SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Poultry

Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers. These birds are most members of the superorder Galloanserae the order Galliformes. Poultry includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game; the word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago; this may have been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity. Domesticated chickens may have been used for cockfighting at first and quail kept for their songs, but soon it was realised how useful it was having a captive-bred source of food. Selective breeding for fast growth, egg-laying ability, conformation and docility took place over the centuries, modern breeds look different from their wild ancestors.

Although some birds are still kept in small flocks in extensive systems, most birds available in the market today are reared in intensive commercial enterprises. Together with pig meat, poultry is one of the two most eaten types of meat globally, with over 70% of the meat supply in 2012 between them. All poultry meat should be properly handled and sufficiently cooked in order to reduce the risk of food poisoning; the word "poultry" comes from the West & English "pultrie", from Old French pouletrie, from pouletier, poultry dealer, from poulet, pullet. The word "pullet" itself comes from Middle English pulet, from Old French polet, both from Latin pullus, a young fowl, young animal or chicken; the word "fowl" is of Germanic origin. "Poultry" is a term used for any kind of domesticated bird, captive-raised for its utility, traditionally the word has been used to refer to wildfowl and waterfowl but not to cagebirds such as songbirds and parrots. "Poultry" can be defined as domestic fowls, including chickens, turkeys and ducks, raised for the production of meat or eggs and the word is used for the flesh of these birds used as food.

The Encyclopædia Britannica lists the same bird groups but includes guinea fowl and squabs. In R. D. Crawford's Poultry breeding and genetics, squabs are omitted but Japanese quail and common pheasant are added to the list, the latter being bred in captivity and released into the wild. In his 1848 classic book on poultry and Domestic Poultry: Their History, Management, Edmund Dixon included chapters on the peafowl, guinea fowl, mute swan, various types of geese, the muscovy duck, other ducks and all types of chickens including bantams. In colloquial speech, the term "fowl" is used near-synonymously with "domesticated chicken", or with "poultry" or just "bird", many languages do not distinguish between "poultry" and "fowl". Both words are used for the flesh of these birds. Poultry can be distinguished from "game", defined as wild birds or mammals hunted for food or sport, a word used to describe the flesh of these when eaten. Chickens are medium-sized, chunky birds with an upright stance and characterised by fleshy red combs and wattles on their heads.

Males, known as cocks, are larger, more boldly coloured, have more exaggerated plumage than females. Chickens are gregarious, ground-dwelling birds that in their natural surroundings search among the leaf litter for seeds and other small animals, they fly except as a result of perceived danger, preferring to run into the undergrowth if approached. Today's domestic chicken is descended from the wild red junglefowl of Asia, with some additional input from grey junglefowl. Domestication is believed to have taken place between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, what are thought to be fossilized chicken bones have been found in northeastern China dated to around 5,400 BC. Archaeologists believe domestication was for the purpose of cockfighting, the male bird being a doughty fighter. By 4,000 years ago, chickens seem to have reached the Indus Valley and 250 years they arrived in Egypt, they were regarded as symbols of fertility. The Romans used them in divination, the Egyptians made a breakthrough when they learned the difficult technique of artificial incubation.

Since the keeping of chickens has spread around the world for the production of food with the domestic fowl being a valuable source of both eggs and meat. Since their domestication, a large number of breeds of chickens have been established, but with the exception of the white Leghorn, most commercial birds are of hybrid origin. In about 1800, chickens began to be kept on a larger scale, modern high-output poultry farms were present in the United Kingdom from around 1920 and became established in the United States soon after the Second World War. By the mid-20th century, the poultry meat-producing industry was of greater importance than the egg-laying industry. Poultry breeding has produced strains to fulfil different needs. Male birds are unwanted in the egg-laying industry and can be

1825 in art

Events in the year 1825 in Art. Filippo Albacini – The Wounded Achilles John Constable – Leaping Horse Robert Dampier – Portrait of Princess Nahiennaena of Hawaii John Doyle – Turning out the Stag William Etty – The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished John MartinMezzotint illustrations to the Paradise Lost of Milton Samuel Morse – Portrait of Lafayette Samuel Palmer – Landscape with Repose of the Holy Family Martinus RørbyeView from the Artist's Window Bartholomeus van Hove – Pompenburg with Hofpoort in winter February 4 – Myles Birket Foster, English illustrator and watercolour painter March 13 – Hans Gude, Norwegian painter May 1 – Eleanor Vere Boyle, English watercolorist and illustrator May 9 – James Collinson, English Pre-Raphaelite painter July 10 – Benjamin Paul Akers, American sculptor August 12 – Vito D'Ancona, Italian painter September 6 – Giovanni Fattori, Italian painter September 13 – William Henry Rinehart, American sculptor December 13 – Gerolamo Induno, Italian painter January 11 – Jacopo Tunicelli, Italian portrait miniature painter February 24 – Toyokuni, Japanese master of ukiyo-e Kabuki actor prints March 8 – Adélaïde Dufrénoy, French poet and painter from Brittany March 25 – Raphaelle Peale, American still-life painter April 6 – Vladimir Borovikovsky, Ukrainian-born portrait painter April 16 – Henry Fuseli, British painter and art critic April 23 – Friedrich Müller, German painter, narrator and dramatist April 27 – Dominique Vivant, French artist, diplomat and archaeologist May 5 – François-Louis Gounod, French painter June 1 – Giovanni Monti, Italian landscape painter June 13 – Johann Peter Melchior, German porcelain modeller June 14 – Pierre Charles L'Enfant, French architect and artist June 22 – Domenico Vantini, Italian painter specializing in miniature portraits September 28 – Barbara Krafft, Austrian portrait painter November 17 – Daniel Berger, German engraver December 29 – Jacques-Louis David, French painter date unknown – Pierre-Charles Jombert, French painter

History of Iowa State Cyclones football

The Iowa State Cyclones football team represents Iowa State University in American football. Football was first played on the Iowa State campus in 1878 as a recreational sport, but it wasn't until 1892 that an organized team first represented Iowa State in football. In 1894, college president William M. Beardshear spearheaded the foundation of an athletic association to sanction Iowa State football teams; the 1894 team finished with a 6–1 mark, including a 16–8 victory over what is now the University of Iowa. One of the pioneers of football, Pop Warner, spent time at Iowa State early in his career. In 1895 despite being the coach at Georgia he was offered $25 per week to come to Iowa State, whose season started in mid-August while Georgia's started a month as well as provide weekly advice during the rest of the season. Soon after Warner left for Georgia, Iowa State had its first game of the season. Iowa State came into Evanston as the underdog, but defeated Northwestern 36–0. A Chicago sportswriter called the team "cornfed giants from Iowa" while the Chicago Tribune's headline read, "Struck by a Cyclone".

Since Iowa State teams have been known as the Cyclones. Overall, the team had three wins and three losses and, like Georgia, Iowa State retained Warner for the next season. In 1896 the team had two losses. Despite leaving Cornell in 1898, Warner remained as the head coach of Iowa State for another year. During his last three years at Iowa State the team had a winning season but Warner was unable to match his 1896 triumph. After playing at Iowa and serving as an assistant coach for two years, Clyde Williams came to Ames as an assistant coach for ISU. Williams served as the Cyclones' head football coach for six seasons from 1907 to 1912. During that time, he had a coaching record of 32–15–2; this ranks him fourth at Iowa State in winning percentage. In addition, he led Iowa State to two Missouri Valley Conference football titles in 1911 and 1912, which are the only two conference football championships in school history. In addition to his football contributions Williams was the school's first men's basketball coach from 1908 to 1911, where he compiled a 20–29 record.

He served as Iowa State's baseball coach, was their athletic director from 1914 to 1919. In 1914 Iowa State completed construction of their new football field and it was named Clyde Williams Field in honor of the former coach. Williams was inducted into the State of Iowa Hall of Fame in 1956, he is one of the few people inducted into both the University of Iowa Athletics Hall of Fame and the Iowa State athletics Hall of Fame. The early success of Iowa State football was not repeated for most of the mid-20th century. In 1922 after having two different head coaches in two years, ISU hired up-and-comer Sam Willaman away from East Technical HS in Cleveland, OH; when Willaman came to Iowa state, he brought with him six of his former East Tech players, including an African-American, Jack Trice. Trice was the first African-American player at Iowa State, one of the first to play football in the mid-west. Trice suffered a severe malicious injury during a game at the Minnesota in 1923, died from complications.

In 1997, Iowa State's Cyclone Stadium was renamed Jack Trice Stadium in his honor. In his first season, Willaman's team finished with a 2–6 record, but posted a winning record in each of the three years that followed, his career coaching record at Iowa state was 14–15–3. This ranks. In February 1931, George F. Veenker accepted an offer to become the head football coach for Iowa State. Under Veenker Iowa State experienced a brief period of success; when Veenker joined Iowa State, the school's football team was coming off a winless season in 1930 and had lost 16 consecutive games dating back to October 1929. In his first year, the 1931 team defeated Missouri 20–0, Oklahoma 13–12, Kansas State 7–6, compiled a 5–3 record and finished in second place in the Big Six. In November 1931, the Ames Daily Tribune-Times called Veenker "a veritable miracle man of football" for taking a school where "Cyclone football morale couldn't have been lower" and turning the program around in his first season; the highlight of Veenker's career as Iowa State's football coach was a 31–6 victory over the Iowa Hawkeyes in 1934.

The game was the last meeting between the two schools until 1977. Veenker resigned in 1936, his overall record was 21–22–8. Shortly after his death in 1959 the university owned golf course was renamed Veenker Memorial Golf Course in his honor. During the 1938 season, James J. Yeager was in his second year as head coach. Despite going 3–6 in 1937, the Cyclones would go onto a then-best record of 7–1–1; the team was led by Ed Bock. At the conclusion of the season Bock became the first consensus first team All-American in ISU history. Bock was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1970. In 1942 Iowa State hired former Green Bay Packers All-Pro guard and three time NFL champion Mike Michalske to be the new head coach. Michalske achieved a moderate level of success while at Iowa State, finishing with an 18–18 record after five seasons. In 1968 in an attempt to turn the team around, Iowa State hired former standout Tennessee running back and up-and-comer Arkansas assistant as the 24th head coach in program history.

The Cyclones finished 3–7 in his first two seasons, but in 1970 the team tied for 6th in the Big Eight and had a final record of 5–6. The 1971 team was picked to finish last in the Big Eight, but overcame the odds to finish 4–3 in the conference and 8–4 overall; the team was led by junior running back George Amundson, whom Majors called "the fine