded in 2012 and became its first president. As the director of the Folkecenter he has been responsible for the technological innovation of windmills, including design and implementation of sizes from 20 to 525 kW, farm biogas digesters from 50 to 1000 m3 as well as integrated energy systems including hydrogen and biofuels for transport; the technological development and implementation activities took place in cooperation with DS Trade and Industry. The Folkecenter has under his leadership provided transfer of renewable energy technology to many countries, set up numerous pilot projects worldwide.
In 2002, the liberal government suspended the national renewable energy development and implementation activities and programs in which Preben Maegaard held positions. Danish State support to the Folkecenter received. Since 2005, Folkecenter has received funding from the Energifonden and since 2012 support from the Danish state. Preben Maegaard has served on several Danish national governmental committees and councils for the development and implementation of renewable energy as member of: Renewable Energy Steering Group. For over three decades, Preben Maegaard has been conference director, speaker and/or participant of numerous national and international seminars and conferences, chairman of the World Wind Energy Conferences: WWEC2003 in Cape Town, WWEC2004 in Beijing and WWEC2005 in Melbourne. Preben Maegaard is author and/or co-author of numerous reports, books and periodicals in Danish, English and Japanese within the field of renewable energy and sustainable development and has received a number of awards.
In March 2010 Preben Maegaard was featured in documentary film The Fourth Revolution: Energy. Education 1957 - 1962: Economist, graduated in Microeconomics, Human Resources and International Trade. Copenhagen School of Business and Economics. Studies and Ethnography, Copenhagen University. 1962 - 1965: Economist, Statistical Planning Bureau, Ministry of HousingEarly Career 1965 - 1970: Lecturer, Adult Education, Social Sciences and Human Ecology, Open University Courses and Danish Folk High Schools 1970 - 1975: Manager, NORDENFJORD College of Innovative Productions and Human Development 1975 - 1983: Consultant and Project Implementation Manager for Small and Medium Size Enterprises, Renewable Energy. Project management | Organisation: Dansk Smedemesterforening 1976 - 1982: Cooperation about development of construction manuals. 11, 22, 55 kW wind turbines for the Danish market. Marketing strategies. Association of 2000 members, 20 companies directly involved. Coordination and approval. 1980 - 1982: Coordination of project group design engineering and product implementation.
100 kW wind turbine. Supported by Danish Agency of Industry. 1981 - 1985: Farm biogas, 50, 100, 200 cubic meter. Cooperation about development of construction manuals. Marketing strategies. Four companies directly involved. Coordination and approval. Supported by Danish Agency of IndustryFounder and director | Organisation: Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy 1984 - 1992: Development of construction manual. Wind turbine, 150, 200, 275 and 525 kW. Corporation development of manufacturing incl. subcontractors. 1987 - 1988: Large-scale solar collector for direct heating. Supported by Danish Agency of Industry. 1987 - 1989: Local island production and usage. Prototype development. Wind turbine project Bornholm, Denmark, 9 x 99 kW. Local production within the Baltic Power organization. 1988 - 1995: Concept development, technology research, project development and advising of Danish local cogeneration sch
Ellen Hughes, from Llanengan in northern Wales, was a Welsh-language writer, temperance reformer and suffragist. Influenced by Sarah Jane Rees, she was thrilled at having a poem published in the Welsh-language women's periodical Y Frythones when she was only 18; the year 1907 saw the publication of the essay Angylion yr Aelwyd which she had written in 1899. Now a member of the Undeb Dirwestol Merched y De, the South Wales Women's Temperance Union, her article criticized men's arguments for keeping women out of parliament; the same year she published Murmur y Gragen. Sef detholion o gyfansoddiadau barddonol a rhyddiaethol. In her A View Across the Valley: Short Stories by Women from Wales, Jane Aaron describes Hughes as "arguably the Welsh-language author of the period who comes closest to being a feminist in the modern sense". Covering her contributions to the journal Y Gymraes in 1900, she quotes a passage in which Hughes mocks William Gladstone, the prime minister of the day: "The idea that an elder of the wisdom of Mr Gladstone should doubt the capacity of the majority of women to vote in an election strikes us as wonderfully astonishing!".
Hughes, Ellen. Sibrwd yr awel. Robert Owen. Hughes, Ellen. Murmur Y Gragen. Sef Detholion O Gyfansoddiadau Barddonol a Rhyddiaethol. Dolgellau
Johannes Gossweiler aka John Gossweiler or João Gossweiler, was state botanist to the Government of Angola from 1899 until his death. He made important collections in every district of Angola and created the first phytogeographic map of that country, his collections of African plant specimens were sent to Lisbon, the British Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens and the University of Coimbra. Duplicates were kept at the Herbarium of the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica in Angola. Today, many herbaria contain specimens. Gossweiler studied horticulture in Zurich and Dresden spending four years in London at the Royal College of Science in South Kensington, 1897-98 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, he was inspired by William Turner Thiselton-Dyer while at Kew, went on to work for the government of Angola in the country's botanical garden in Luanda, where he remained until his death in 1952. Arriving in Angola, Gossweiler found the garden far from complete, started collecting in the coastal area around Luanda and the Malanje Plateau.
In 1905 he studied the indigenous plant sources of rubber of the Ganguela and Bié Plateau regions and collected many novel plants along the Okavango River. The'Cazengo Colonial Garden', the botanical garden of which Gossweiler would be director, was ready by 1907. Located on the site of an abandoned plantation, Gossweiler stocked it with indigenous species and plants from Sri Lanka, Goa and Tropical America, his collection of pressed specimens grew. In 1915/16 he worked in Subliali, Pango Munga, the rainforest region of Mayombe, near the source of the Zanza River, where he was accompanied by his wife Martha. Following World War I Gossweiler worked for the'Fomento Geral de Angola' from 1919-1926, during which time he made substantial collections along the southern bank of the Congo River, in the Dembos region and at Quiçama. In 1927 Gossweiler rejoined the government service and worked at starting an experimental cotton station in Catete, travelling to Amboim in 1932 to investigate coffee plant diseases.
His collections grew with plants from the mist forest south of Cazengo. He spent some time in Portugal at the University of Coimbra and the Colonial Garden in Lisbon, working on his collections. Gossweiler embarked on two more collecting expeditions in Angola. In 1937-8 he joined a pair of Portuguese botanists, Luis Carrisso and F. A. Mendonça of Coimbra University, Arthur Wallis Exell of the British Museum, on an extensive expedition covering some 13,000 km. On this expedition Carrisso suffered a fatal heart attack. Despite his death, work carried on, the results adding to the'Conspectus Florae Angolensis' of which the first volume, consisting of 55 parts, was published between 1937 and 1951; the other expedition was in 1947 when he collected in the forests of Dundo in the far north-east of Angola. Gossweiler's collections amounted to some 14,000 specimens, are housed at some of the world's important herbaria. "J. Gossweiler 14685", a specimen of Anticharis aschersoniana, may be the last he collected, preserved.
In 1936 Gossweiler's services were recognised by the Portuguese government, which awarded him the'Comenda da Ordem do Imperio Colonial'. In 1950 he was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society of London for his contributions to systematic botany. Gossweiler died 1952 in Lisbon. In 1960, the Portuguese government granted his widow Marthe Gossweiler a life pension in recognition of his service to the country and for ceding his works to the country. A statue of Gossweiler is located in the park next to the regional museum of Dundo. Two portraits of him were published in the 1950s. Specimens Gossweiler collected can be found in the following herbaria: The table includes the number of specimen viewable online, either directly or through JSTOR. Gossweiler, John. Contribuição para o estudo da flora do Maiombe português: apontamentos sôbre algumas madeiras comerciais. Luanda: Imprensa nacional de Angola. Gossweiler, John. Mr. John Gossweiler's Plants from Portuguese Congo. London: R. Hardwicke. Alston, Arthur Hugh Garfit.
Mr. John Gossweiler's Plants from Angola and Portuguese Congo: Pteridophyta. Gossweiler, John. A.. Carta fitogeográfica de Angola: Memória descritiva dos principais tipos de vegetação da colónia determinados pelos seus aspectos fisiográficos e caracteres ecológicos segundo a nomenclatura de Rübel. Ed. do Government Geral de Angola. Gossweiler, John. Flora exótica de Angola: nomes vulgares e origem das plantas cultivadas ou sub-espontâneas. Luanda: Imprensa nacional. Gossweiler, John. Nomes indígenas de plantas de Angola. Luanda: Impr. Nacional. Archive materials are held by: University of Coimbra: A few of his letters are available online in the digital library of the University of Coimbra Federal Archives of Switzerland Natural History Museum Archives, London Gossweilera S. Moore Gossweilerochloa Gossweilerodendron Harms. Mendonça, F. A.. "À memória de John Gossweiler 1873 - 1952: Homenagem da Sociedade Broteriana". Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana. II: 26. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Fernandes, Abílio.
"John Gossweiler". Vegetatio. 4: 334–335. Doi:10.1007/bf00301801. Exell, Arthur Wallis. Letter and biographical note on John Gossweiler, 1873-1952. Martins, E. S.. "John Gossweiler - Contribuição da sua obra para o conhecimento da flora angolana". Garcia
Sonic Boom Six is the self-titled fourth full-length album released by Manchester, UK-based Sonic Boom Six. It is their first album on the label Xtra Mile after many years on smaller labels; the band explained that "We don't want to be preaching to the converted any more, we want to change minds and viewpoints, not confirm what people know."The album's sound merges "contemporary electronica, crushing rock riffs, huge vocal hooks and anthemic song-writing." The first single was the song'Virus', released September 17. For the Kids of the Multiculture - 3:35 Virus - 3:40 Karma is a Bitch - 3:18 S. O. S - 3:39 Gary Got a Gun - 3:29 The High Cost of Living - 4:07 Who Will Survive - 2:49 Keep on Believing - 3:26 Flatline - 4:23 Karma is a Lady - 5:42