Kilnaboy or Killinaboy is a village and civil parish in County Clare, Ireland. It is located in the Burren, as of the 2011 census the area had 347 inhabitants. Kilnaboy is a parish in the historic Barony of Inchiquin, its chief town, Corofin, is located on the southern extremity of the parish. It is mentioned with regard to the Papal taxation of 1302-06, it is located on the southeastern border of the limestone hills of the Burren and extends both into the lowlands to the south and into the hills to the north. Mullaghmore mountain is close by. There are extensive tracts of bog in the eastern portion of the parish. According to the 1837 survey of Lewis:"The surface is boldly diversified and embellished with the picturesque lakes of Inchiquin and Tadune, the latter of, but in the parish; the lake of Inchiquin is about 2½ miles in circumference, is situated at the base of a richly wooded range of hills, forming a fine contrast to the bare limestone rocks in the vicinity." Most of Inchiquin Lough is located in the parish, except for a small area in the southwest which lies in the parish of Rath, County Clare.
There are over 300 national monuments in the area including Leamaneh Castle and Cahercommaun stone fort. On Roughan Hill there are a number of prehistoric structures including several wedge tombs such as Parknabinnia wedge tomb. Other wedge tombs are located in Slievenaglasha townlands. Kilnaboy has a medieval church of 11th-century origin, repaired in 1715; the church includes a Sheela na Gig over a cross on the church gable. There is a round tower nearby. Much of the territory making up the "Burren National Park" is located in Kilnaboy parish, but it extends into other neighbouring parishes, it is sometimes visited by archeologists. Glanquin house, Kilnaboy was used as an exterior of "Craggy Island Parochial House" in the comedy series Father Ted. Leamaneh and Ballyportry castles are located in the parish. Ballyportry is restored, while the other two are ruins. Other sites include Cross Inneenboy, Cashlaungar. Kilnaboy is part of the parish of "Corofin and Rath" in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe.
There are three churches in the parish: St Joseph's and St Mary's. Kilnaboy is home to the former Minister for Tony Killeen. Seamus Clancy is the first Clare footballer to win an All-Star award, achieved in 1992, his brother Colm Clancy had a role in that Munster championship winning side and their father Donal was one of the selectors. Francis G. Neylon, a traditional Irish musician, was born in Kilnaboy in 1921 in the cottage now known as Tigh Éamoin. Michael Sonny Murphy, Kilnaboy represented Ireland in the 3000 Meter Steeplechase at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic games, he held many County and National titles. He died aged 29 in 1936. A 10 mile Road Race is held every year in his memory. List of towns and villages in Ireland Kilnaboy parish at the Clare County Library Roughan Hill prehistoric landscape in: Burren Landscape and Settlement
A threshold stone or sill stone is a rectangularly dressed stone slab that forms part of the entrance of megalithic tombs of the Funnelbeaker culture those with a passage. The red sandstone slab, up to 0.1-metre-thick, was buried in the ground to a depth of 0.2 metres at the entrance to the chamber. Cultural sites of other types, such as Domus de Janas have a clear partition between the passage and the ante-chamber or main chamber. Threshold stones are typical of gallery graves and passage graves, etc.. Whilst in most simple dolmens the blocking stone of the entrance side was replaced by a threshold stone of varying height, the entrance to extended dolmens and great dolmens was narrowed axially or coaxially to about half the width of the chamber and the lower threshold stone marked the transition in the open doorway between the passage and the chamber. In simple dolmens with no passage and an entrance opening, the threshold reaches half the height of the chamber and protrudes 0.5 m above the hallway floor in Grave 9 in the northern part of the Everstorf Forest.
However the upper edge of the threshold is not higher than 0.1 metres above the level of the hall floor in dolmens. The length of the threshold in polygonal dolmens and gallery and passage graves is the width of the entrance which, in the Funnelbeaker culture exceeds 0.7 metres. As well as separating the sacral chamber from the profane passage, the threshold stone serves to support a door slab or sealing slab. If the passageway was used, e.g. in connexion with secondary burials, for cultic purposes, it was given a covering of flagstones and a second, outer threshold stone. Nordic megalith architecture Ewald Schuldt: Die mecklenburgischen Megalithgräber. Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaft, Berlin, 1972. Jürgen E. Walkowitz: Das Megalithsyndrom. Europäische Kultplätze der Steinzeit. Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach, 2003, ISBN 3-930036-70-3. Photograph of the "Mürow" megalithic tomb with its large threshold stone
Clare Abbey is a ruined Augustinian monastery located near Ennis, along the banks of the Fergus River, about a mile north of Clarecastle in County Clare, Ireland. The abbey was founded in 1195 under the sponsorship of the king of Thomond, it was the largest of the Augustinian monasteries in County Clare. After the dissolution of the monasteries in 1543 the parish lands, now the civil parish of Clareabbey, were given to the Barons of Ibrackan by King Henry VIII of England. In 1620 it became the property of the Earl of Thomond; the ruins include a church and cloister with ranges of domestic buildings to the east and south of the garth, a gateway and enclosures. The church was a long oblong building, 39 metres by 9 metres 40 centimetres, externally; the interior was subsequently divided into a nave and chancel by a belfry tower 4 metres 80 centimetres, the chancel 14 metres 75 centimetres. List of abbeys and priories in the Republic of Ireland, The Augustinian Houses of the County Clare: Clare and Inchicronan by Thomas Johnson Westropp at Clare Library Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland 1845 at Clare Library
The Irish Times
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Paul O'Neill who succeeded Kevin O'Sullivan on 5 April 2017; the Irish Times is published every day except Sundays. It employs 420 people. Though formed as a Protestant nationalist paper, within two decades and under new owners it had become the voice of British unionism in Ireland, it is no longer marketed as a unionist paper. The editorship of the newspaper from 1859 until 1986 was controlled by the Anglo-Irish Protestant minority, only gaining its first nominal Irish Catholic editor 127 years into its existence; the paper's most prominent columnists include writer and arts commentator Fintan O'Toole and satirist Miriam Lord. The late Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald was once a columnist. Senior international figures, including Tony Blair and Bill Clinton, have written for its op-ed page, its most prominent columns have included the political column Backbencher, by John Healy, Drapier and Reason and the long-running An Irishman's Diary.
An Irishman's Diary was written by Patrick Campbell in the forties. After Myers' move to the rival Irish Independent, An Irishman's Diary has been the work of Frank McNally. On the sports pages, Philip Reid is the paper's golf correspondent. One of its most popular columns was the biting and humorous Cruiskeen Lawn satire column written in Irish in English, by Myles na gCopaleen, the pen name of Brian O'Nolan who wrote books using the name Flann O'Brien. Cruiskeen Lawn is an anglicised spelling of the Irish words crúiscín lán, meaning'full little jug'. Cruiskeen Lawn made its debut in October 1940, appeared with varying regularity until O'Nolan's death in 1966; the first appearance of a newspaper using the name The Irish Times occurred in 1823, but this closed in 1825. The title was revived as a thrice-weekly publication by Major Lawrence E. Knox, with the first edition being published on 29 March 1859, it was founded as a moderate Protestant Nationalist newspaper, reflecting the politics of Knox, who stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for Isaac Butt's Home Rule League.
Its headquarters were at 4 Lower Abbey Street in Dublin. Its main competitor in its early days was the Dublin Daily Express; the Irish Times supported Ireland remaining part of the United Kingdom and was allied to the Irish Unionist Alliance. After Knox's death in 1873, the paper was sold to the widow of Sir John Arnott, MP, a former Lord Mayor of Cork and owner of Arnotts, one of Dublin's major Department stores; the sale, for £35,000, led to two major changes. Its headquarters was shifted to 31 Westmoreland Street, remaining in buildings on or near that site until 2005, its politics shifted becoming predominantly Protestant and Unionist, it was associated with the Irish Unionist Alliance. The paper, along with the Irish Independent and various regional papers, called for the execution of the leaders of the failed 1916 Easter Rising. Though the paper became a publicly listed company in 1900, the family continued to hold a majority shareholding until the 1960s; the last member of the Arnott family to sit on the paper's board was Sir Lauriston Arnott, who died in 1958.
The editor during the 1930s, R. M. Smyllie, had strong anti-fascist views: he angered the Irish Catholic hierarchy by opposing General Franco during the Spanish Civil War; the Irish Times, like other national newspapers, had problems with Irish Government censorship during World War II. The Times was pro-Allied and was opposed to the Éamon de Valera government's policy of neutrality. In 1974, ownership was transferred to The Irish Times Trust; the former owner, Major Thomas McDowell, was made "president for life" of the trust which runs the paper and was paid a large dividend. However several years the articles of the Trust were adjusted, giving Major McDowell 10 preference shares and one more vote than the combined votes of all the other directors should any move be made to remove him. Major McDowell died in 2009; the Trust was set up in 1974 as "a company limited by guarantee" to purchase The Irish Times Limited and to ensure that The Irish Times would be published as an independent newspaper with specific editorial objectives..
The Trust is regulated by a legal document, the Memorandum and Articles of Association, controlled by a body of people under company law. It does not have charitable status, it has no beneficial shareholders and it cannot pay dividends. Any profits made by The Irish Times cannot be distributed to the Trust but must be used to strengthen the newspaper, directly or indirectly; the Trust is composed of a maximum of 11 Governors. The Trust appoints Governors who are required to be "representative broadly of the community throughout the whole of Ireland"; as of June 2012, Ruth Barrington is the chair of the trust, the governors are Tom Arnold, David Begg, Noel Dorr, Margaret Elliott, Rosemary Kelly, Eoin O'Driscoll, Fergus O'Ferrall, Judith Woodworth, Barry Smyth, Caitriona Murphy. In 1969, the longest-serving editor of The Irish Times, Douglas Gageby, was called a "white nigger" by the company chairman (a former Irish Bri
The Burren is a region of environmental interest located in northwestern County Clare, dominated by glaciated karst landscape. It measures, depending on the definition, between 560 square kilometres; the name is most applied to the area within the circle made by the villages of Tubber, Kilfenora and Ballyvaughan, Kinvara in extreme south-western Galway, including the adjacent coastline. A part of the Burren forms the Burren National Park, the smallest of the six National Parks in Ireland, while the full Burren and adjacent territory including the Cliffs of Moher are included in the Burren and Cliffs of Moher Geopark. While the name is applied to the limestone uplands of northwestern Clare, adjacent lowlands, excludes the area of Clare shales to the southwest, the exact extent of the area is not defined, geologically it does extend into County Galway to both the north and northeast; the southeastern pocket of Co. Galway around Kinvara is included, is the base for many Burren organisations; the Burren is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and by Galway Bay, with the Aran Islands representing a geological extension of the limestone hills that make up most of The Burren.
According to one definition, the Burren extends south to a line from the coastal resort of Lahinch to Corofin and is delimited in the east by a line from Kinvara to Kilmacduagh monastery, near Gort. Note that taken this would includes places like the town of Ennistymon and the Cliffs of Moher, which would more be considered as neighbouring the Burren. In another definition, the "Burren Programme" defines the region as extending well into the Gort plain, encompassing inter alia Coole Park and the turloughs around it, while to the south it would extend to Ruan and Crusheen, in the southwest to the edge of Doolin, as well as the routine Lisdoonvarna and Corofin, thus the stated size of the Burren varies between around 250 square kilometres, through 360 square kilometres and 560 square kilometers, depending on the approach taken. 60% of the uplands show exposed limestone pavement. The Burren has an unusually temperate climate for western Ireland. Average air temperatures range from 15 °C in July to 4–6 °C in January, while the soil temperature does not drop below 6 °C.
Since grass will grow once the temperature rises above 6 °C, this means that The Burren has one of the longest growing seasons in Ireland or Britain, supports diverse and rich plant growth. The area has around 1,525 millimetres of annual rainfall, with an average level of over 160 millimetres monthly from October to JanuaryLate May is the sunniest time, a good time to view flowers, with the gentians and avens peaking. During counter-guerrilla operations in The Burren in 1651-52, Edmund Ludlow stated, " is a country where there is not enough water to drown a man, wood enough to hang one, nor earth enough to bury him...... and yet their cattle are fat. The area is formed from a thick succession of sedimentary rocks limestones but including sandstones and siltstones. All of the solid rocks exposed at the surface are of Carboniferous age though they are underlain at depth by Old Red Sandstone of Devonian age which in turn overlies rocks of Lower Palaeozoic age. None of the pre-Carboniferous rocks is seen at the surface in the area.
The limestones, which date from the Visean stage of the early Carboniferous, formed as sediments in a tropical sea 325 million years ago. The strata contain fossil corals, sea urchins and ammonites; this bed of limestone is up to 800 metres thick. In the north and west it lies on a shelf of Galway granite which supported the upper layers, preventing shifts like those that created the "twisted" hills Knockanes and Mullaghmore; the limestone extends below Galway Bay out to the Aran Islands and to the east into the Gort plain. In the Carboniferous, the limestone was covered by darker sand and mud that turned into shale and sandstone; these layers reached a thickness of up to 330 metres in north Clare. These top layers protected the underlying limestone from erosion for millions of years before being stripped away by glaciers, except in the south west, where they still extend from Doolin to Slieve Elva, Kilfenora and to the western shore of Lake Inchiquin. One "island" of shale is the hill Poulacapple, southwest of Ballyvaughan, where an upland moor has formed on top of the impermeable shale layers.
The local geological succession comprises the following formations some of which are subdivided into various members. The youngest rocks are at the start of the oldest at the bottom; the first three listed are of Namurian age and are a mix of mudstones and siltstones, the remainder are Visean age limestones. Central Clare Group Gull Island Formation Clare Shale Formation Slievenaglasha Formation Lissylisheen Member Ballyelly Member Fahee North Member Balliny Member Burren Format
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, sand, rocks, or debris. Most mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial and commemorative purposes. In the archaeology of the United States and Canada, a mound is a deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork, intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian archaeology, the word "tumulus" may be used as a synonym for an artificial hill if the hill is related to particular burial customs. While the term "mound" may be applied to historic constructions, most mounds in the United States are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by Native American peoples. Native Americans built a variety of mounds, including flat-topped pyramids or cones known as platform mounds, rounded cones, ridge or loaf-shaped mounds; some mounds took such as the outline of cosmologically significant animals.
These are known as effigy mounds. Some mounds, such as a few in Wisconsin, have rock formations, or petroforms within them, on them, or near them. While these mounds are not as famous as burial mounds, like their European analogs, Native American mounds have a variety of other uses. While some prehistoric cultures, like the Adena culture, used mounds preferentially for burial, others used mounds for other ritual and sacred acts, as well as for secular functions; the platform mounds of the Mississippian culture, for example, may have supported temples, the houses of chiefs, council houses, may have acted as a platform for public speaking. Other mounds would have been part of defensive walls to protect a certain area; the Hopewell culture used mounds as markers of complex astronomical alignments related to ceremonies. Mounds and related earthworks are the only significant monumental construction in pre-Columbian Eastern and Central North America. Mounds are given different names depending on, they can be located all across the world in spots such as Asia and the Americas.
"Mound builders" have more been associated with the mounds in the Americas. They all have different meanings and sometimes are constructed as animals and can be seen from aerial views. Kankali Tila is a famous mound located at Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. A Jain stupa was excavated here in 1890-91 by Dr. Fuhrer. Mound, as a technical term in archaeology, is not in favor in the rest of the world. More specific local terminology is preferred, each of these terms has its own article. Cairn Chambered cairn Effigy mound Kofun Platform mound Subglacial mound Tell Tumulus Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow Chambered long barrow Kurgan Long barrow Oval barrow List of burial mounds in the United States Fort Ancient Kofun period Kurgan hypothesis Mississippian Period Neolithic Europe Olmec La Venta San Jose Mogote Petroform Pyramid Prehistoric Britain Stupa Woodland Period Crystal River Archaeological State Park ZigguratAnimalsMound-building termites The dictionary definition of mound at Wiktionary "Mound".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. 1911
Brownshill Dolmen is a large megalithic portal tomb situated 3 km east of Carlow, in County Carlow, Ireland. It's capstone weighs an estimated 100 metric tons, is reputed to be the heaviest in Europe; the tomb is listed as a National Monument. Known as the Kernanstown Cromlech, sometimes spelled as Browneshill Dolmen, it is sited on the former estate house of the Browne family from which it takes its name; the tomb was built between 4000 and 3000 BC. It is distinguished for the flanking of its burial chamber with two large upright stones supporting the granite capstone of the chamber; the capstone is thought to have been covered by an earthen mound and a gate stone blocked the entrance. At Brownshill both portal stones and the gate-stone are still in situ; the dolmen has not been evacuated. A nearby fourth upright stone stands close by and might the remains of a forecourt