In architecture and lintel is a building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them. This is used to hold up a roof, creating a open space beneath, for whatever use the building is designed; the horizontal elements are called by a variety of names including lintel, architrave or beam, the supporting vertical elements may be called columns, pillars, or posts. The use of wider elements at the top of the post, called capitals, to help spread the load, is common to many traditions; the trabeated system is a fundamental principle of Neolithic architecture, ancient Indian architecture, ancient Greek architecture and ancient Egyptian architecture. Other trabeated styles are the Persian, Japanese, traditional Chinese, ancient Chinese architecture in northern China, nearly all the Indian styles; the traditions are represented in North and Central America by Mayan architecture, in South America by Inca architecture. In all or most of these traditions in Greece and India, the earliest versions developed using wood, which were translated into stone for larger and grander buildings.
Timber framing using trusses, remains common for smaller buildings such as houses to the modern day. The biggest disadvantage to a post and lintel construction is the limited weight that can be held up, the small distances required between the posts. Ancient Roman architecture's development of the arch allowed for much larger structures to be constructed; the arcuated system spreads larger loads more and replaced the post and lintel trabeated system in most larger buildings and structures, until the introduction of steel girder beams in the industrial era. As with the Roman temple portico front and its descendants in classical architecture, trabeated features were retained in parts of buildings as an aesthetic choice; the classical orders of Greek origin were in particular retained in buildings designed to impress though they had little or no structural role. In architecture, a post-and-lintel or trabeated system refers to the use of horizontal beams or lintels which are borne up by columns or posts.
The name is from beam. A noteworthy example of a trabeated system is in Volubilis, from the Roman era, where one side of the Decumanus Maximus is lined with trabeated elements, while the opposite side of the roadway is designed in arched style. In India the style was used for wooden construction, but the technique was adopted for stone structures for decorated load-bearing and purely ornamented non-structural purposes. Post and lintel construction is one of four ancient structural methods of building, the others being the corbel, arch-and-vault, truss. There are two main force vectors acting upon the post and lintel system: weight carrying compression at the joint between lintel and post, tension induced by deformation of self-weight and the load above between the posts; the two posts are under compression from the weight of the lintel above. The lintel will deform by sagging in the middle because the underside is under tension and the topside is under compression. Architrave – structural lintel or beam resting on columns-pillars Atalburu – Basque decorative lintel Dolmen – Neolithic megalithic tombs with structural stone lintels Dougong – traditional Chinese structural element I-beam – steel lintels and beams Marriage stone – decorative lintel Opus caementicium Structural design Timber framing – post and beam systems Stonehenge Summerson, The Classical Language of Architecture, 1980 edition and Hudson World of Art series, ISBN 0500201773
Uudam Sonam Wudamu is a Mongol Chinese young singer, who participated in the 2011 season of China's Got Talent. He is a former member of the Hulunbuir Children's Choir. Uudam was born Uudam Sonam on September 1999, in Hulunbuir in Inner Mongolia, his mother died in a road accident. A few years when he was eleven his father died in another car accident, he was fostered by Buren Bayaer, the director of the Hulunbuir Children's Choir which Uudam was part of and a noted Chinese singer.. Buren and Wurina have two daughters and Enigma. Uudam has a biological older sister named Sue Neil, around three years older than him. Uudam attended Delta Secondary School in Delta, Canada for two years until 2017. Uudam goes by Kevin as his English name and went by Michael for a few years, he now attends university in Canada. Uudam participated as a contestant in the 2011 season of China's Got Talent. Performing in his native Mongolian language, he sang the song, "Mother in the Dream", he performed a song with his adoptive parents and Wurina Bayaer.
He appeared in the background of Buren Bayaer's video, "Take Me To The Prairie". 2011: "Mother far away" – Guangdong Audio B006G79YT4, CD + DVD The cover photo of this album http://ent.southcn.com/8/images/attachement/jpg/site4/20111125/0016ec7d751a103941d448.jpg Including 5 songs:Mother in the dream The running horse A song dedicated to father Uncle Bateer Taryat Miden In 2015 he sang a new song,"Old mother"on China's Got Talent's stage during Chinese Spring Festival. (Music video "Mother in the Dream" = 2011: The Men with Blue Dots – as child Ganbaa 2012: Night Blooming – as the leading actor in the role of 小虎 2013: Uudam Charity Mini Movie "Spring-Bound School Bus" Uudam on IMDb 乌达木Michael on Twitter 乌达木Michael on Weibo 乌达木Kevin on Instagram
1569 Evita, provisional designation 1948 PA, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt 36 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 3 August 1948, by astronomer Miguel Itzigsohn at the La Plata Astronomical Observatory in Argentina; the asteroid was named after Eva Perón. Based on the hierarchical clustering method, Evita is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population, it orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.7–3.6 AU once every 5 years and 7 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 12 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the asteroid was first identified as 1936 KE at the Johannesburg Observatory in May 1936. The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at La Plata. According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Evita measures 36.346 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.047. An albedo near 0.05 is typical for carbonaceous C-type asteroids which dominate the outer asteroid belt.
It has an absolute magnitude of 11.2. As of 2017, no rotational lightcurve of Evita has been obtained from photometric observations; the asteroid's rotation period and axis, as well as its shape remain unknown. This minor planet was named in after the First Lady of Argentina, Eva Perón, known by the affectionate Spanish diminutive form of her name, Evita, she was the wife of President Juan Perón of Argentina. The discoverer named the asteroids 1581 Abanderada, 1582 Martir, 1588 Descamisada and 1589 Fanatica in tribute to Eva Perón; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center in February 1951. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1569 Evita at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1569 Evita at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters